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BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION NORTH CAROLINA GOVERNOR W. W. KITCHIN FOR THE SCHOLASTIC YEARS 1908-1909 AND 1909-1910. RALEIGH: E M UZZELL a CO.. STATE PRINTERS AND BINDERS. 1910 DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. J. Y. JoYNER Superiutendeut of Public Instruction. Allen J. Baewick ; . . . Chief Clerli. C. H. Mebane Special Clerk for Loan Fund, etc. J. A. BiviNs Supervisor of Teacher Training. N. W. Walkek State Inspector of Public High Schools. L. C. Bkogden Supervisor of Elementary Public Schools. I. O. ScHAUB Agent Agricultural Extension. Miss Hattie B. Arkington Stenographer. STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. W. W. KiTCHiN Governor, President. J. Y. Joyner Superintendent of Public Instruction, Secretai-y. W. C. Nev?land Lieutenant Governor, Lenoir, N. C. J. Bryan Grimes Secretary of State. B. R. Lacy State Treasurer. W. P. Wood State Auditor. T. W. Bickett Attorney-General. STATE BOARD OF EXAMINERS. J. Y. Joyner Chairman ex officio. Allen J. Barwick Secretary. F. L. Stevens , West Raleigh. N. W. Walker Chapel Hill. John Graham Warrenton. Z. Y. JuDD Raleigh. LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL State of North Carolina, Department of Public Instruction, Raleigh, December 15, 1910. 'I'll II is E.rvclh'iicii, W. W. Kitchin, Governor of yorth Carolina. Dear Sir :—According to section 4000 of tlie Revisal of 1905, I b.ive the honor to transmit my Biennial Report for the scholastic years 1908-1909 and 1909-1910. Very truly yours, J. Y. JOYNEK, Superintendent of Piihlic Instruction. 596. :8 TABLE OF CONTENTS. PART I. Summary aud Brief Outline of Two Years' Progress in Education. Kecommendations. Work to Be Done and How to Do It. Statistical Summary of Two Years' Progress. PART II. Public School Statistics, inOS-lOOD. Public School Statistics, 1000-1910. PART III. Report of State Inspector of Public High Schools. 1908-1000. Report of State Inspector of Public High Schools, 1000-1010. Report of Supervisor of Teacher-training. Report of Superintendent of Croatan Normal School and Colored Normal Schools. Report of Inspector of Elementary Schools. Report of Agent for Agricultural Extension. Report of Expenditures Slater Fund. Report of Expenditures Peabody Fund. Circular-letters of State Superintendent. Decisions of State Superintendent. PART I. SUMMARY AND BRIEF OUTLINE OF TWO YEARS' PROGRESS IN EDUCATION. RECOMMENDATIONS. WORK TO BE DONE AND HOW TO DO IT. STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF TWO YEARS' PROGRESS. M'^tT^r^ 'J E-( ZDOO H 05 O o H z o o o Cm SUMMARY AND BRIEF OUTLINE OF TWO YEARS' PROGRESS IN EDUCATION. The following summary aud brief outline of the progress in yublic etlucation for the biennial period beginning July 1, 1008, and ending June 30, 1010, is based upon the official reports on tile in the office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, and can be verified in detail by the published statistical reports of this biennial period. Increase in School Funds.—The total available school fund for the year ending June 30, lOlO, was $3,550,575.06. This is an increase of $250,343.30 over the total available school fund for 1008. Of this total available school fund for 1010, $2.(;31.0(;2.17 was raised by State and county taxation and appropria-tion, and $877,899.01 was raised by local taxation in special-tax districts, of which $.580,885.28 was raised in urban districts aud $206,014.63 in rural dis-tricts. This is an increase in 1910 over 1008 of $157,101.33 in the amount raised by local taxation in rural districts and $69,800.18 raised by local taxa-tion in urban districts. Of the total available school fund for 1910, $2,377,652.47 was the rural school fund and $1,172,012.50 the urban school fund. In percentage there has been an increase of 112 per cent in the funds raised by local taxation in rural districts, and 13 per cent in the funds raised by local taxation in urban dis-tricts, and 13 per cent in the annual available fund raised by general State and county taxation and appropriation in 1010 over 1008. Excluding bonds, loans. State appropriations, and balance from previous year, the whole amount raised by taxation for public schools during 1010 was $2,657,372.83, an increase of $283,456.22 over 1008. The rural increase in funds x-aised by taxation in 1910 over 1908 was $216,057.57, the city increase $67,308.65. These figures show that during 1010 $3.58 was raised for each child of school age enumerated in our State school census ; $2.88 for each child outside of the cities and towns, and $6.80 for each child within the cities and towns. This was a per capita increase in 1910 over 1908 of 29 cents for each country child of school age, and 44 cents for each city child of school age. These comparisons are made between the last year of this biennial period and the last year of the preceding biennial period, so as to indicate the prog-ress of the i)eri()d. The figures for the year 1000 can be easily ascertained from the published statistical reports herein, and the relative progress of 1010 over lOOf) can easily be ascertained. For What the Money was Spent.—With this increase in the available funds for educational purposes, there has been during the period a corresponding increase in those things which can be provided only by increased funds. There has been an increase of $585,745 in the value of rural school property and $3.50,912 in the value of urban sthool property, making a total increase of $945,657 in the total value of the public school property of the State. There has been expended during the period $667,605.02 for building, improv-ing, and equipping public school houses. Seven hundred and twenty-five new rural schoolhouses have been built at an average cost of $705..56. There has been an increase of 601 in the number of houses equipped with patent desks, and $141,683.85 has been expended during the biennial period for school furniture. 8 Two Ykars' Progress. Four and six-tenths days have been added to the average annual school term of the white schools of the State, and .7 day to the average annual school term of the colored schools of the State, 3.5 days to the white rural school term, and 9.7 days to the white city school term. In the newly estab-lished local-tax districts, of course, the school term has been greatly lengthened and in many instances doubled. There has been an increase of 594 in the number of white teachers employed, and 18 in the number of colored teachers employed. There has been an increase of .$10.92 in the average annual salary of white teachers, and $5.21 in the average annual salary of colored teachers. The average annual salary of rural teachers has been increased $13.88. There has been a necessary increase in the expenses of collecting, expending, and administering a larger fund, and an increase in the current expenses for longer terms with more schoolrooms and teachers. The total expenditures for all schools during 1910 was .$3,178,950.50, which represents an increase of $220,790.31 over 1908—an increase of $250,469.45 in rural expenditures, and a decrease of $29,679.14 in urban expenditures. Of this increase, rural teachers and superintendents received $192,194.18. and urban teachers and superintendents $85,053.60. The increased expenditures for administration, including treasurer's commissions, the expenses of boards of education, school committeemen, and taking census, was $6,138.67 for rural schools, and $452.73 for city schools. The increase in expenditures for all other purposes, including overchai'ges arising from overestimates of poll tax. errors in treasurers" commissions, etc., borrowed money for building, teachers' salaries, etc., repaid out of collected taxes, was $5,255.80 for rural schools ; and there was an increase of $99,424.09 for public high schools. This last item, however, does not represent the percentage of gi'owth, as a separate report was made in 1908 of all high-school expenditures, except county appropiiations. The increase is based on that. There was a decrease in tbe amounts spent for a few items, namely, buildings and supplies, and loans, in particular. When this is accounted for and taken from the items of increase above, the net gain in expenditures for the State is $220,790.31. Increase in Value of School Property.-—In 1910 the total value of school property of the State was $5,802,969. Of this amount the value of rural school property was $3,094,416, and the value of city school property was $2,768,553. This is an increase in 1910 over 1908 of $945,057 in the total value of all school i)roperty. of which $585,745 is the increase in the value of rural school property and $359,912 the increase in the value of city school property. The value of white school property in 1910 was $5,185,521, of which $2,700,911 was rural and $2,478,010 was city. The value of colored school propertj' was $677,448, of which $387,505 was rural and $289,943 was city. The percentage of increase in the valuation of school jiroperty during the biennial period is 19 per cent—23 per cent rural and 15 per cent urban. In 1910 there were 7.609 schoolhouses in the Stat(^-7.350 rural and 2.59 ui'ban ; 5,150 rural white and 109 urban white. 2,194 rural colored and 90 urban colore<l. The average value of each rural white house was $525; the average value of each city white house was $14,606; the average value of each rural coloretl house was $176; the average value of each city colored house was $3,221. There has been an increase of $100 in the average value of each white rural schoolhouse and of $20 in the average value of each colored rural schoolhouse in 1910 over 190S. During the biennial period Two Years' Progress. 9 $533,872.1(5 was expended for rural school buildings and sites, and $239,781.10 for urban school buildings and sites—$482,714.74 for rural white and $51,157.42 for rural colored ; $210,804.19 for urban white and $28,970.91 for urban colored. New Schoolhouses Built.—During the biennial period, 725 new rural school-houses have been built—564 white and 1(51 colored—at a cost of $511,530.58. A total of 725 new schoolhouses for this bieiuiial period means an average of one new house for each day of each year, Sundays included. This pace of building a new schoolhouse for every day in the year, according to approved plans of modern school architecture, prepared by most competent architects and distributed from the office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruc-tion, has been maintained for the past eight years. Increase in School Furniture and Equipment.—During this biennial period .f229,450.40 has been expended for school furniture and necessary equipment, an increase of $01,981 in the expenditures for this purpose over the preceding l)iennial period. In 1910 there were 2,170 rural schoolhouses equipped with modern school furniture—2,022 white and 148 colored—an increase of 535 white and. GO colored over 1908. Four thousand one hundred and twenty-six rural schoolhouses were reported furnished with home-made desks—2,791 white and 1,335 colored. Increase in Local-tax Districts and Funds Raised by Local Taxation.—Dur-ing this biennial period, 288 local-tax districts have been established by volun-tary vote of the people in rural communities and small towns, an average of 2.8 districts a week for each week in each year. This is an increase of 59 local-tax districts over the preceding biennial period, and makes a total of 995 local-tax districts in the State on July 1, 1910. In 1910, $877,899.91, about 23 per cent of the total annual school fund, was raised by local taxation, $296,914.03 in rural districts and $580,885.28 in urban districts. All counties of the State, except three, now have from 1 to 47 local-tax districts each, levying special taxes therein to supplement their apportionments from the State and county fund for longer terms, better houses and equipment, better teachers paid better salaries, for better schools. Increase in Enrollment and Attendance.—The increase in the school census of 1910 over that of 1908 was 19,452—13,102 white and 0,290 colored. The increase in the school enrollment was 22,088—13,540 white and 9,142 colored. The increase in average daily attendance was 22,847—15,501 white and 7,346 colored. These figures indicate that the increase in enrollment and average daily attendance is more than keeping pace with the increase in the school population, especially in the white schools. Increase in Length of School Term and in the Average Salary of Teachers. In 1910 the average length of school term in rural white schools was 92.7 days, in the city white schools 175.2 days, and in all white schools of the State 104.6 days ; in the rural colored schools 81J days ; in the city colored schools 1(54.8 days, and in all colored schools of the State 93.7 days. This is an increase over 1908 of 3.5 days in the average length of the school term in the rural white schools, 9.7 days in the city white schools, 4.6 days in all white schools of the State; a decrease of .4 day in rural colored schools, an increase of 1.7 days in city colored schools, and an increase of .7 day in all colored schools of the State. The average length of school term in the white rural local-tax school districts is 129 days. 10 Two Years' Progress. Taking these figures as a basis of calculation, it will be seen that the average monthly salary of white rural teachers in 1910 was $34.47, an increase of $2.23 over 1908. The average monthly salary of white city teachers was $42.72, a decrease of $2.32 from 190S. The average monthly salary of rural colored teachers was $23.48, an increase of $1 over 1908 ; the average monthly salary of city colored teachers was $30.64, an increase of 44 cents over 1908. As stated above, tliere has been an increase of 612 in the number of teachers employed—594 white and IS colored. Improvement in Teachers' Institutes and Other Facilities for Teacher-training.— Under amendments to the school law by the General Assembly of 1909, a two-weeks teachers' institute was made mandatory in every county biennially. Teachers' institutes were held in 30 counties in 1809 and in 60 counties in 1910, attended by 6,553 teachers. With the aid of the Super-visor of Teacher-training, also made possible by an amendment to the law in 1909, the work of the county teachers' institutes and the county teachers' as-sociations has been organized and systematized, and, through teachers' reading circles, a valuable course of home study and home training for the professional improvement of the rank and file of the teachers is being successfully con-ducted. Teachers' associations, holding moTuthly meetings, are in successful operation in 91 counties. 3Iost of these associations have also organized teachers' reading circles for pursuing the prescribed course of professional reading. A trained man and a trained woman have been appointed to conduct each of these county teachers' institutes. All institute workers have been required to attend a conference of three or four days with the State Superintendent and the Supervisor of Teacher-training, for the discussion of their worli and the arrangement of uniform and definite plans of work, before beginning the insti-tutes, and have been furnished with bulletins containing definite outlines and approved suggestions for the work of the institutes. Under this plan, there hns been marked progress in the organization and direction of this institute work. It has been uniform, practical, and progressive, with more teaching and demon-stration and less lecturing, with more emphasis on the essential subjects and less on the frills. The reports received from these institutes have been the most encouraging ever received by the State Superintendent. They have been more largely attended and the teachers have been more interested and benefited than ever before. A fuller report "of this institute and teacher-training work, by the Supervisor of Teacher-training, is printed elsewhere in this Report. An attempt has been made, with encouraging success, to correlate and coordinate the work of these agencies for home study and professional improvement of teachers — the teachers' institute, the county teachers' association, and reading circles, to plan the work so as to make it more progressive and continuous from year to year. XortJi Carolina Education, our ofiicial State teachers' journal, is heartily cooperating and rendering valuable assistance in carrying on this work. Improvement in County Supervision.—There has been an increase in the number of county superintendents giving their entire time to the work of super-vision and an increase in the time devoted to their work by nearly all other county superintendents. Forty-three county superintendents now devote their entire time to their work. The county superintendents are thoroughly organized into a State and district associations, holding annual meetings for Two Years' Progress. 11 the dismssiou with each other and with the State Saperiiitencleut of thoir coiii-mou problems, for au exchange of views and experiences, for umtual counsel aud adA'ice, and for the forming of plans for carrying on more uniformly and successfully the great work of educating all the people in the schools of all the people. It has seemed to me that during this biennial period the county super-intendents have improved in the efficient and intelligent discharge of their duties, and that, on the whole, they have manifested a fine spirit of loyalty and devotion to their work. Much progress has been made in the organization, training, and direction of their teaching force and in the systematization, clas-sification, and gradation of the work in the rural schools. Progress in Rural Public High Schools.—During the biennial period 14 new public high schools have been established, making a total of 170 such schools in 87 counties of the State. There are, therefore, now only 11 comities that do not have one or more of these schools. The annual State appropriation for their maintenance was increased $5,000 in 1900, making the total annual State ap-propriation for them $50,000. During the biennial period $240,040.51 has been expended for the maintenance of these schools. The total' enrollment of country boys and girls in them has been 5,282 in 1909, and 5,775 in 1910, a total of 11,057 for the biennial period—5,182 boys and 5,875 girls. This is au increase of 1,82G in the total enrollment of 1910 over , the enrollment of 1908, an increase of 41 per cent in enrollment. There has been an average daily attendance of 3,787 in 1909, and 4,145 in 1910. The percentage of enrollment in average daily attendance has been 71 per cent for the two years. In connection with some of these high schools, dormitories have been built and equipped, in which high-school students can secure board at actual cost and^ pay for it in money or in provisions at the market price. These figures show an encouraging increase in enrollment and attendance upon these public high schools, indicating a commendable growth in public sen-timent among the rural population for high-school education, for the elevation of the average of intelligence, and for better preparation for citizenship and service. A full report of these public high schools, prepared by the State Inspector of Public High Schools, is printed in another part of thi^ Report. Increase in Rural Libraries.^—During the biennial period 528 new rural libra-ries have been established, costing $1G,S40, containing an average of about 100 volumes of well-selected books. Seventy-six new supplemental libraries have been added to libraries formerly established, costing $1,140, adding about 35 books to each of these libraries. The total number of rural libraries in the State at the close of the biennial period was 2.420, the total number of sup-plemental libraries 428. More than one-thii'd of all the school districts in the State, white and colored, are now provided with rural libraries. Loan Fund for Building Schoolhouses.—During the biennial period the total amount of new loans made from the ^tate Loan Fund for Building and Im-proving Public School Houses is $122,000 to 65 counties, for building and improving houses, A-alued at $290,49.5. The total amount of loans made from this Loan Fund since its establishment in 1903 aggregates $523,280.50 to 89 counties, for building and improving 995 houses, valued at $1,265,788. This fund continues to be of incalculable service in building and improving public school houses, the loans from it often making possible at once much needed new houses where they would not otherwise be possible without clo.s- 12 Two Years' Progress, ing the schools and using the entire apportionment to the district for one or more j^ears for building. A timely loan from this fund also often means to a district the difference between a poor, cheap house, and a good, properly-constructed house. A full detailed report of the Loan Fund is printed else-where in this Report. Enlargement of the Work of the State Department of Public Instruction. The work of this Department has been enlarged and increased in efficiency First, by the addition of a trained man as Insiiector and Supervisor of Ele-mentary Rural Schools, working under the direction of the State Superintend-ent and in cooperation with him and the county superintendents for the improvement of these schools, giving his entire time to a careful investigation and study of their conditions, their needs, and means of improving them. His salary and expenses are generously provided out of the Peabody Fund. Second, by the addition of a trained, experienced, professional teaclier as supervisor of the teacher-training work of the Department, giving his entire time to the supervision and direction of the work of the county teachers' institutes, the county teachers' associations, the teachers' reading circles, and to the general supervision of the three State Colored Normal Schools and the Croatan Indian Normal School. Third, by the addition of a competent man of special training and experience as supervisor of the agricultural work in the public schools, woi'king in cooperation with the State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, the State Department of Agriculture, and the Demonstration Department of the United States Department of Agriculture, and giving his entire time, in cooperation with the State Superintendent and the county superintendents, to the organization and direction of Boys' Corn Clubs, the stimulation of agri-cultural instruction in the public schools, the cultivation of public sentiment for agricultural and industrial education. His salary and expenses are gener-ously provided by the General Education Board. As will appear from reports of their work elsewhere, all of these men have proved most valuable additions to the educational force of the State Depart-ment, and made most valuable contributions to the educational work of the State. Boys' Corn Clubs and Increased Interest in Agricultural Instruction. — With the aid of Prof. I. O. Schaub, Supervisor of Agricultural Extension Work in the Public Schools, and the active cooperation of county superintendents and public school teachers. Boys' Corn Clubs have been organized in 60 counties, enrolling l,.57o boys. The following is an extract from Mr. Schaub's report "Eighty-five boys made over 75 bushels of corn per acre and will win one of the Governor's certificates. One boy made 146 bushels at a cost of $40.20, and won the free trip to Washington, where he was presented with a certificate from the United States Department of Agriculture. Most of the county super-intendents have cooperated heartily and deserve great credit for the success of the work." Practical Instruction in Public Health and Hygiene.—With the valuable assistance and cooperation of the State Board of Health and its eflBcient and energetic secretary and assistant secretaries, much valuable work has been done in the public schools in increasing interest and giving instruction in public health and hygiene. Bulletins, dealing in a concise, simple, and practical way with the simple hygienic law's affecting the everyday life of the child Two Years' Progress. 13 and the people, have been prepared under the direction of the Secretary of the State Board of Health, and printed and distributed to teachers of the State by the State Department of Public Instruction. A list of these bulletins will be found under Educational Literature. Directions have been given to the teachers, through the county superintend-ents, to make use of these bulletins for the systematic instruction of the chil-dren of their schools in public health and hygiene, and to give to the entire school at least three brief health talks a week, the information for which, progressively and logically arranged, has been furuishe<.l them in the Health Talks Bulletin. Teachers have also been notified that they will be held respon-sible for this work, and will be examined on the contents of these health bul-letins as a part of their regular examination in physiology and hygiene for teachers' certificates. This health and hygiene work is a long step forward toward the improvement of sanitary conditions and public health in the rural districts. County superin-tendents and public-school teachers have responded intelligently and enthusi-astically to the call for it. Emphasis was laid upon this worli in the county teachers' institutes and special attention is being given to it in tlie county teachers' associations. By addresses and tallvs to teachers and to the general public, the secretary and the assistant secretary to the State Board of Health and the physicians of the State generally are aiding greatly in this campaign for the instruction of the children and the people of the State in public health and hygiene and in the cultivation of public sentiment therefor. It is impossible to calculate how much can be done, through simple instruction, line upon line, precept upon precept, for the rising generation in the public schools for the prevention and eradication of typhoid fever, tuberculosis, hookworm disease, scarlet fever, smallpox, diphtheria, and other preventable diseases that constitute the chief scourges of our population. The sentiment is rapidly growing and the demand rapidly increasing that such instruction shall be made an essential and organic part of our educational work. Campaign for Education.—The campaign for education, by bulletins, through the press, and by public addresses, has been carried on without cessation. The State Superintendent has used all the time that he could spare from his work ill the office for field work and educational campaign work. Through the continuance of the generous aid of the Southern Education Board, in pro-viding funds for the payment of their expenses, strong spealvers, who gen-erously contributed their services, have been sent to every community asking for the agitation of the question of local taxation and the consolidation of schools, and to communities in which elections on the question of local taxation for public schools were pending. Among these speakers have been represent-ative teachers, editors, lawyers, preachers, business men. public officials, and others. The campaign has been under the direction of the Campaign Com-mittee for the Promotion of Public Education in North Carolina, of which the State Superintendent of Public Instruction is chairman, and Hon. C. H. Mebane, of the State Department of Public Instruction, is secretary. Exclusive of the large number of educational addresses by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, under the direction of the committee, 120 educational addresses have been made in 65 counties during the past two years. In many counties, of course, enthusiastic and consecrated county superin- 14 Two Years' Progress. tendents have carried on almost continuously effective campaigns for public education and scliool improvement, by personal work, public addresses, circular-letters, newspaper articles, etc. In this work many of them have been assisted by consecrated teachers and public-spirited citizens of all classes and vocations. After all, the most effective part of this campaign is that carried on from year's end to year's end, without blare of trumpets, in the county, under the direction of an efficient county superintendent of common sense and conse-cration. Woman's Association for the Betterment of Public School Houses and Grounds.—With the aid of funds generously donated from the Peabody Fund. Mrs. Charles D. Mclver has been employed during the past two years as field secretary of the Woman's Betterment Association, giving her entire time and her devoted service to this work. Marked progress has been made. Many new county associations have been organized. Through the unselfish work of the patriotic women of the State, county and local associations, thousands of dol-lars have been raised for the improvement of schoolhouses and grounds, and much valuable voluntary service that cannot be measured in dollars and cents has been rendered in making the schoolrooms and the school grounds more beautiful and attractive, and in cultivating public sentiment and public interest for the betterment of the public schools. Many county superintendents, public school teachers, county boards of education, and school committeemen have given their hearty cooperation to the women in this work. In the county of Wake alone, $6,021.18 was raised during the year 1910 by the women of the Betterment Association for the improvement of the public schools. In many districts the women secured the cultivation of the school farms in cotton and tobacco, making hundreds of dollars for the schools ; and, in some instances, the women of the association picked the cotton with their own hands. If space permitted, interesting and inspiring reports of similar work in other counties could be made. Important Educational Legislation.—The General Assembly of 1909 increased the annual State appropriation for public schools $25,000, without a dissenting vote in either branch of the General Assembly. The State appropriation for public high schools was increased $5,000. The law was amended, changing the method of apportioning the special annual State appropriation of $100,000 to equalize school terms and secure a four-months school term in every public-school district, so as to require all counties receiving aid from this appropria-tion to levj^ and collect a special tax on all property and polls of the county sufficient to provide one-half the- deficit needed for a four-months school, except that the special tax levied for this purpose was limited to a maximum of 5 cents on the $100 valuation of property and 15 cents on the poll, and counties levying this maximum are entitled to receive all the balance needed for a four-months school. This required special tax has increased the annual school fund for a four-months term in the weak counties about $105,9G9.GT. The terms of the members of the county boards of education were changed to two, four, and six years, respectively, so as to have the term of only one member expiring every two years, instead of having the terms of all three mem-bers expiring every two years, thereby retaining a majority of old, experienced members of the board each year, preventing the possibility of a radical change in the educational policy of the county every two years and the danger of mis-takes from the administration of school affairs by new and inexperienced men. Two Yeaks^ Progress. 15 Under this hnv, tbe eouuty board of education will have at all times, unless they should resign, at least two members of not less than two years' experi-ence in the management of the public schools. This ought to contribute to the permanency, continuity, and progress of the educational work of each county, and aid in removing the county school system further from i)artisan and fac-tional politics every two years. An amendment was made to the county institute law, making a county teachers' institute in every county mandatory biennially, and not oftener. Pro-vision was also made for increasing the salary and enlarging the duties of the Superintendent of the State Colored and Croatan Indian Normal Schools, add-ing to his duties the supervision and direction, in cooperation with the State Superintendent, of the entire teacher-training work of the State Department of Public Instruction, including the county teachers' institute work, the county teachers' association work, the teachers' reading circles, etc. The rural library law was so amended as to allow the use of the accumulated balance of the biennial appropriation for supplemental libraries at the end of each biennial period for the establishment of new rural libraries. The compulsory attendance law of 1907 was so amended as to allow com-pulsory attendance to be ordered by the county board of education, in its dis-cretion, under the provisions of the act, upon petition of a majority of the parents of children of school age, without the delay, the expense, the trouble, or the friction of an election ; and further, so as to authorize the county board of education, of its own motion, to order compulsory attendance, without peti-tion or election, in districts in which the em*ollment and daily attendance fall below a certain per cent, thereby furnishing prima facie evidence of the need of it and of such indifference to education and lack of interest in it in those districts as would render it unlikely that it could be secured by petition or election. To sum up, the important educational legislation of the period increased the public school fund by special appropriation from the State Treasury and special county taxation ; provided a more satisfactory, more efficient, and more etiuita-ble method of distributing the second .$100,000 for a four-months school, guar-anteeing thereby a full and efficient school term in every district;; rendered more effective the compulsory attendance act of 1907 ; greatly improved the provisions for the home training of teachers; increased the efficiency of the educational administration of the county by changing the terms of office of the members of the county boards of education. Educational Literature.—During the two years the following educational literature has been prepared and sent out from the Superintendent's office Program of North Carolina Day, 190S. 95 pages. Program of North Carolina Day, 1909. G7 pages. Approved Books for Ptural Libraries, 1909. 44 pages. Plans for Public Schoolhouses, 1908. tiO pages. Public School Statistics, 1909. 129 pages. Betterment of Public Schoolhouses, 1910. 24 pages. Handbook for High-school Teachers, 1908. 87 pages. The Public School Law (Revised), 1909. 96 pages. Directory of School Officials, 1910. 37 pages. A Manual of Physiology and Hygiene in Primary Grades. 1909. 38 pages. Opening Exercises in Public Schools, 1909. 32 pages. 16 Two Yeaks^ Progress. Washington's Birthday, 1909. 48 pages. Teachers' Reading Circle, 190f». 20 pages. Teachers' Reading Circle, 1910. 14 pages. A Manual for Teachers' Institutes, 1909. 07 pages. A Manual for Teachers' Institutes, 1910. 102 pages. Course of Study for the Elementary Public Schools, 1909. 84 pages. How to Teach Reading, 1909. 41 pages. Eyes and Ears, 1910. 26 pages. Ground-itch, or Hookworm Disease, 1910. 27 pages. A Health Talks in Public Schools, 1910. 30 pages. First Annual Report of the State Inspector of Public High Schools, 1908. 46 pages. Second Annual Report of the State Inspector of Public High Schools, 1909. 47 pages. Proceedings and Addresses of Jsorth Carolina Teachers' Assembly, 1909. 233 pages. Proceedings and Addresses of North Carolina Teachers' Assembly, 1910. 256 pages. Biennial Report of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 19O0-190S. 240 pages. Young People's Farm-life Clubs, 1909. 11 pages. Child Study as an Aid to Teaching, 1910. 22 pages. Educating for Farm Life, 1910. 12 pages. Book Depositories and List of Books for the Public Schools, 1908. 21 pages. Besides the foregoing, blanks covering every phase of school organization and work have been sent out. These have aided all school officials in keeping their records and making accurate reports of the work done. The eiTorts along this line have secured the gradation of at least three-fourths of all the rural schools, which means a great saving of time to the children who attend these schools. RECOMMENDATIONS. To aid iu the accomplishment of some of the work here outiiued lor the progress and development of the public school system, I beg to make the fol-lowing recommendations 1. That there shall be no radical changes in the present general public school law. Some additions seem to be necessary, but there should be no more changes than are absolutely necessary. The people and the school offi-cers are beginning to become acquainted with the law and to be familiar with its workings. It will be wise to seek to continue progress along the lines already marked out by the present school law and to follow a permanent educational policy. 2. That the General Assembly appropriate not less than $50,000 annually to aid iu the establishment and maintenance of county farm-life high schools, iu conjunction with the best and most conveniently located of the existing high schools iu those counties complying with the conditions, to be prescribed in tlie law, for the adequate equipment and maintenance of such schools. A full dis-cussion of these schools, of the cost of their equipment and maintenance, the reasons for their establishment, the benefits of them, the conditions to be pre-scribed iu the law for the counties securing them, etc., will be found elsewhere iu this Report, under the heading "Farm-life Schools." 3. That the annual State appropriation for public high schools be increased $25,000, to meet the present needs of the constantly increasing patronage of these schools, which will appear from the report of the State Inspector of Public High Schools, published elsewhere in this Report. 4. That the provisions for training the teacliing force of the State be fur-ther enlarged and improved by requiring the University, the State Normal and Industrial College, the A. and M. Colleges, and all the Normal Schools of the State to conduct summer schools as a part of their regular work, open without charge for tuition to all public-school teachers and all persons pre-paring for teaching. That provision be made for such summer schools in the annual appropriations for these institutions as a part of the annual budget of necessary expenses. That the courses of study tlaerein be correlated, as far as possible, with the work of the county teachers' institutes and county teachers' associations and the regular work of these institutions. These in-stitutions are so located as to place a summer school, under this plan, within easy access of the teachers of every section of the State by utilizing the ex-pensive State plants that have heretofore remained idle three or four months each year. 5. That, on account of the increased cost of living, the higher standard of requirements for certification of teachei-s, and the difficulty of securing quali-fied teachers, the law be so amended as to fix the maximum salary of second-grade teachers at $30, instead of $25. 6. That the law relating to coimty teachers' institutes be so amended as to require all teachers of all counties of the State to attend some county insti-tute, or properly accredited summer school, at least once in two years, unless providentially prevented, and to forbid any county superintendent to issue a certificate, or approve a certificate to teach in the public schools, or any Part 1—2 18 Recommendations. school committee to employ any teacher until such a certificate of attend-ance upon some county institute or some properlj* accredited summer school shall be exhibited and accepted. 7. That the law relating to the adoption of text-books for use in the public schools be amended as follows a. By requiring the establishment of one or more joint State depositories for the more convenient and expeditious supply of books to the local deposito-ries in the various counties of the State ; and that contracting publishers be required to furnish books to local depositories on consignment, if necessary, in order to secure the placing of the books within convenient reach of the patrons of the rural schools. 6. That the subcommission shall contain at least two representative pri-mary teachers of the State, three representative county superintendents, and two representative city superintendents, actively engaged in school work. That the members of the subcommission shall meet in joint session with the Text-book Commission for the adoption of books, and shall constitute a part of that Commission, with full authority as members thereof for the adoption of books. c. That the law be so amended as to include city schools as well as rural schools in the adoption. Under the present text-book law, the subcommission, composed of profes-sional teachers, is directed to consider only the merits of the books and to report their ratings according to merit, and are forbidden to consider price, the expense of changes to the taxpayers and the patrons of the schools, and other practical considerations of that sort. The Text-book Commission, com-posed of the State officers constituting the State Board of Education, only one of whom is a professional teacher, is directed to consider the price, the expense of changes and other practical considerations, and are in no sense bound by the report of the subcommission, except by the general direction that they shall give due consideration to that report. The difference in view-point of these two separate boards—one an exclusively professional board, instructed to consider and report on the professional merit of the books only, without any voice in the final adoption, and the other a nonprofessional board, upon which is specifically imposed the duty of considering also the price, the expense of changes in books, and other such practical considera-tions— has necessarily produced variations between the recommendations of one board and the adoptions of the other that have given opportunity for mis-understandings and criticisms that, in my opinion, can be avoided by the con-solidation of the two boards, so that each may better imderstand the view-point of the other, and in the final adoption may wisely view the matter from both viewpoints. I believe that wisdom and justice demand that the teachers should have a voice in the final adoption of the tools with which they are to work ; that the members of the State Board of Education, elected by the people, directly responsible to the people, guardians of the financial interests of the State and of the people, responsible under the Constitution for the educational policy and the administration of the educational system of the State, should also have a voice in the adoption of text-books for the public schools. Having been chairman of the first subcommission in 1901, before I was a member of the State Board of Education and Text-book Commission, and hav- RECSbMMENDATIOXS. 19 ing been, in 1906, when the second book adoption was made, State Superin-tendent of Public Instruction, and therefore a member of the State Board of Education and the Text-boolc Connnisslon, 1 feel tlint my experience has pre-pared me to appreciate the difference in viewpoint, making possible perfectly honest variations between the recommendations of the subcommission and the adoptions of the Text-book Commission. My experience has convinced me that the best results will be obtained from adoption by a joint board, such as I have recommended, each acting as a balance wheel to the other, thereby avoiding mistakes from an undue emphasis of theoretical merits of the books on the one hand and undue emphasis of practical considerations of price and expense of changes on the other. Having been intimately associated with the members of the State Board of Education, and having heard and taken part in all the discussions of the Text-book Commission during the adoption in 1906, I deem it due them, as the one representative of the teaching profession on the Text-book Commission, to say here, in view of certain criticisms in some of the newspapers, liable to create a wrong impression in the public mind and to do these men an in-justice, that, though I differed from a majority of them about some of the adoptions, I have never been associated with men in the discharge of any duty that, in my opinion, were more honest and conscientious in the discharge of that duty. It was an unpleasant duty imposed upon them by the law, without their influence, request, or desire, of which every one of them, of my own knowledge, would gladly have been relieved, and would now gladly be relieved. These men are created by the Constitution the State Board of Education. During my administration they have taken an active interest in all educational matters and have given me, as State Superintendent of Public Instruction, wise counsel and warm support. They are entitled to a large part of whatever credit may be due to the State educational administration for the educational progress since I have been State Superintendent of Pviblic Instruction. I recommend the addition of representative members of the teaching pro-fession to the Text-book Commission, and I earnestly desire the -benefit of the counsel and aid of representatives of my profession upon all matters pertaining to the educational administration of the State, but not to the exclusion of honest, capable, and patriotic men whom the people, by their Constitution and their votes, have designated as their representatives in the administration of the educational affairs of the State. A comparison of the books adopted by the State Text-book Commission in 1906 with the report of the subcommission will show that the Text-book Com-mission evidently gave careful consideration to the recommendations of the professional board, and that the only deviations from the recommendations of that board were in the adoption of the text-books on Reading, Geogyaphy, History, Spelling, and Arithmetic. In Reading, the first choice of the minority of three members of the sub-commission was adopted. The first two of the series of five i-eaders adopted was also the second choice of the majority of four members of the sub-commission, the others of the adopted series being their third choice. In Geography the two books recommended as first choice by the entire sub-commission were adopted. Four members of the subcommission recommended 20 Eecommendations. the adoption of a third book, making a three-boolv series instead of a two, while the minority of three members reported against this, favoring the two-book series. The only deviation from the report of the entire subcommission on United States History was in the selection of a primai-y history, the second choice of the subcommission being selected instead of their first choice. The book adopted, however, was recommended as a most meritorious book in all re-spects, and was selected by the Text-book Commission mainly because the majority of the members preferred its treatment of certain topics of North Carolina history to the treatment of the same topics in the book recom-mended as first choice. In Spelling, the second choice of the subcommission was adopted instead of the first choice, both books being recommended as meritorious, the second choice being preferred and adopted by the Text-book Commission probably because it was by North Carolina authors and published by North Carolina publishers. In Arithmetic, the subcommission recommended strongly a three-book series, and reported as their first choice a three-book series. Their second choice was a two-book series, and the only other three-book series reported as worthy of consideration was Colaw and Ellwood's, which was reported as their third choice. This series was the series already in use in the public schools of the State, and the adoption of it was favored by the majority of the Text-book Commission because they thought that the difference between the two series did not justify the expense of a change from an old to a new series. In Agriculture, Drawing, Writing, English, Physiology and Hygiene, and all other subjects, the Text-book Commission, in their adoption of the text-books, followed to the letter the report of the subcommission, adopting in each ease its unanimous first choice. 8. It is, in my opinion, just and wise that wherever equally well qualified men can be found in the minority party, representation should be given to both of the leading political parties upon county boards of education, since the schools, maintained by the taxes of all the people, patronized by the children of all the people, irrespective of their political views, need for their success the hearty support and interest of all the people, and should, there-fore, be removed as far as possible from partisan politics, and administered by a board as nonpartisan as is consistent with the constitutional require-ment of a uniform system of education and the responsibility of the major-ity political party of the State for the successful administration of that system in every county of the State. The method of selecting county boards of education should be made uniform. By special legislation, six counties now elect their county boards of education. 9. That the law regulating the distribution of the second hundred thousand dollars to aid in securing a four-months school term in every school dis-trict be so amended as to change the maximum special tax required of counties sharing in its distribution from- 5 cents on the $100 valuatioii of property to 10 cents. This law would affect only 28 counties, receiving much more from this appropriation than they raise by special taxation, and most of these Avould still receive more from the State than they raise, after re-quiring a levy of the maximum of 10 cents. This increase in the maxinnmi in these counties that receive most from the State appropriation seems to Recommendations. 21 be necessary to provide the full amount needed to guarantee each year a full four-months term in every school district iu these counties, and in the 3G counties that raise more by a special tax and receive less from the second hundred thousand dollars than these. It would seem that the amount of self-help required of the counties should be somewhat proportionate to the amount received from the State for a four-months school term—-those receiving most levying most, and those receiving least levying least. 10. That the law be so amended as to authorize any coimty to vote a special tax for lengthening its school term and improving its schoolhouses and schools, with a proviso that the voting of such a tax for the entire county shall not interfere with existing local-tax districts or with the establishment of other local-tax districts under the general law ; and with a further pro-viso authorizing the special annual tax levy in existing local-tax districts to be reduced upon the recommendation of the committees of those districts iu counties voting such a special tax for the entire county so as to prevent a burdensome tax in such districts. 11. That the law relating to the State Board of Examiners for the exami-nation and certification of high-school teachers and of applicants for the Five-year State Teacher's Certificate be amended so as to permit the mem-bers of that board to give the additional time needed for the increased work of the board, and so as to allow not exceeding $300 for the secretary of the board for his increasing labors incident to the rapidly increasing work of the board. 12. That the State tax for public schools be increased from IS cents on the $100 valuation of property to 25 cents. This increase will lengthen the school term and greatly improve the school facilities, provide for the employ-ment of more and better teachers at better salaries, largely reduce the num-ber of counties now required to levy a special tax for a four-months school, and greatly reduce the amount of the special tax required to be levied for a four-months school in the small number of counties in which such a special tax would still be necessary. It would also decrease the amount borae by the few stronger counties for a four-mouths school in the counties now receiving aid from the second hundred thousand dollars. In fact, in a few years, with this increase in the general State tax for public schools, every county in the State ought to be able to have a four-months school without aid from the second hundred thousand dollars ; aud the second hundred thousand dollars, like the first one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars, could be appor-tioned to all the counties according to the school population of each, to lengthen the term and strengthen the schools. With this increase and with the constantly increasing tax valuations of the State, it ought to be possible within the next few years to bring the minimum school term to six months. 13. That the law be so amended as to^authorize county boards of education to provide for consolidation of schools and transportation of pupils where the conditions and the available school funds justify it. 14. That the following minor amendments to the school law be made: a. That section 4164 be so amended as to require that one of the tv\'o com-mitteemen required to sign all vouchers shall be the secretary of the com-mittee, thereby enabling him to keep accurately the account of the school funds of the disti'ict. 22 Recommendations. J). That section 4124 be so amended as to require ttie County Board of Edu-cation to insure aud keep insured all schooUiouses valued at more than $350. c. That section 4148 be so amended as to require a biennial, instead of an annual, census to be taken on or before July 1st. The school population does not change enough in one year to justify the expense of $12,000 or $14,000 for an annual census. d. That section 4141 be so amended as to require the attendance of county superintendents at the meetings of the district associations, for conference with each other and with the State Superintendent about their work. e. That section 4165 be so amended as to require the teacher to return at the close of the school term the school register, and to forbid the County Superintendent from signing the final voucher for salary until the register, properly kept and concluded for the tex*m, as required by law, shall be filed with him. /. That section 4155 be so amended as to authorize the County Superin-tendent to administer to teachers and school committeemen the oaths required by law for their vouchers and reports. 2i 2; U m 1^ O fa o 72 WORK TO BE DONE AND HOW TO DO IT. Notwithstanding tlie encouraging progress along all former lines and the encouraging beginning along new lines of educational worli during the past two years, as revealed by the othcial reports, the work to be done and the ways and means of doing it have not been materially changed since my preceding report. As I discussed most of these subjects somewhat fully and to the best of my ability in that report, basing my discussion and suggestions on the most careful study of our educational conditions that I have been able to make, T have deemed it wisest to bring forward, with some changes and additions, parts of my previous biennial report. This is the work to be done, as I see it ; these are the ways and means of doing it, as I see them. I can do no better than to cry aloud and spare not until the General Assembly and the people hear and heed these suggestions or in their wisdom find and adopt some better ways of doing this needetl work. Thorough-ness in Essentials.—The foundation of all education is, of course, a mastery of the rudiments of knowledge—the elementary branches of reading, writing, arithmetic and spelling. A knowledge of these and the training and development which comes from the effort necessary for the acquisition of such knowledge are absolutely essential for every human being. It is folly to talk about higher education or special training along any line for any useful sphere of life or work until the children have secured at least this much instruction. According to the United States Census of 1900, 19.5 per cent of the white popu-lation and 47.5 per cent of the colored population over ten years of age in North Carolina could not read and write. While I have no doubt that we have greatly reduced this per cent of illiteracy during the past eight years, it is still painfully true that there is yet a large number of illiterates among us and a large number of ,children on the straight road to illiteracy. A large majority of our country schools are still one-teacher schools. The average length of our rural school term is still only 89.9 days. Our chief atten-tion should, therefore, be given to doing thoroughly this foundatiQn work and making adequate provision for it. If the foundation be not well laid first, the entire educational structure must fall to pieces. The law now wisely forbids the teaching of any high-school subjects in any school having only one teacher. It requires, however, the teaching of thirteen subjects in these one-teacher schools. It is absolutely impossible for one teacher, with as many children as are to be found in the average rural school in seven grades, to do thorough work in so many subjects. It seems to me that the number of required subjects should be reduced, and that the teacher in every one-teacher school should be required to devote more time—in fact, most of the time—to teaching thoroughly these fundamental essentials of reading, writing, arithmetic and spelling. It is folly to attempt the impossible. In my opinion, at least the first four years of the elementary school with only one teacher should be devoted almost exclusively to these four subjects, sandwich-ing in just enough of geography, mainly in the form of nature study, talks on everyday hygiene, etc., to give a little variety to the course and to furnish some foundation for a little more extensive work in these and kindred subjects later. There is more educational value, more acquisition of power and of correct 24 TV^oEK TO Be Doxe axd How to Do It. intellectual habits in a thorough mastery of a few subjects than in a super-ficial knowledge, a mere smattering, of many. The one lays the foundation for real culture; the other lays the foundation for nothing better than veneering. I am satisfied that there is great need for a substantial reform along this line in the required course of study in our elementary schools. The sensible teach-ers in the one-teacher schools are not attempting to teach this multiplicity of required subjects, and those who are attempting to teach all of these are failing to teach any as they should be taught. The law ought not to require a vain and foolish thing. Public High Schools.—Every child has the right to have the chance to de-velop to the fullest every faculty that God has endowed him with. It is to the highest interest of the State to place within the reach of every child this chance. By the evidence of the exiierience of all civilized lands of the past and the present, the study of the higher branches is necessary for the fullest devel-opment of these faculties. L'nless provided in the public schools, instruction in these cannot be placed within reach of nine-tenths of the children of North Carolina. If the great masses of our i)eople are to be limited in their education to the elementary branches only, we cannot hope for any material improvement in their intelligence and power and any material increase in their earning capacity. This State cannot expect to compete successfully with those States that have provided such instruction in their public schools for the highest and fullest development of all the powers of all their people. "The old idea that instruction in the public schools must be confined to the rudimentary branches only, or the three R's, as they were called, was born of the old false notion that the public schools were a public charity. This notion put a badge of poverty upon the public-school system that was for many years the chief obstacle to the progress and development of public education in North Carolina. The notion still lingers in the minds of a few that at heart do not believe in the power and the rights of the many. It has no place in a real democracy. It must give place to that truer idea, accepted now in all pro-gressive States and lands, that public education is the highest governmental function—in fact, the chief concern of a good government. This was the con-ception of our wise old forefathers when they declared in their Constitution that 'Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall for-ever be encouraged,' and when they wrote into their Bill of Rights, 'The people have a right to the privilege of education, and it is the duty of the State to guard and maintain that right.' "No man in this age will dare maintain that instruction in the mere rudi-ments of learning can be called an education or that the people have been given the right to an education when instruction iu these branches only has been placed within their reach. Under this broader democratic conception of public education and its function the obligation of the Government to the poorest is as binding as its obligation to the richest. The right of the poorest to the opportunity of the fullest development is as inalienable as the right of the richest. Good government and the happiness of mankind are as dependent upon the development of the fullest powers of the poorest as upon the develop-ment of the fullest powers of the richest. Where the Creator has hidden the greatest powers no man can know till all have been given the fullest oppor-tunity to develop all that is in them. Every taxpayer, rich or poor, has an Work to Bk Done and How to Do It. 25 equal right to have an equal chauce for the fullest development of his children in a public school with the fullest course of instruction that the State in the discharge of its governmental function is able to provide. "Public high schools constitute a part of every modern progressive system of public education. If our system of public schools is to take rank with the mod-ern, progressive systems of other States and other lands, to meet the modern demands for eilucation and supply to rich and poor alike equal educational opportunity, instruction in these higher branches, whereby preparation for col-lege or for life may be placed within the easy reach of all, must find a fixed and definite place in the system." Under the act of the General Assembly appropriating $50,000 from the State Treasury to aid in the establishment of public high schools, 175 public high schools in 87 counties of the State have been established, and applications for the establishment of many others have had to be refused each year on account of the insufficiency of the appropriation. A full report of these schools by Prof. N. W. Walker, State Inspector of Public High Schools, is published elsewhere in this Report. I commend it to your careful attention. Under the law and the rules adopted by the State Board of Education, which are printed elsewhere in this Report, not more than four of these schools can be established in any one county. No public high school can be established except in connection with a public school having at least two other teachers in the elementary and intermediate grades, and the entire time of at least one teacher must be devoted to the high-school grades. No public high school can be established in a town of more than twelve hundred inhabitants. Each district in which a public high school is established is required to dupli-cate by special taxation or subscription the amount apportioned to the school from the State appropriation ; and each county, unless the county school fund thereof is insufficient to provide a four-months school without aid from the second .$100,000, is required to apportion to each public high school out of the county fund an amount equal to that apportioned to it out of the State appro-priation. The minimum sum that can be apportioned annually from the State appropriation for the establishment and maintenance of any public high school is $250 and the maximum sum $500. The total sum annually available for any public high school established under this act ranges, therefore, from $500 to $1,500. The high-school funds can be used only for the payment of salaries of the high-school teachers and the necessary incidental expenses of the high-school grades. No teacher can be employed to teach or can draw salary for teaching any subjects in any public high school who does not hold a high-school teacher's certificate covering at least all subjects taught by said teacher in said public high school, issued by the State Board of Examiners, of which the State Super-intendent is ex officio chairman. The course of study is prescribed by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. As indicative of the need and demand for these schools I beg to call j'our attention to the fact that there have been applications for many more such schools than could be established with the appropriation, and that the number of such applications would have been greatly increased had it not been under-stood that the appropriation was already exhausted. As a further striking in-dication of the need for them, of the desire among the masses of the country people for higher instruction, and of their willingness and determination to 26 Work to Be Done and How to Do It. avail themselves of the opportunities placed within their reach for such instruc-tion, I beg to call your attention to these significant facts, taken from the official reports of these schools, all of ^Yhic•h are in country districts or small towns of less than twelve hundred people : 5,775 country boys and girls were enrolled in the high-school grades of these schools during the third year, and of these 4.145 were in average daily attendance; 3,541 were enrolled in the eighth grade, or the first year's work of the high school ; 1,634 in the ninth grade, or the second year's work of the high school ; 536 in the tenth grade, or the third year's work of the high school ; 64 in the eleventh gi'ade, or the fourth year's work of the high school. Do not the large enrollment and the remarkable average daily attendance of more than 71 per cent of the enrollment in these high schools indicate almost a pathetic eagerness of the country boys and girls for high-school instruction, and a commendable willingness on the part of their parents to make the sacri-fices necessary to give their children a chance to avail themselves of the oppor-tunities to get it? Is it not more than probable that perhaps nine-tenths of all these boys and girls enrolled in all the grades of these high schools would never have had an opportunity for any higher instruction or better prepara-tion through higher instruction for service and citizenship had not these public high schools been established within their reach and means? The State and county cannot afford to ignore this demand and need. An adequate system of public high schools will be found to be a part of every modern system of public education in all progressive cities and States in this country and in all the most progressive and prosperous countries of the world. It is a need and demand of the age. By no other means than by the public high school can high-school instruction be placed within the reach of the chil-dren of the many. By no other means than by the rural public high school can it be placed within the reach of the great majority of the country boj's and girls. The private high school cannot meet this demand, because the tuition and other necessary charges for its maintenance place it beyond the means of the majority of the counti'y boys and girls, and because the number of country parents who are able to bear these necessary expenses of instruction in private high schools for their children is far too small to maintain enough of these private high schools to be within reasonable reach of more than a very small minority of the country boys and girls. No one church is able to support enough of these high schools to place high-school instruction within reasonable reach or within the financial ability of more than a mere handful of boys and girls in the rural districts. The church high school could hardly hope for the patronage of more than the children of the families accepting its tenets or inclined to its doctrines. For a complete system of high schools, therefore, that would reach all the children, it would seem to be necessary for each denomination to maintain a system of high schools in every county and to have as many systems of high schools in each county as there are denominations in that county. The impracticability and expensiveness of meeting adequately the demand for high-school instruc-tion among the masses of the people, especially in the rural districts, by private high schools or by church high schools must be apparent, therefore, to any thoughtful student of rural conditions. The task of placing high-school instruction within reasonable reach of all the Work to Be Done and How to Do It. 27 cbildreu of all the people, irrespective of creed or condition, is too great and too complicated, it seems to me, ever to be successfully performed by church, private enterprise or philanthropy. If performed at all, it seems to me, it must be by all the people supporting by uniform taxation a system of public high schools of sufficient number to be within the reasonable reach of all the children of every county and community, with doors wide open to the children of the poor and the children of the rich, irrespective of creed or condition, affording equality of educational opportunity to all the children of a reiniblic, of which equality of opportunity is a basic principle. The church high school and the jjrivate high school will still tind a place and an important work in our educational system, but they can never take the place or do the work of the public high school for the masses of the people. There will always be those among us who will prefer the church or private high school, and who will be able to indulge this preference, but the main depend-ence of the many for higher education must still be the public high school, sup-ported by the taxes of all the people, belonging to all the people, within reach of all the people. God speed the work of the church and the private high school in this common battle against ignorance and illiteracy. There is work enough for all to do; but surely, in a republic like ours, one of the cardinal principles of which is and must ever be the greatest good to the greatest num-ber, friends of the church high school and of the private high school will never undertake to say that all the people must get out of the way of a few of the people, and that the many public high schools, supported by all the people for the benefit of all the children, must get out of the way for a few private and church high schools that can at best hope to reach but a few of the children of the people. Future Development of Public High Schools.—There are now from one to four public high schools in each of 87 counties of the State. There are, there-fore, 11 counties in which no public high schools have yet been established. For the proper maintenance and development of these high schools more money will, of course, be required. I have elsewhere recommended an increase of $25,000 in the annual State appropriation for the maintenance of these schools. It is our hope to be able to select the best higlj school in each county, tak-ing into consideration the location, the accessibility, the environment, etc., and develop this into a real first-class county high school, doing thorough high-school work for four full years. Around this school should be built a dormitory and a teachers' home. A part of the State Loan Fund could be used to aid in building the dormitory and the teachers' home. The dormi-toi'y, properly conducted, would afford an opportunity for the boys and girls from all parts of the county to board at actual cost. Many of these could return to their homes Friday evening, coming back Monday morning. Manj^ of them who do not have the money to spare to pay their board would proba-bly be able to bring such provisions as are raised on the farm and have them credited on their board at the market price. The principal's home would make it possible to secure a better principal and keep him probably for years, thereby giving more permanency to the school and more continuity to the work, making a citizen of the teacher and enabling him and his family to be-come potent factors in the permanent life of the community, contributing no small part to uplifting it, morally and intellectually, by their influence. A 28 Work to Be Done aistd How to Do It. small room rent could be charged each student, that would probably afford sufficient income to repay the annual installments on the loan for the dormi-tory. The balance of the cost of the dormitory, and in some instances all the cost of the dormitory, could probably be raised easily by private subscription in the community and county, if the raising of it should be made a condition precedent to the permanent location of such a county high school. It is my hope to be able to secure the development of a number of these county high schools in the most favorable covmties, equipped with dormito-ries and teachers' homes, and demonstrate the practicability, the success and the value of them. Having done this, it will be easy to secure their establish-ment and development in other counties. The increased State appropriation which I have recommended and hope to secm'e this year should, in my opin-ion, be used for the development of these central county high schools, so that we can gradually develop in every county of the State at least one first-class coimty high school with dormitory and teachers' home. Then the other high schools in different sections of the county should be correlated with this cen-tral school, and the course of study in these should be limited probably to not more than two years of high-school work, requiring all students desiring to pursue the last two years of the four-years course to attend the central county high school, which will be fully equipped in all respects for thorough high-school work. These central county high schools, as they grow and develop, should become also the nuclei for successful industrial and agricultural training. Parallel courses of study for the last two years might be arranged, one course offering thoi'ough preparation for college to the small nmnber of students desiring such preparation, and the other offering practical industrial and agricultural train-ing for the large number whose education will end with the high school. The dormitoiy would afford a splendid equipment for practice work for the girls in cooking, domestic science, household economics, etc. ; while the boys, during the last two years, could have training in agricultural subjects that will fit them for more intelligent and profitable farming. The practical side of this work coiild be supplied by acquiring by purchase or lease a small farm in connection with the high school. The development of this sort of a central county high school in each comity will be in accord with the plan for the establishment and maintenance of county farm-life high schools, recommended and explained elsewhere in this Report, and they will form the nuclei for such schools in every county. All this /development must, of course, be a gradual and perhaps a somewhat slow growth. It is best that it should be. We must be content with the day of small things. We cannot far outrun the desire, demand and ability of the people. Our schools must have their roots in the life and needs of the people and gi'ow out of these. They must not be lifted at once so high above these that their roots cannot touch them and that the people will be unable to reach up to them. They must connect with the life and conditions as they now are, and grow upward slowly, changing these gradually and lifting them upward with them as they grow. Industrial and Agricultural Education.—"Every complete educational system must make provision also for that training in the school which will give fitness for the more skillful performance of the multitudinous tasks of the practical work of the world, the pursuit of which is the inevitable lot of the many, for Work to Be Done and Hoav to Do It. 29 that training wliich will connect the life and instruction of the school more closely with the life that they must lead, which will better prepare them for usefulness and happiness in the varied spheres in which they must move. All these spheres are necessary to the well-being of a complex life like ours. The Creator, who has. ordained all spheres of useful action, has not endowed all with the same faculties or fitted all for the same sphere of action. " 'We are all Mit parts of one stupendous whole, Whose Tjody Nature is, and God the soul!' "Every wise system of education, therefore, must, beyond a certain point of educational development, recognize natural differences of endowment and fol-low to some extent the lines of natural adaptation and tastes, thus cooperating with Nature and God. The education that turns a life into unnatural channels and into the pursuit of the unattainable fills that life with discontent and dooms it to inevitable failure and tragedy. In recognition of these established laws of Nature and life, manual training and industrial education are begin-ning to find a fixed and permanent place in systems of modern education. They have already been given a place in some of the higher institutions of our public-school system—in the A. and M. College for the white race at Raleigh, in the State Normal and Industrial College for Women at Greensboro, and in the A. and M. College for the Colored Race at Greensboro. Under the new supervision industrial training will be emphasized in the State Colored Normal Schools at Winston, Fayetteville, and Elizabeth City. Some of the city graded schools, notably those of Durham, Asheville, Wilmington, Winston, Greensboro, and Charlotte, have introduced manual training and industrial education. "This sort of education, however, must come as a growth, a development of a general school system that provides first for the intellectual mastery of those branches that are recognized as essential for intelligent citizenship and workmanship everywhere. It must be remembered that the first essential difference between skilled labor and imskilled labor is a difference of intelli-gence as well as of special training ; that a skilled farmer must be first of all a thinking man on the farm; a skilled mechanic, a thinking man in the shop; that a skilled hand is but a hand with brains put into it and finding expres-sion through it ; that without brains put into it a man's hand is no more than a monkey's paw ; that without brains applied to it a man's labor is on the same dead level with the labor of the dull horse and the plodding ox ; that a man with a trained, hand and nothing more is a mere machine, a mere hand. The end of education is first to make a man, not a machine. "It will be well to remember, also, that industrial education is the most ex-pensive sort of education, on accoimt of the equipment necessary for it, and the character of the teachers required for it. Teachers prepared for success-ful instruction in this sort of education must, of course, be in some sense specialists in their line, and always command good salaries. For the major-ity of the public schools of the State, therefore, with one-room schoolhouses without special equipment and with one teacher without special training, on an average salary of $.34.47 per month, with barely money enough for a four-months term and for instruction in the common-school branches, with more daily recitations already than can be successfully conducted, industrial edu-cation and technical training are at present impracticable. 30 Work to Be Done and Hoav to Do It. "A study of the history of this sort of education will show that it has come as' a later development, after ample provision had been made for thorough instruction in the lower and in the higher branches of study, in those schools that were provided with school funds sufficient for instruction in the ordi-nary school studies, for the expensive equipment and for the teachers trained especially for industrial and technical edtication. In fact, I think it will be found that such education has been provided first in the towns and cities and great centers of wealth and population or in institutions generously supported by large State appropriations or by large endowments. To undertake such education in the ordinaiy rural schools of the State in their present condition, with their present equipment and with the meager funds available for them, would result in burlesque and failure, and would, in my opinion, set back for a generation or two this important work. "We might, however, begin to develop our public-school system in that direc-tion in those communities and counties where the conditions are favorable and the funds sufficient, and we might begin to devise ways and means for pro-viding the necessary funds and making the conditions favorable in other com-munities. I trust that means may soon be found for the establishment in every comity of at least one or more schools for industrial and agricultural training. This will require more money, however, than is now available for public schools, and will probably require both county and State appropria-tions. In the meantime it is proper and wise to cultivate public sentiment for this sort of education, and to provide for it as rapidly as we shall find ways and means for doing so. In the meantime, also, we can continue to give in all our public schools elementaiy instruction in agriculture and to encourage nature study in the schools. An admirable little text-book on agri-cultiu'e has been adopted for use in public schools, and in the course of study sent out simple nature study has been provided in every grade." Farm-life Schools.—More than eight-tenths of our population, according to the last census, still live on the farms. I hope the day will never come in the history of the South when a majority of our people will cease to live in the country. In great crises in the history of every nation the hope, the strength, the salvation have generally been found in its country people. Its qmetude and peace, affording opportunity for meditation and reflection, for daily communion with God's great teacher, Nature, giving time for great thoughts and divine emotions to take deep and everlasting root in human hearts and human character, its freedom from mad excitement, from artificiality, from the mani-fold temptations of gilded vice, from the effeminating influences of luxury and excessive wealth, make the country the ideal place for the development of the strongest type of men and women, and help, I think, to explain the historical fact that the country always has been the greatest nursery of great men and women. The old myth of Antfeus. representing the earth giant as unconquer-able so long as the contact between him and his mother earth was not broken, was not all a myth. There was a great truth at the bottom of it, which we in modern times would do well to heed. We cannot hope, however, for the more ambitious and aspiring of our country people to continue to live in the country unless their children can be given an equal chance for culture and training in the country schools, and unless they can be taught to make farming more profitable and farm life more attractive by bringing into it such modern conveniences of life as increased prosperity Work to Be Done and How to Do It, 31 aloue can command, and enriching it with the higher intellectual and social pleasures that sweeten, soften, refine and adorn life, impossible withuut intelli-gence and iutelleetual culture. If we would keep the best of the country people in the eoimtry we must find a way to bring the best of modern civilization into the country without forcing the country people to leave the country to get it. We must find a way to shape our education for country boys and girls more toward fitting them for making life on the farm at least as profitable, as pleas-ant, as attractive, and as livable as life iinywhere else. Of course, the first aim of all education is to make a man and an intelligent" citizen. The successful farmer must first of all be a thinking man, able to apply his intelligence and training to his business, to mix his brains with his soil. Our rural schools, therefore, must first of all provide instruction in such elementary and secondary subjects as the experience of the ages has declared essential and best for intellectual and moral mastery. Beyond the point of the. acquisition of these essentials, however, I believe it safe and wise to shape the course of study for the country boys and girls more in the direction of special preparation for farm life. With our limited means we have been so busy striving to provide sufficient elementary and secondary schools to place the essentials of education in reach of all that we have had neither the time nor the money to give serious atten-tion to the other problem. I believe, however, that it is time now for us to face this problem and begin to seek to solve it successfully. Our Agricultural and Mechanical College and our State Department of Agriculture should be our chief helpers in working out this problem. I have ventured to make some sug-gestions about this elsewhere in this Report in discussing the future develop-ment of the public high schools. We should study carefully, also, what has been done by others, and profit by their successful experience. From the information that I have been able to get, it seems to me that Wis-consin has been more successful than any other State in dealing with this problem of providing practical schools at moderate expense for training coun-try boys and girls for country life. Years ago they began with one such school in a small way, with plain and inexpensive buildings and equipment, conducted at an annual expense of onlj- a few thousand dollars. Fortunately, this school was under the direction of practical, trained teachers instead of faddish spe-cialists. It took hold of life and conditions in the country as they existed, busied itself with the practical, everyday problems and tasks of farm life and work and with finding practical and more profitable ways of doing those. It had to win its way slowly. The farmers of the county in which it was located had to be convinced of its value a:id necessity by results obtained, by the prac-tical benefits they observed and derived from its work. By keeping in close touch with them and gathering as many of them as possible about the school once or twice a year, they were made to feel that it was their school in deed and in truth, and their hearty cooperation was at last secured. The school was kept in close touch with the Agricultural and Mechanical College of the University of Wisconsin and under the general direction of the members of its faculty. As the farmers of the county in which it was located saw and felt the uplift-ing and transforming power of its work in their homes and on their farms, they I'allied enthusiastically to its support, and it became their pride. Farmers of other counties began to take notice of its successful work, and some of the 32 Work to Be Done and Hoav to Do It. more intelligent of tliem began to demand a similar school and to work for it. There are now, I believe, seven of these schools in different sections of the State of Wisconsin, all closely correlated with the Agricultural and Mechanical Col-lege. They form the most effective rheans for disseminating among the masses of the people a knowledge of farming and farm life, that I am reliably informed has been worth already millions of dollars in increased products of the farms and in the increased value of those products on account of their improved quality. What they have been worth in the transformation of the life in the farm homes, through the knowledge and training given to hundreds of country girls in these schools, cannot be measured in paltry dollars. I believe that the time is ripe for the establishment of county farm-life schools in this State—that we have reached, in fact, that point in our educa-tional development where the establishment of such schools is a necessity. In the future we must have in our sj'stem real rural schools and not mere city schools in the country—schools the training in which will grow more out of rural life, tend more toward rural life and fit better for rural life. I have recommended elsewhere in this Report an annual State appropriation of $50,000 to aid in the establishment and maintenance of county farm-life high schools, in conjunction with the best and most conveniently located of the existing county high schools, as a part of the regular county public school system. Beyond the point of providing the common, univei'sal essentials of intelligence and good citizenship, the education of the many in every community should be turned mainly in the direction of increased eflSiciency in the sphere of human activity to which they are best adapted by nature and environment, and in which they are most needed and will, in all probability, be most useful and suc-cessful, and, therefore, most contented and happy. The point in the develop-ment of the public school system of North Carolina has been about reached where a course of study providing instruction in the common, universal essen-tials of human intelligence, reading, writing and arithmetic, which must form the foundation of all education, and in other elementary subjects essential to good citizenship and right living in a republic, has been placed within reason-able reach of all. The next step, therefore, in the development of the public school system must be adequate provision for the preparation of the many in each community to make the most of what is about them for the most efficient, most useful, and happiest life in their environment. Eighty-two per cent of the people of North Carolina still dwell in the country and engage in agricultural pursuits. The safety, prosperity, and progress of the State, the preservation of the best in its civilization, according to the evi-dence of all human history, depend upon the preservation of a large, prosper-ous, intelligent, contented country population. The keeping of a large per-centage of our people in the country, on the farms, must of necessity, be predi-cated upon their preparation, through the right sort of education, for making farm life more profitable, thereby providing the means for bringing into country life the comforts, conveniences, and higher pleasures of modern civili-zation that will make it more livable and more attractive—as profitable and attractive as city life or life anywhere. It is natural and right that men should live where they can make most of themselves and get most out of life for themselves and others. Good roads, good houses, good churches, good schools, good clothes, good food, good vehicles, all the necessities, comforts. Work to Be Done and How to Do It. 33 and conveniences of modern civilization that contribute to malce iir(> more livable and attractive, cost money in the country as well as in the tt)\vn, and can be supplied to keep country people in the country contented and happy only by providing, through their schools, for their children the sort of educa-tion and training that will enable them to make farming sufficiently profitable to provide the money necessary to secure these things. Ninety-five per cent of the country children must get their preparation for making country life more profitable, more pleasant, more beautiful, in the coimti-y schools in their own school districts and counties. These country schools, therefore, in order to minister to the needs of the many in the country communities, must be adapted to the needs of comitry life and country people, must be schools for country children, dealing more largely with countiy things and country life and teaching how to make the most out of these, instead of town schools transplanted to the country, dealing largely with town things and town life, and turning country children toward the town and the city by interesting them more in urban things than in rural things, and preparing them more for urban life than for rural life. Demand from Teachers and Farmers for Such Instruction and Such Schools.—The demand for such instruction and for such schools has come from the teachers as represented in their various organizations and from the farmers as represented in their various organizations. For eight years the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, in his Biennial Report, has empha-sized the need of industrial and agricultural education and the establishment of such schools. Two years ago, in his Biennial Report, a chapter was de-voted specifically to the discussion and advocacy of the county farm-life high schools, and notice was served at that time that an appropriation for the establishment and maintenance of such schools would be recommended and pressed upon the General Assembly of 1911. At the annual meetings of the State Association of Ct)unty Superintendents at Hendersonville in September, 1909, and at Chapel Hill in September, 1910, the discussion of farm-life schools occupied an important place in the pro-grams, and strong resolutions were unanimously passed, favoring the estab-lishment of such schools and an appropriation therefor. The North Carolina Teachers' Assembly, at its annual meeting in Asheville. in June, 1910, also imanimously passed resolutions favoring the e.-^tablishnient of such schools and the appropriation therefor. The State Farmers' Union, at its annual meeting at the A. and M. College, in Raleigh, in August, 1910, adopted en-thusiastically and unanimously, after full and able discussion, the report of the educational committee, strongly favoring the establishment of farm-life schools as an organic part of the public school system and an appropriation therefor. The Farmers' Union, through its official paper and its local imions, has been carrjing on an active and enthusiastic campaign for the proposition ever since. It would seem, therefore, that the teachers and the farmers, the two classes most vitally interested, whose views upon a proposition of this sort should receive first consideration, are in hearty accord and cooperation about the general proposition for agricultural instruction and the establishment of coimty farm-life high schools, in connection with and as a part of the pres-ent county high-school system. Committees on legislation have been ap- Part 1—3 34 Work to Be Done and How to Do It. pointed by these representative bodies of teachers and farmers to confer in worlcing out the details of a practical plan for the establishment and main-tenance of such schools and to cooperate in securing the enactment of the plan into law and in obtaining an annual State appropriation for its successful execution. I submit below the outline of a carefully considered plan for the establish-ment and maintenance of such schools, based upon a study and observation of similar schools in the Middle West and a knowledge of existing needs and conditions in North Carolina FARM-LIFE SCHOOLS. Additional State Appropriation for County Farm-life Schools.—The State is now appropriating $50,000 annually to aid in the establishment and main-tenance of high schools in the counties. One hundred and seventy-six of these schools have already been established in eighty-seven counties, ranging in number from one to four to the county, receiving annually for maintenance from $250 to $500 each from the State, and an equal amount from the high-school district and the county respectively. On account of the limited funds, these high schools must of necessity be devoted mainly to higher instruction in literary subjects and better preparation for the ordinary duties of citizen-ship, which is important and necessary ; but they have not sufficient funds to provide also the teachers and equipment needed for efficient and extended special instruction in agriculture and home-making on the farm. Equipment and Maintenance.—It is proposed to ask for an additional appropriation of $.50,000 or $100,000, to be used for the establishment of a comity farm-life high school in conjunction with the best and most conveniently located of these literary high schools in those counties complying with the con-ditions to be prescribed in the law for the adequate eqmpment and maintenance of the school. The equipment of such a school will necessarily include a farm large enough for demonstration purposes and practical work and instruction in all agricultural pursuits, a baru for practice and instruction in dairying, a dor-mitory for the accommodation, at actual cost of living, of the boys and girls from parts of the county too remote for them to walk or ride to the school, a corps of competent, efficient teachers, some of whom must, of course, be especially trained in subjects pertaining to agriculture, housekeeping and home-making. The equipment should be modest and comparatively inexpen-sive, such as would be within reasonable reach of any fairly intelligent, indus-trious, prosperous farmer in that county. The course of study should minister to the needs of the two classes of students, the smaller number desiring preparation for college and the larger number that will, in all likelihood, complete at this school their preparation for life on the farm. The parents of both classes of students pay taxes for the maintenance of the school and are of right entitled to have provision made for their children. Instruction will be the same for both classes in most of the common literary subjects, and in these subjects can be given by the same teachers. The holding of the two classes of students together, carrying on their work in the same school, and in many subjects in the same classes, side by side, will be more econom-ical, more just, more democratic, will tend to inspire in each a greater respect for and sympathy with the other, and will help to overcome harmful social cleavage along vocational lines and to eliminate false distinctions of honor Work to Be Done and How to Do It. 35 and social standing between industrial workers and professional workers. For the preservation of tlie homogeneity of our people and the integrity of our democracy, the vocational and the cultural, the literary and the agricul-tural and the industrial, must be held together in our system of schools. In a democracy like ours peasant schools or separate schools for separate classes should find no place. Cost of Equipment and Maintenance.—Last fall the writer availed himself of an opportunity to visit and investigate a number of successful agricultural high schools in Wisconsin and the Middle West, with a view to informing himself upon this subject preparatory to the establishment of farm-life schools in North Carolina, because he has been interested in them and has foreseen for years that they were a necessity which the people of North Caro-lina would wisely provide for the education of their children in the near future. According to the best information that he could obtain, from $4,000 to $6,000 annually will be required to maintain and successfully operate a county farm:life school, and the equipment therefor will cost from $10,000 to $25,000. It would, of course, be unfortunate to undertake these schools with-out adequate funds and equipment for their successful operation, for their failure would retard educational progress along these lines, discourage the people, and prevent for years any further growth or development of this important movement. The farm-life part of the school, for the instruction of the boys and girls in agricultural and home-making subjects, will, of course, prove a failure and a farce, unless the right sort of teachers, with the right sort of scientific and special training, practical experience and common sense, can be secured to direct it. Such teachers are difficult to find at present, and command good salaries when found. The demand for them is already greater than the supply. How to Provide Equipment and Funds for Maintenance.—How shall the equipment and the funds for annual maintenance be provided? My observa-tion and experience have led me to the conclusion that people appreciate more, are bound more closely to and support more heartily schools that they have helped to pay for and make some financial sacrifice to get. In a government like ours, the responsibility and obligation for the education of the children is threefold, as are the benefits derived therefrom. The State owes an obliga-tion to the child, as the child and future citizen of the State ; the county owes an obligation to the child, as the child and future citizen of the county ; the community owes an obligation to the child, as the child and future citizen of the community ; and each will presvimably derive a correlative benefit from the development, through education, of the power in the child, and of his efficiency as a worker and a citizen. Our entire public school system is based upon this democratic idea of the threefold division of the responsibility and the burden and the threefold sharing of the benefits. ^ This farm-life school should become an organic part of the State and county system of schools, and should be equipped and maintained in accordance with the same general plan for the equipment and maintenance of the other parts of the system. The State should provide part, the county and the community part, thereby tying all three closely in interest and responsibility to the school. 36 WoKK TO Be Done and How to Do It. It is proposed, therefore, that out of the special State appropriation of $50,000, $2,500 should be anuually apportioned for the maintenance of the county farm-life school in those counties that will provide, by special tax, at least an equal amount for maintenance annually, and that will provide further, before the State apportionment for maintenance shall be available, adequate equipment in buildings, farm, etc., the equipment to be provided by the county and the community securing the location of the school by bond issue or by private subscriptions and donations, or by both. This would provide for the equipment, and for an annual maintenance fund of at least $5,000. The county could, of course, increase the equipment and maintenance fund accord-ing to the needs of the school as it gi'ew and developed. Of course, an annual State appropriation of $50,000 would provide for the establishment and maintenance of only twenty county farm-life schools. An annual appropriation of $100,000 would provide for twice the number. These schools should, of course, be established first in counties where the environ-ment and agricultural conditions and public sentiment are favorable for their success. On account of the conditions prescribed for the county and community, of the difficulty of getting a sufficient number of the right sort of teachers for them, and of the special and careful attention and supervision that should be given these schools, especially for the first several years, I do not think that it would be wise, even if we had sufficient funds, to undertake the estab-lishment and operation of more than fifteen or twenty of such schools the first two years. If possible, some of the first established schools should be located in each section of the State, so as to deal with the different agricul-tural and soil conditions in each section. As these schools, under careful supervision, direction, and economical administration, by the results obtained demonstrated their value and practicability, the demand for them in other counties would increase with the passing years, until finally the entire State would be covered. It is exceedingly important that we should start no more at first than we can reasonably hope to make eminently successful. The success of every new movement depends largely upon the success of the first experiment. In the meantime, provision could be made in the law for sharing on reasonable terms the benefits of these farm-life schools with the country boys and girls in adjoining and other arcessible counties. Benefit of Such Schools.—What are some of the benefits that may reason-ably be expected from an adequately equipped and successfully operated comity farm-life school? Such a school should become an intellectual, agricul-tural, and industrial dynamo for the entire county. Its farm-life work should be twofold : the instruction and training of scores of country boys and girls annually in the best methods of farming, dairying, orcharding, stock fudging, and stock raising, handling and marketing crops, cooking, sewing, and other things pertaining to housekeeping and home-making. Such training and prac-tical instruction would send them back to the farm prepared to make farming more profitable, farm life more livable, farm-houses more comfortable and more beautiful. These, in their various communities, would become sources of inspiration and disseminators of agricultural information and demonstration for their neighbors, in this way aiding greatly in the improvement of the agri-cultural conditions of the entire county, and increasing the wealth, the tax- Work to Be Done and How to Do It. 37 able values of all its property, and the general prosperity and progress. In a word, the boys so trained would become, in their oonnuunities, eloquent apostles and living examples of better and more profitable farming, and the girls so trained would become, in their homes, epistles known and read of all in the sweetest and finest of all arts, the art of making a comfortable and beautiful home, in the best environment in the world for such a home—the very heart of nature. Extension and Demonstration Work.—Such a school, in the second place, could and would, through its faculty, carry on most valuable extension and demonstration work among the farmers and their wives in all parts of the county, meeting with them from time to time in their communities for instruc-tion and demonstration in all things pertaining to their farm life and work, in this way carrying to them the new truth and the new light, and pointing them to the better way. From time to time, these farmers and their wives could and would be gathered about the school for instruction, for inspiration, for socializing, for organization and cooperation. In this and other ways, such a school would indeed prove a continual dynamo of agricultural interest and farm-life instruction and inspiration. Through it the larger agencies of the A. and M. College, the State Department of Agriculture, and the National Department of Agriculture could operate more effectively and successfully, and the interest aroused by these larger agencies could be husbanded, applied, and permanently continued. The work of the school could be correlated with the college, and many a boy and girl would be inspired by the taste of better things to drink more deeply at the larger fountain ever flowing in copious streams in their colleges and to pre-pare themselves for splendid leadership. Such a school would become a county training school for the rank and file of the rural school teachers, in agricultural as well as literary subjects. The head of the agricultural department of such a school could be made the super-visor of agricultural instruction in all the public schools of the county, and in cooperation with the County Superintendent, through instruction of the county teachers in the meetings of their county teachers' association, and through visitation of the schools with the County Superintendent .from time to time, could aid in creating a farm-life atmosphere in the rural schools and in bringing into them such simple elementary instruction in agriculture as could be made practical and effective through intelligent and interested teachers under intelligent instruction. It would be altogether possible and practical for successful work in agriculture, cooking, sewing, and other house-keeping subjects to be carried on under supervision of the teachers in the county farm-life school on a smaller scale in other high schools of the county, and perhaps in a number of the other public schools, especially in the local-tax schools with two or more teachers. Leavening the Whole Lump.—The whole lump would finally be leavened. Intelligence would demand and more money would command for country life, good roads, good schools, good churches, good vehicles, and the thousands of comforts and conveniences that break up the isolation of country life and bring into it all the best of city life without its worst. Thus, indeed, by train-ing the children to find and make the most of the countless treasures God has hidden in soil and stream, in rock and tree, in plant and air and cloud, may the country life be transformed into the ideal life, and country men and women 38 Work to Be Done axd How to Do It. enter into the rich iuheritance prepared from the beginning for them— a healthful life of freedom, fullness, sweetness, peace, and beauty. Then will men desire it more, seek it more, and live it more contentedly and happily. Some will say that I have overdrawn the picture. Not so. I have but inad-equately portrayed what I have already seen the beginning of in other favored portions of our own land. Only through the portals of such a school as we have endeavored to describe can our country boys and girls enter into and pos-sess this promised land lying all about them. Shall we provide it, or shall we not? The cost of the schools will be as nothing compared with the richness in money and in life that they will bring through the passing years. If we can but start them now and set them at their everlasting work, the battle will be won, for the people, seeing and enjoying their beneficent work, will be more able and more willing to give for their maintenance and enlargement as the years go by. Illiteracy and Nonattendance and How to Overcome Them—Compulsory Attendance.-—With 175,325 native white illiterates over ten years of age, or 19.G per cent, according to the United States Census of 1900; with 54,208, or 19 per cent, native white illiterates of voting age; with 45,632 native white illiterates between ten and nineteen years of age ; with only 69.5 per cent of the white children between the ages of six and twenty-one enrolled in the public schools and only 43 per cent of them in regular daily attendance; with about 137,340 white children between these ages unenrolled in the public schools ; with North Carolina still standing in the United States Census of 1900 next to the last in the column of white illiteracy, the urgent need of finding and enforcing some means of changing as rapidly as possible these appalling con-ditions must be apparent to every thoughtful, patriotic son of the State.* Two means suggest themselves: (1) Attraction and persuasion. (2) Compulsory attendance. Attraction and Persuasion.—"Much has been done, much more can be done, to increase attendance through the attractive power of better houses and grounds, better teachers, and longer terms. An attractive schoolhouse and a good teacher in every district, making a school commanding by its work public confidence, respect and pride, would do much to overcome nonattendance. The attractive power of improved schools and equipment to increase attend-ance is clearly demonstrated by the statistics of this Report, which show, with few exceptions, the largest per cent of attendance in consolidated districts, rural special-tax districts and entire counties that have the largest school fund, the longest school terms, and the best schools. "The general rule seems to be, then, that attendance is in direct proportion to the efficiency .of the schools and the school system. I have already called your attention to the fact that with the improvement in the public schoolhouse and schools, and the increased educational interest during the past few years, has come also an increase in the per cent of enrollment and attendance in the public schools. "Much can also be done to increase the attendance upon the public schools by earnest teachers, who will go,into the homes of indifferent or selfish parents whose children are not in school, and by persuasive argument and tact and appeals to parental pride induce many of these parents to send their children These figures have, of course, been materially decreased since the United States Census of 1900, but the figures for the census of 1910 are not available for this Report. Work to Be Done and How to Do It. 39 who will seek out children iu homes of poverty, and remove, through quiet, blessed charity, the causes of their detention from school. From the census and from the report of the preceding teacher recorded in the school register each teacher can ascertain at the beginning of the session the names of all illiterates and nonattendants of school age in the district and the reported causes of nonattendance. Under the rules recommended by the State Super-intendent and adopted by many comity boards of education the teacher is required to spend two days immediately preceding the opening of the school in visiting the parents and making special efforts to get these children to attend school. I have no doubt that many of these can be and will be reached by these efforts. Much can be done, also, by active, efficient school committeemen and other school officers, who will take an interest in the school and aid the teachers in finding and bringing in the children. "The compelling power of public opinion will do much to bring children into the school. Logically, as public sentiment for education increases, public senti-ment against nonattendance will increase. Public opinion might, in many communities, be brought to the point of rendering it almost disgraceful for parents to keep children at home without excellent excuse during the session of the schools. Self-respecting parents would be loath to defy such a public opinion and run the risk of forfeiting the esteem of the best people of the community. "It is the tragic truth, however, that there are some parents so blinded by ignorance to the value and importance of education, and others so lazy, thriftless or selfish that they cannot be reached by the power of attraction and persuasion, or the mild compulsion of public opinion." It is the sad truth that those whose children most need the benefits offered by the public schools are hardly to be reached by any other means but compulsion. No stronger or more conclusive evidence of the impossibility of overcoming illiteracy and nonattendance by the mild means of attraction, persuasion and public opinion can be found than the fact, revealed by this Report, that the percentage of enrollment and attendance is larger in the rural districts than in the towns and cities with their superior attractions of better houses, longer terms, more teachers, trained superintendents, shorter distance to travel, paved streets, etc. Compulsory Attendance.—Knowing the conservatism and the independence of our people and their natural resentment of the suggestion of compulsion in anything, I have been slow in reaching the conclusion that a compulsory attendance law was necessary and wise for North Carolina. A careful investi-gation of the existing conditions in North Carolina and of the means by which similar conditions have been effectively remedied in other States and other countries has forced me to the conclusion that nonattendance, irregularity of attendance and the resulting illiteracy will never be overcome except by reasonable, conservative compulsory laws. For eight years and more we have been building new, attractive, comfortable schoolhouses at the average rate of more than one a day for every day in the year ; we have been improving the equipment and increasing in every way the attractiveness of the houses and grounds ; we have been carrying on a vigorous campaign with considerable success through a friendly press, through public addresses, through the wide-spread circulation of literature for the cultivation of public sentiment and for the increase of interest and enthusiasm for education ; we have been increasing 40 Work to Be Done and How to Do It. expenditures for all educational purposes ; we have been systematizing and improving the course of study ; we have been increasing the compensation, the efficiency and the qualifications of county superintendents and teachers; we have been lengthening the school term ; county superintendents, teachers and school officers have been increasing their efforts to increase the attendance, and still thousands of white and colored children have remained out of the schools and are now on the straight road to illiteracy. In spite of all these efforts of attraction and persuasion, the per cent of enrollment during the seven years, and the per cent of average daily attendance, have been increased but little. The tendency of illiteracy is to perpetuate itself. The majority of these illiterate children are the children of illiterates and perhaps the descendants of generations of illiterates. It is natural that ignorance and illiteracy, being incapable of understanding or appreciating the value and the necessity of edu-cation, should be indifferent and apathetic toward it—just as natural as it is for the children of darkness to love darkness rather than light. The in-tervention of the strong arm of the law is the only effective means of saving the children of illiteracy from the curse of illiteracy. The intervention of the strong arm of the law is, in my opinion, the only hope of saving, also, the children of literate, and sometimes intelligent, parents from the carelessness, indifference, incompetency, laziness, thriftlessness or selfishness of such parents. No child is responsible for coming into the world, nor for his environment when he comes. Every child has a right to have the chance to develop the power to make the most possible of himself in spite of his environment during the helpless and irresponsible period of childhood. No man, not even a parent, has any right to deprive any child of this inalienable right. This light is vouchsafed as a constitutional right to every child in North Carolina by the following clauses of our State Constitution "The people have the right to the privilege of education, and it is the duty of the State to guard and maintain that right." Article I, section 27. "Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged." Article IX, section 1. "Every person presenting himself for registration (to vote) shall be able to read and write any section of the Constitution in the English language" (which went into "effect December 1, 1908). Article VI, section 4. The right of the State to intervene and protect the child in this right and to protect itself, society, and humanity against the ignorance of the child is recognized and clearly set forth in the following clause in the State Constitu-tion : "The General Assembly is hereby empowered to enact that every child of sufficient mental and physical ability shall attend the public schools during the period between the ages of six and eighteen years for a term of not less than sixteen months, unless educated by other means." Article IX, section 15. Not only has the child a natural and constitutional right to have the chance to develop through education the powers that God has given him, and thereby make the most of himself, and. therefore, to have the law intervene, if neces-sary, to secure this right to him, but the taxpayer, also, has a right to de-mand the intervention of the Government that compels him to pay his taxes for the support of the schools, to secure to him the protection that he pays for against the ignorance of the child. The Government has the right to intervene, if necessary, to protect itself, society, libertj^ and property against Work to Be Done and How to Do It. 41 the dangers to all to be found in ignorance, according to the experience of mankind and the evidence of all human histoi'y. If it has the right' to tax its citizens for protection, it has the right to adopt the necessary means to insure, as far as possible, that protection. If the State or the community has the right to correct and punish crime and vice, so often resulting from ignorance and illiteracy, it ought to have the right to take the necessary steps to remove the cause. Prevention is cheaper and better always than correction and punishment. Compulsory attendance laws are the only means found effective by other States and other countries of the world for overcoming illiteracy or largely reducing it. Practically all important foreign countries, except the ignorant countries of Russia, Spain, and Turkey, have found it necessary to adopt com-pulsoiy attendance laws in order to overcome illiteracy, and have found them effective in overcoming it. Thirty-live of the 46 States of the American Union have been compelled to resort to the same means of overcoming it, and are finding the means effective. Illiteracy is least in the States and countries that have compulsory attendance laws, and greatest in those that have not. West Virginia and' Kentucky are the only States which may be called Southern that have such laws. Eighteen per ce;it of the total white population of the United States reside in the Southern States ; 33 per cent of all the white illiterates of the United States reside in the Southern States. The compulsory attendance States and countries contain more than 80 per cent of all the people of the world that we call enlightened and progressive, and are the greatest, richest, and most progressive people in the world. No State or country in modern times, so far as I have been able to ascertain, has ever repealed a compulsory attendance law after it was once enacted. If such laws have been found beneficial and effective in all these great States and countries, will they prove otherwise for North Carolina? One of the most striking illustrations of the effectiveness of compulsory attendance laws in reducing illiteracy is that of France. In 1S82 a compulsory education act went into effect. At that time 31 per cent of the French people were illit-erate ; in 1900, the illiteracy had been reduced to 6 per cent. As bearing upon the question of effectiveness of compulsory attendance laws in reducing or overcoming illiteracy, the following tables of comparative illiteracy in typical Southern States that have no compulsor.y attendance laws and typical New England and Western States that have such laws will be interesting and suggestive *Table A.—Native White Illiterates Over Ten Years of Age. Per Cent. Southern States 959,790 12.4 Virginia 95,583 11.4 North Carolina 175,325 19.6 ' South Carolina 54,177 13.9 Georgia 99.948 12.2 Mississippi 35,432 8.1 Massachusetts 3,912 0.5 Rhode Island 1,196 1.0 Connecticut 1,958 0.6 Michigan 12,154 1.5 These tables are taken from an excellent paper on Compulsory Education by Prof. W. H. Hand, printed in the "Proceedings of the Eighth Conference for Education in the South." They are based on the United States Census of 1900. 42 Work to Be Done and How to Do It. *Table B.—Native White Illiterates of Voting Age. Per Cent. Southern States 307,236 12.2 Virginia 35,057 12.5 Nortli Carolina 54,208 19.0 Soutli Carolina 15,643 12.6 Georgia 31,914 12.1 Mississippi 11,613 8.3 Massachusetts 1,927 0.6 Rhode Island 550 1.2 Connecticut 1,040 0.9 Michigan 6,406 2.2 *Table C.^Native White Illiterates Between Ten and Fifteen Years of Age. Southern States 262,590 Virginia 23,108 North Carolina 45,632 South Carolina 17,839 Georgia 25,941 Mississippi 10,212 Massachusetts 416 Rhode Island 100 Connecticut 160 Michigan 1,141 As bearing upon the effect of illiteracy upon immigration the following table will be suggestive. The first column gives the natives of the given State now living in other States ; the second column gives the residents of the given State born in other States ; the third column gives the loss or the gain the given State has sustained. In this table the total population is included Southern States* 3,421,660 2,762.508 659,152 Loss Virginia 587,418 132.166 455,252 Loss North Carolina 329,625 83,373 246,252 Loss South Carolina 233,292 54,518 178.774 Loss Georgia .- 410,299 189,889 220,410 Loss Mississippi 296,181 215,291 80.890 Loss Massachusetts 299,614 401,191 101,577 Gain Rhode Island 61.358 78,903 17,545 Gain Connecticut 142,254 150,948 8,694 Gain Michigan 288,737 407,562 118,825 Gain The tide of emigration has evidently flowed from illiterate to literate ; from ignorance to intelligence ; from darkness to light. To sum up, in view of the fact that only 69.5 per cent of the total school popula
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|Title||Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina to Governor..., for the scholastic years...|
|Other Title||Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina to Governor, summaries and recommendations|
|Creator||North Carolina. Department of Public Instruction.|
|Date||1908; 1909; 1910|
|Place||North Carolina, United States|
|Description||Part 1 of 3|
|Publisher||Raleigh :Dept. of Public Instruction,1907-|
North Carolina Department of Public Instruction
|Rights||State Document see http://digital.ncdcr.gov/u?/p249901coll22,63754|
|Physical Characteristics||v. :ill., ports., maps (part fold.) ;23-25 cm.|
North Carolina State Documents Collection. State Library of North Carolina
|Digital Characteristics-A||86 p.; 5.52 MB|
Ensuring Democracy through Digital Access, a North Carolina LSTA-funded grant project
North Carolina Digital State Documents Collection
|Pres File Name-M||pubs_biennialreportof19081910nort.pdf|
|Pres Local File Path-M||\Preservation_content\StatePubs\pubs_edp\images_master\|
SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION
GOVERNOR W. W. KITCHIN
SCHOLASTIC YEARS 1908-1909 AND 1909-1910.
E M UZZELL a CO.. STATE PRINTERS AND BINDERS.
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.
J. Y. JoYNER Superiutendeut of Public Instruction.
Allen J. Baewick ; . . . Chief Clerli.
C. H. Mebane Special Clerk for Loan Fund, etc.
J. A. BiviNs Supervisor of Teacher Training.
N. W. Walkek State Inspector of Public High Schools.
L. C. Bkogden Supervisor of Elementary Public Schools.
I. O. ScHAUB Agent Agricultural Extension.
Miss Hattie B. Arkington Stenographer.
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION.
W. W. KiTCHiN Governor, President.
J. Y. Joyner Superintendent of Public Instruction, Secretai-y.
W. C. Nev?land Lieutenant Governor, Lenoir, N. C.
J. Bryan Grimes Secretary of State.
B. R. Lacy State Treasurer.
W. P. Wood State Auditor.
T. W. Bickett Attorney-General.
STATE BOARD OF EXAMINERS.
J. Y. Joyner Chairman ex officio.
Allen J. Barwick Secretary.
F. L. Stevens , West Raleigh.
N. W. Walker Chapel Hill.
John Graham Warrenton.
Z. Y. JuDD Raleigh.
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
State of North Carolina,
Department of Public Instruction,
Raleigh, December 15, 1910.
'I'll II is E.rvclh'iicii, W. W. Kitchin,
Governor of yorth Carolina.
Dear Sir :—According to section 4000 of tlie Revisal of 1905, I b.ive the
honor to transmit my Biennial Report for the scholastic years 1908-1909 and
1909-1910. Very truly yours,
J. Y. JOYNEK,
Superintendent of Piihlic Instruction.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Summary aud Brief Outline of Two Years' Progress in Education.
Work to Be Done and How to Do It.
Statistical Summary of Two Years' Progress.
Public School Statistics, inOS-lOOD.
Public School Statistics, 1000-1910.
Report of State Inspector of Public High Schools. 1908-1000.
Report of State Inspector of Public High Schools, 1000-1010.
Report of Supervisor of Teacher-training.
Report of Superintendent of Croatan Normal School and Colored
Report of Inspector of Elementary Schools.
Report of Agent for Agricultural Extension.
Report of Expenditures Slater Fund.
Report of Expenditures Peabody Fund.
Circular-letters of State Superintendent.
Decisions of State Superintendent.
SUMMARY AND BRIEF OUTLINE OF TWO YEARS' PROGRESS
WORK TO BE DONE AND HOW TO DO IT.
STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF TWO YEARS' PROGRESS.
SUMMARY AND BRIEF OUTLINE OF TWO YEARS' PROGRESS IN
The following summary aud brief outline of the progress in yublic etlucation
for the biennial period beginning July 1, 1008, and ending June 30, 1010, is
based upon the official reports on tile in the office of the Superintendent of
Public Instruction, and can be verified in detail by the published statistical
reports of this biennial period.
Increase in School Funds.—The total available school fund for the year
ending June 30, lOlO, was $3,550,575.06. This is an increase of $250,343.30 over
the total available school fund for 1008. Of this total available school fund
for 1010, $2.(;31.0(;2.17 was raised by State and county taxation and appropria-tion,
and $877,899.01 was raised by local taxation in special-tax districts, of
which $.580,885.28 was raised in urban districts aud $206,014.63 in rural dis-tricts.
This is an increase in 1910 over 1008 of $157,101.33 in the amount
raised by local taxation in rural districts and $69,800.18 raised by local taxa-tion
in urban districts.
Of the total available school fund for 1910, $2,377,652.47 was the rural
school fund and $1,172,012.50 the urban school fund. In percentage there has
been an increase of 112 per cent in the funds raised by local taxation in rural
districts, and 13 per cent in the funds raised by local taxation in urban dis-tricts,
and 13 per cent in the annual available fund raised by general State
and county taxation and appropriation in 1010 over 1008.
Excluding bonds, loans. State appropriations, and balance from previous
year, the whole amount raised by taxation for public schools during 1010 was
$2,657,372.83, an increase of $283,456.22 over 1008. The rural increase in
funds x-aised by taxation in 1910 over 1908 was $216,057.57, the city increase
$67,308.65. These figures show that during 1010 $3.58 was raised for each
child of school age enumerated in our State school census ; $2.88 for each
child outside of the cities and towns, and $6.80 for each child within the cities
and towns. This was a per capita increase in 1910 over 1908 of 29 cents for
each country child of school age, and 44 cents for each city child of school
These comparisons are made between the last year of this biennial period
and the last year of the preceding biennial period, so as to indicate the prog-ress
of the i)eri()d. The figures for the year 1000 can be easily ascertained
from the published statistical reports herein, and the relative progress of 1010
over lOOf) can easily be ascertained.
For What the Money was Spent.—With this increase in the available funds
for educational purposes, there has been during the period a corresponding
increase in those things which can be provided only by increased funds.
There has been an increase of $585,745 in the value of rural school property
and $3.50,912 in the value of urban sthool property, making a total increase
of $945,657 in the total value of the public school property of the State.
There has been expended during the period $667,605.02 for building, improv-ing,
and equipping public school houses. Seven hundred and twenty-five new
rural schoolhouses have been built at an average cost of $705..56. There has
been an increase of 601 in the number of houses equipped with patent desks,
and $141,683.85 has been expended during the biennial period for school
8 Two Ykars' Progress.
Four and six-tenths days have been added to the average annual school
term of the white schools of the State, and .7 day to the average annual
school term of the colored schools of the State, 3.5 days to the white rural
school term, and 9.7 days to the white city school term. In the newly estab-lished
local-tax districts, of course, the school term has been greatly lengthened
and in many instances doubled. There has been an increase of 594 in the
number of white teachers employed, and 18 in the number of colored teachers
employed. There has been an increase of .$10.92 in the average annual salary
of white teachers, and $5.21 in the average annual salary of colored teachers.
The average annual salary of rural teachers has been increased $13.88.
There has been a necessary increase in the expenses of collecting, expending,
and administering a larger fund, and an increase in the current expenses for
longer terms with more schoolrooms and teachers.
The total expenditures for all schools during 1910 was .$3,178,950.50, which
represents an increase of $220,790.31 over 1908—an increase of $250,469.45 in
rural expenditures, and a decrease of $29,679.14 in urban expenditures. Of
this increase, rural teachers and superintendents received $192,194.18. and
urban teachers and superintendents $85,053.60. The increased expenditures
for administration, including treasurer's commissions, the expenses of boards
of education, school committeemen, and taking census, was $6,138.67 for rural
schools, and $452.73 for city schools. The increase in expenditures for all
other purposes, including overchai'ges arising from overestimates of poll tax.
errors in treasurers" commissions, etc., borrowed money for building, teachers'
salaries, etc., repaid out of collected taxes, was $5,255.80 for rural schools ; and
there was an increase of $99,424.09 for public high schools. This last item,
however, does not represent the percentage of gi'owth, as a separate report was
made in 1908 of all high-school expenditures, except county appropiiations.
The increase is based on that. There was a decrease in tbe amounts spent
for a few items, namely, buildings and supplies, and loans, in particular.
When this is accounted for and taken from the items of increase above, the
net gain in expenditures for the State is $220,790.31.
Increase in Value of School Property.-—In 1910 the total value of school
property of the State was $5,802,969. Of this amount the value of rural
school property was $3,094,416, and the value of city school property was
$2,768,553. This is an increase in 1910 over 1908 of $945,057 in the total
value of all school i)roperty. of which $585,745 is the increase in the value of
rural school property and $359,912 the increase in the value of city school
property. The value of white school property in 1910 was $5,185,521, of
which $2,700,911 was rural and $2,478,010 was city. The value of colored
school propertj' was $677,448, of which $387,505 was rural and $289,943 was
city. The percentage of increase in the valuation of school jiroperty during
the biennial period is 19 per cent—23 per cent rural and 15 per cent urban.
In 1910 there were 7.609 schoolhouses in the Stat(^-7.350 rural and 2.59
ui'ban ; 5,150 rural white and 109 urban white. 2,194 rural colored and 90