small (250x250 max)
medium (500x500 max)
large ( > 500x500)
i The Library of ^^^ Brown University NORTH CAROLINA PUBLIC SCHOOLS BROWN UNIVERSITY LIBRARY JAN 27 1960 BIENNIAL REPORT PART 1956-1958 BIENN IAL REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION OF NORTH CAROLINA FOR THE SCHOLASTIC YEARS 195 6-1957 AND 1957-1958 PART ONE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS PUBLICATION NO. 322 Pride of accomplishment is a worthy outcome of art experience. LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL State of North Carolina Superintendent of Public Instruction Raleigh December 15, 1958 To His Excellency, LUTHER H. HODGES, Governor and MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF 1959 SIRS: In compliance with G. S. 115-14.3, 120-12, 13 and 147-5, I am submitting the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. This Report includes information and statistics about the public schools, and recommendations for their im-provement. I hope you and each member of the General Assembly will find the opportunity to read this description of our public schools in action. North Carolina, as this information shows, has made tremendous progress in many phases of its educational program. The Recommendations give some proposals which I believe will improve our schools still further. These, I commend to your earnest consideration and support. Respectfully submitted, State Superintendent of Public Instruction Biennial Report of State Superintendent [( CONTENTS Page I. What Agencies Administer the Public Schools? A. At the State Level 7 1. State Board of Education 7 2. State Superintendent of Public Instruction ... 8 3. The Controller 12 B. At the Local Level 14 1. Boards of Education 14 2. Superintendents 16 3. District School Committees 17 4. School Principals 17 II. How Are the Public Schools Financed? A. Sources of Funds 19 B. Expenditures 20 III. How Are the Schools Organized? What Facilities Are Available? A. Number of Schools 26 B. Schoolhouses and Value of Property 28 C. Length of School Term 30 D. Transportation 30 E. Insurance 32 F. Textbooks 33 G. Printing and Publications 34 H. School Lunch Program 35 IV. How Many Children Are Enrolled? How Well Do They Attend ? How Many Students Graduate From High School and What Becomes of Them? A. Enrollment and Attendance 36 B. Membership and Attendance 38 C. Drop-outs and Absences 39 D. Promotions 40 E. High School Graduates 40 V. How Many Teachers, Principals, and Super-visors Are Employed? What Are the Teacher Needs? What Salaries Are Paid? What Is the Ratio of Number of Teachers to Number of Pupils in Average Daily Attendance? A. Numbers 41 B. Teacher Education 41 C. Scholarship Loan Fund for Prospective Teachers. . 41 D. Supply and Demand 43 E. Salaries Paid 43 F. Teachers and Attendance 46 VI. What Is the Instructional Program in North Carolina Public Schools? A. Elementary Schools 47 B. High Schools 48 C. Health Education 52 D. Physical Education 54 E. Music Education 55 F. Driver and Safety Education 56 G. Vocational Agriculture 57 H. Vocational Home Economics 59 I. Vocational Home Economics 61 J. Distributive Education 63 K. Veterans Education 64 L. Special Education 66 M. Guidance Services 68 N. School Libraries 69 O. Vocational Rehabilitation 72 VII. What Other Educational Institutions Are Operated in North Carolina? A. Public 74 B. Non-public 76 VIII. What Are the Recommendations for Improving the Public Schools? 78 I What- Agencies Administer the Public Schools? AT THE STATE LEVEL 1. The State Board of Education Authority—State Constitution (Art. IX, S. 8). Membership—13 persons: 3 ex officio (Lieut. Governor, State Treasurer and State Superintendent of Public Instruction) and 10 appointed by Governor (8 from 8 educational districts and 2 from State at large) . Term—Eight years (overlapping) for appointive members. Meetings—Once each month. Special meetings may be set at regular meetings or called by the Superintendent with the ap-proval of the Board Chairman. Powers and Duties (G. S. 115-11) : • has general supervision and administration of the educational funds provided by the State and Federal governments. • is successor to powers of (President of Literary Fund and other) extinct boards and commissions. • has power to divide the administrative units into districts. • appoints controller, subject to approval of Governor. • apportions and equalizes over the State all State school funds. • directs State Treasurer to invest funds. • accepts for the schools of the State any Federal funds appro-priated. • purchases land upon which it has mortgage. • adjusts debts for purchase price of lands sold. • establishes city administrative units. • allots special teaching personnel and funds for clerical assist-ants to principals. • makes provision for sick leave. • performs all duties in conformity with Constitution and laws, such as : 8 Biennial Report of State Superintendent certifying and regulating the grade and salary of teachers and other school employees ; adopting and supplying textbooks; adopting a standard course of study upon the recommendation of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction ; formulating rules and regulations for the enforcement of the compulsory attendance law ; regulating the conferring of degrees and licensing educational institutions ; reporting to the General Assembly on the operation of the State Literary Fund ; approving the establishment of schools for adult education under the direction and supervision of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction ; and managing and operating a system of insurance for public school property. • divides duties into two separate functions : (a) those relating to supervision and administration excluding fiscal affairs shall be administered by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. (b) those relating to the supervision and administration of fiscal affairs shall be under the direction of the Controller. 2. The State Superintendent of Public Instruction Authority—Constitution (Art. Ill, S. 1.). Term—Four years, elected by popular vote. Duties— (G.S. 115-14, 15) : • to organize and establish a Department of Public Instruction. • to keep public informed as to the problems and needs of the schools. • to report biennially to the Governor. • to have printed and distributed such educational bulletins as he shall deem necessary and all forms necessary for the ad-ministration of the Department of Public Instruction. • to administer the instructional policies of the Board. • to keep the Board informed regarding developments in the field of public education. • to make recommendations to the Board with regard to the problems and needs of education. • • North Carolina Public Schools 9 to make available to the public schools a continuous program of supervisory services. to collect and organize information regarding the public schools and to furnish such as may be required to the Board. to inform local administrators regarding instructional policies and procedures adopted by the Board. to have custody of the official seal of the Board and to attest all written contracts. to attend all meetings of the Board and to keep the minutes. to perform such other duties as the Board may assign to him. The Department of Public Instruction: Consists of an Assistant State Superintendent, an Adminis-trative Assistant, a Coordinator of Teacher Education, and other professional and clerical staff in the following divisions: • Division of Elementary and Secondary Education. This divi-sion provides services as follows : evaluation and accredita-tion of schools ; general supervisory assistance in the improve-ment of instruction ; preparation of teachers and other school personnel ; and assistance in special areas ; for example, testing and pupil classification, visual aids, surveys, library, music, safety and driver education. • Division of Negro Education. This division renders special assistance to Negro schools, including evaluation and accredita-tion of schools, supervisory activities, preparation of curricu-lum materials, improvement in preparation of teachers in co-operation with institutions of higher learning for the Negro race, and improvement in race relations. • Division of Professional Service. This division has charge of the administration of the rules and regulations of the State Board of Education with regard to the certification of teachers ; issues all teachers' certificates ; rates teachers em-ployed each year as to certificate held and teaching experience ; and coordinates the work of the department with that of the various institutions of higher learning in the field of teacher education. • Division of Publications. This division compiles and edits material to be printed ; distributes bulletins and other printed material to local units and individuals ; serves as the pur- UJ I- > if) oo o if) o —I GO CL < O <o q: o V) cr UJ X o s -I a. North Carolina Public Schools 11 chasing agency for the divisions of the Department of Public Instruction ; and services all divisions including Controller's office in the matter of mail and distribution of supplies. Division of Research. This division, organized following the provision for a director of research by the General Assembly of 1953, is responsible for planning and directing a research program for the Department of Public Instruction and the State Board of Education. The analysis and interpretation of data resulting from research studies and formulation of recommendations for the solution of problems under considera-tion, constitute over-all responsibilities of this division. Division of School Planning. This division assists with plans for new buildings and their location and erection. Screening applications for State funds for school construction and making surveys are major responsibilities of this division. Division of Special Education. This division, created in 1947, is responsible for the promotion, operation and supervision of special courses of instruction for mentally and physically handicapped. It is also concerned with the administration of a program of training for the trainable mentally retarded children as provided by the General Assembly of 1957. Division of School Health and Physical Education. This divi-sion is responsible for health instruction, physical education, safety, healthful environment, mental hygiene, and health services in the public schools. Health services are administered partly by the State Board of Health and the State Department of Public Instruction through the School Health Coordinating Service program. Division of Vocational Education. This division administers the programs in vocational agriculture, home economics, trades and industries, distributive occupations, guidance, veterans related training, school lunch program, veterans farming (under the G. I. Bill), and the program requiring the inspection, approval and supervision of those institutions and establishments offering on-the-job-training to veterans under the G. I. Bill. It also supervises area vocational training schools authorized by the General Assembly of 1957. Division of Vocational Rehabilitation. It is through this divi-sion that the State cooperates with the Federal Government 12 Biennial Report of State Superintendent in providing for the vocational rehabilitation of persons dis-abled in industry or otherwise and for their return to civil employment. 3. The Controller of the State Board of Education Authority—Chapter 115-2.5 General Statutes of North Caro-lina. Term—At will of Board. Powers and Duties— (G. S. 115-16, 17) : The controller is the executive administrator of the Board in the supervision and management of the fiscal affairs of the Board. ''Fiscal affairs" is defined as "all matters pertaining to the budgeting, allocation, accounting, auditing, certification, and disbursing of public school funds" administered by the Board. The controller, under the direction of the Board, performs the following duties: • maintains a system of bookkeeping which reflects the status of all educational funds committed to the administration of the Board. prepares all forms necessary to furnish information for the consideration of the Board in preparing the State budget esti-mates as to each administrative unit. certifies to each administrative unit the teacher allotment as determined by the Board. issues requisitions upon the Budget Division, Department of Administration, for payments out of the State Treasury of funds placed to the credit of administrative units. procures through the Purchase and Contract Division, Depart-ment of Administration, the contracts for the purchase of janitors' supplies, instructional supplies, supplies used by the Board, and all other supplies purchased from funds adminis-tered by the Board. purchases textbooks needed and required in the public schools in accordance with contracts made by the Board with pub-lishers. audits, in cooperation with the State Auditor, all school funds administered by the Board. North Carolina Public Schools 13 • attends meetings of the Board and furnishes information con-cerning fiscal affairs to the Board. • employs all employees who work under his direction in ad-ministration of fiscal affairs. • reports directly to Board upon matters coming within his supervision and management. • furnishes information as may be necessary to the State Super-intendent. • performs such other duties as may be assigned to him by the Board. Controller's Office : These and other duties, classified as to function, are adminis-tered through the following divisions: • Division of Auditing and Accounting. This division makes a continuous audit, month by month, of expenditures by the local units from the State Nine Months' School Fund, and is charged with the accounting of all funds, State and Federal, under the control of the State Board of Education, including the appropriation for the State Department of Public Instruction (administration and supervision), Vocational Education, State Textbook Fund, Veterans Training Program, State Literary Fund, and any other funds expended for public school pur-poses. Its work includes all budget making, bookkeeping, writing vouchers, making reports, applying salary scales to local school personnel, and performing related services. • Division of Plant Operation. This division has charge of plant operation as set forth in the Nine Months' School Fund budget. • Division of Insurance. The responsibility of this division is that of administering the public school insurance fund which was authorized by the General Assembly of 1949 to provide insurance on school property. • Division of Textbooks. This division has charge of purchasing and distributing free basal textbooks and administering the rental system for high school books and supplementary read-ing books in the elementary grades. • Division of Teacher Allotment and General Control. This divi-sion is responsible for applying the rules of the State Board governing applications of the local units for teacher allot- 14 Biennial Report of State Superintendent ments, and for alloting funds to be expended for the object of general control in the local budgets. • Division of Transportation. This division administers the school bus transportation system of the State—purchasing new buses, mapping bus routes and administering the rules of the State Board governing transportation. AT THE LOCAL LEVEL 1. Boards of Education Membership and Terms— There are 100 county and 74 city administrative units in North Carolina. They range in size from 787 to 29,259 pupils in average daily membership (1957-58). A grouping on this basis shows the following: Number of Units A. D. M. County City Up to 1,500 7 10 1,501—3,000 10 26 3,001—6,000 35 24 6,001—10,000 27 9 10,001—15,000 13 2 15,001—20,000 7 1 Above 20,000 1 2 Total TOO ~74~~ A board of education is responsible for directing and man-aging the public schools in each of these units. County boards consist of from three to seven members, the typical number being five. Members are nominated biennially by various local methods: countywide popular vote, townships popular vote, executive committee of major political party, political election (primary), non-partisan basis, legislature, and by special par-tisan election. All of these except the last one must have the approval of the General Assembly. Terms of office of members of county boards range from two to six years. City board membership ranges from three to twelve. Mem-bers serve from two to eight years and are named as follows : by popular vote, by appointment, and by a combination of the two. Final approval by the General Assembly is not required except for one unit. North Carolina Public Schools 15 Meetings— "All county and city boards of education shall meet on the first Monday in January, April, July, and October of each year, or as soon thereafter as practicable." Powers and Duties— • to provide an adequate school system within their respective units as provided by law. • to perform all powers and duties respecting public schools not imposed on other officials. • to have general control and supervision of all matters per-taining to the public schools and enforce the school law within their respective units. • to divide their respective units into attendance areas without regard to district lines. • to provide for the enrollment in a public school with their respective units of each child residing therein qualified by law for admission and applying for enrollment. • to make all rules and regulations necessary governing enroll-ment of pupils within their units. ° to make all rules and regulations necessary for conducting co-curricular activities, including athletics. Interscholastic ath-letic activities shall be conducted in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed by the State Board. • to fix the time for opening and closing the public schools and the length of school day within their respective units. • to provide for the efficient teaching in each grade of all sub-jects included in the outline course of study prepared by the State Superintendent. • to elect a superintendent of schools and to provide him with an office, office equipment and supplies, and clerical assis-tants. • to elect teachers, principals and other professional employees and to make needful rules and regulations governing their conduct and work, including their salaries and professional growth. • to issue salary vouchers to all school employees when due and 16 Biennial Report of State Superintendent to purchase the necessary equipment and supplies in ac-cordance with State contracts. 2. County and City Superintendents Superintendents are elected by boards of education, subject to the approval of the State Superintendent and the State Board. Term—Two years. Qualifications—Holds a Superintendent's certificate, 3 years' experience within past 10 years, and doctor's certificate showing him free of communicable disease. Salaries—The State salary schedule for superintendents of county and city administrative units is based on size of unit in terms of pupil membership, experience, and the superinten-dent's certificate. It ranges from a monthly salary, based on twelve calendar months, of $482 to $776. A few of the units pay a supplement from local funds. Duties—"All acts of county and city boards of education, not in conflict with State law, shall be binding on the superinten-dent, and it shall be his duty to carry out all rules and regula-tions of the board." The superintendent shall be ex-oflicio secretary to the board of education. It shall be the superintendent's duty : • to visit the schools, to keep his board informed as to condi-tion of school plants, and to make provisions for remedying any unsafe or unsanitary conditions. • to attend professional meetings. • to furnish information and statistics to the State Superin-tendent. • to administer oaths to all school officials when required. • to keep himself informed as to policies adopted by the State Superintendent and State Board. • to approve, in his discretion, the election of all teachers, and to present the names of all teachers, principals and other personnel to the board for approval. • to prepare an annual organization statement and request for teachers to the State Board. • to keep a complete record of all financial transactions of the North Carolina Public Schools 17 board of education and a separate record of local district taxes, and to furnish tax listers with the boundaries of each taxing district. • to keep a record of all fines, forfeitures and penalties due the school fund. • to approve and sign State and local vouchers. 3. District School Committees: County boards of education appoint members (three to five) to school committees of the districts. (There are no committees in city administrative units.) Term—Two years. Meetings—As often as business may require. Duties— • upon recommendation of superintendent, elects the principal subject to approval of the board of education. • upon nomination of the principal, elects the teachers subject to approval of the board of education and the superintendent. • upon recommendation of the principal, appoints the janitors and maids, subject to approval of the board of education and the superintendent. • in accordance with rules and regulations of the board of ed-ucation, protects all school property in the district. 4. School Principals "The executive head of a district or school shall be called 'principal'." He is elected annually by the district committee (in county units) upon recommendation of the superintendent and subject to approval by the board of education. In city units the principal is elected by the city board upon the recommendation of the superintendent. Duties— • to nominate teachers (in county units) to committee. • to grade and classify pupils and exercise discipline over the pupils. • to make all reports to superintendent. 18 Biennial Report of State Superintendent • * • to make suggestions to teachers for the improvement of in-struction. • to instruct children in proper care of school property, and to report any unsanitary condition, damage, or needed repairs. • to carry out rules and regulations of State Board regarding compulsory school attendance. • to assign pupils and employees to the buses on which they may be transported, (county units) • to prepare and submit plan of bus route to the superintendent. •-*#. s ...*- .£ Many small Inch schools fhroiijrhout flip State are heintr consolidated info larprer schools. This picture shows the new Consolidated High School in Surry County under construction. It will replace five schools: Franklin. White Plains. Iteulah. Flat Rock, and I.owgap. II How Are the Public Schools Financed? SOURCES OF FUNDS Funds for the support of the public schools come from three main governmental sources: State, local, and Federal. State funds appropriated to the public schools are derived from revenue obtained from the levy by the General Assembly of income taxes, sales taxes, franchise taxes, and taxes from other sources. In 1957-58 the amount and percentage from each of these sources which made up the General Fund are estimated as follows : AMOUNT PERCENTAGE Income taxes $ 63,304,000 41.0 Sales taxes 46,783,200 30.3 Franchise taxes 14,513,600 9.4 Beverage taxes 7,411,200 4.8 Insurance taxes 6,948,000 4.5 Non-tax revenue 6,330,400 4.1 License taxes 4,014,400 2.6 Inheritance taxes 3,551,200 2.3 All other 1,544,000 1.0 Total $154,400,000 TOO?) Local funds are derived in the main from property taxes, from the sale of bonds and notes, and from other local sources. For 1957-58 the amount and percentage from these several sources were estimated (based on actual 1956-57 data) as follows : AMOUNT PERCENTAGE Property taxes $48,000,000 58.1 Bonds, loans, and sinking funds 21,000.000 25.4 Fines, forfeitures, penalties, poll and dog taxes 6,500,000 7.8 Interest, donations. Federal grants 2,210,000 2.7 Intangible, beer, wine, and ABC funds 2,050,000 2.5 Tuition fees -..-- 2,000,000 2.4 Sale of property 900,000 1.1 Total $82,660,000 Tool) 20 Biennial Report of State Superintendent Congress levies taxes (largely on incomes) for operating the Federal Government and for other purposes to which the Con-gress makes appropriations. From this total fund, appropriations are made to the states for specific educational purposes—mainly vocational education, lunch rooms and for operating schools in defense-impacted areas. EXPENDITURES Total Funds Expenditures for public education are divided into three parts in accordance with the three phases of the school program : (1) current expense, current operation; (2) capital outlay, pay-ments for buildings and other physical facilities; (3) debt ser-vice, repayment on principal and interest on bonds and notes. Current expense, the operation of the public schools, is the largest portion of the State's total annual school expenditure. Biggest part of current expense comes from State funds, 80.0 per cent in 1957-58. Local funds represented 16.4 per cent of the 1957-58 current expense and only 3.6 per cent came from Federal funds. North Carolina Public Schools 21 Capital outlay until 1949 was the responsibility of the local units; the General Assembly, provided $50,000,000 in 1949 and another $50,000,000 in 1953 for school plant construction, im-provement, and repairs. Federal funds in recent years have been allocated for physical facility projects in defense-impacted areas. All funds for debt service expenditures come from local sour-ces. Expenditures per pupil indicate what is spent for public edu-cation in relation to the number of pupils. 22 Biennial Report of State Superintendent source of expenditures for current expense 1957-58 State Funds State funds are appropriated from the General Fund for sup-port of the nine-months term, for vocational education, for free textbooks, for State administration, and for other special pur-poses. The Nine Months School Fund is, according to law, allotted to the 100 county and 74 city administrative units by the State Board of Education on the basis of standards determined by the Board. These standards consider such items as salary sched-ules for various classes of school employees, number of pupils in average daily attendance, size of school, and other budgetary in-formation. Purposes for which the Nine Months School Fund may be ex-pended are classified in the law by objects and items as follows : General Control—Salaries of superintendents, travel expense of superintendents, salaries of clerical assistants, salaries of property and cost clerks, office expense, and per diem and travel of county board members. Instructional Service—Salaries of teachers, principals and supervisors, and instructional supplies. Operation of Plant—Wages of janitors, fuel, water, light, and power, janitor's supplies and telephones. Fixed Charges—Compensation to school employees, injuries to school pupils, and tort claims. Auxiliary Agencies—Transportation of pupils, libraries, and child health. Expenditures as to objects and items from the Nine Months School Fund are shown in the tables which follow: North Carolina Public Schools 23 SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES STATE (Including School 24 Biennial Report of State Superintendent SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES ST4TE (Including School North Carolina Public Schools 25 Local Funds Local funds are used to supplement the State current expense budget and to add to that budget in the form of other items. Except for the 1949 and 1953 State building funds, capital outlay and debt service budgets have been the sole responsibility of local governmental agencies. Capital outlay expenditures have varied over the years, where-as debt service has been fairly constant. During recent years the local units have gradually increased participation in the provision of funds for current expense. (See table below.) Ill How Are the Schools Organized? What Facilities Are Available? NUMBER OF SCHOOLS Elementary Schools The first eight years of the twelve-year program constitute the elementary schools. There were 2,029 schools of this kind in 1957-58. These schools varied in size according to number of teachers and enrollment. There is a tendency, however, for the number of small schools to decrease as new modern buildings are constructed. Junior High Schools Although the general pattern of organization in the State is the 8-4 plan, a few units are now operating junior high schools, grades 7, 8 and 9. In 1957-58 there were 54 junior high schools. Except for the Gaston, Mecklenburg and New Hanover county units, all of these schools were in city units. High Schools A high school is a school which embraces a department above the elementary grades and which offers at least the minimum high school course of study adopted by the State Board of Education. A majority of the schools in North Carolina are four-year institutions. The statistical tabulation includes all schools offering instruction in any one or more or all of grades 9, 10, 11 and 12. In 1957-58 there were 910 schools in this classification. North Carolina Public Schools 27 28 Biennial Report of State Superintendent SCHOOLHOUSES AND VALUE OF PROPERTY Number of Schoolhouses The erection of schoolhouses and the care of school property are responsibilities of boards of education. Construction is fi-nanced by bond issues, borrowed money, gifts, tax levies, and State grants. As the school population has increased and new facilities have been needed, there has been a tendency, by reason of consolida-tion, for the number of schoolhouses to decrease (See table). In 1957-58, the total was 3,132. Value of Property The value of all school property—sites and buildings, furni-ture and equipment including library books—tends to increase as newer needed facilities are provided. This total appraised value in 1957-58 was $620,413,565. On a per pupil enrolled basis the value was $585.19. State Grants The General Assembly of 1949, recognizing the inability of the local units to finance the total needs for school facilities, made provision for $50,000,000 for school plant construction, improvement and repairs. A second $50,000,000 was provided by the General Assembly of 1953. The State Board of Education was authorized to allocate these funds to the local units on the basis of specifically approved projects. The following table shows the number of projects and money approved therefor to June 30, 1958 : North Carolina Public Schools 29 30 Biennial Report ok State Superintendent LENGTH OF SCHOOL TERM The minimum Constitutional school term of 120 days, estab-lished by an amendment in 1917, became effective in 1919-20. Administrative units and districts were permitted to extend the term by a vote of the people. The State by act of the General Assembly of 1931 assumed responsibility for financial support of the six-months term on State standards of cost. Aid was continued up to eight months uniform basis in special high school districts. In 1933 an eight months uniform State-supported school term was established. This term was extended to nine months in 1943. TRANSPORTATION The annual State appropriation for public schools includes an amount for the maintenance and operation of school buses in county units. A separate appropriation is made for the purchase of replacement buses. No State funds are provided for transpor-tation in city units. County boards of education purchase all original buses from local funds. Replacements are purchased with State funds. Transportation is furnished in county units to all children living beyond one and a half miles from the school which they attend. Bus drivers are paid at the rate of $25.00 per school month. Most drivers are high school students. lit •* in mi H IIS ii North Carolina Public Schools 31 32 Biennial Report of State Superintendent INSURANCE The General Assembly of 1949 authorized the State Board of Education to establish a "Division of Insurance of the State Board of Education." This division, which began operation July 1, 1949, provides a fire insurance program for the schools of North Carolina on an optional basis. Engineers trained in fire safety make periodic inspections of all public school properties insured in the "Public School Insurance Fund." These inspections are the basis for offering advice on how to safeguard the children in the public schools from death and injury from school fires or explosions, and how to protect school properties from loss. As of June 30, 1958, 96 of the 174 administrative school units were provided with insurance in excess of $258,000,000. Many of these administrative units are provided with a sound, econom-ical fire insurance program for the first time. North Carolina Public Schools 33 TEXTBOOKS Textbooks used in the public schools are adopted by the State Board of Education. All books submitted for a particular subject adoption are evaluated by a Textbook Commission appointed by the Governor upon recommendation of the State Superintendent and com-posed of teachers, principals, supervisors, and superintendents. A written report on each book is made by each person making the evaluation. Textbooks are purchased and distributed by the Division of Textbooks of the Controller's Office to the county and city units. Basal books are furnished free for grades 1-8. Books used in the high schools, grades 9-12, are furnished under a rental plan. Supplementary readers for use in the elementary grades are also rented to the schools. 34 Biennial Report of State Superintendent PRINTING AND PUBLICATIONS Necessary forms and printed materials for use in the adminis-tration and operation of the public schools are printed and dis-tributed by the State offices. Costs of this printed material are borne partly by State and partly by local funds. The State Department of Public Instruction has continued to publish the North Carolina Public School Bulletin, which is sent free to persons interested in public education. Curriculum bul-letins, suggestive in nature and often done cooperatively by State Department personnel and educators in the field, are issued as needed. PUBLICATIONS ISSUED DURING 1956-58 Title No. Copies Indoor Play Activities 10,000 North Carolina Public Schools, Biennial Report, Part I, 1954-1956 6,000 Educational Directory of North Carolina, 1956-57 4,750 Evaluation of Sets of Books for School Libraries 5,000 The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 10,000 School Visits to Raleigh 25,000 About Going to College 7,500 Biennial Report. Part III. 1949-50 1,200 Fire Safety 10,000 Athletics in the Public Schools (Reprint) 6,000 Educational Directory of North Carolina, 1957-58 5,000 North Carolina Laws Relating to Public School Construction 1,400 Driver Education 7,500 l?. 3 Ui V '4 *L <f\ f m o^^i(P|% z 1L J jnorth Carolina Public Schools 35 SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM The school lunch program began operation in 1943-44. There were in 1957-58 a total of 1739 schools operating lunchrooms on the Federal reimbursement program. In addition, there were about 110 schools which operated lunchrooms without Federal reimbursements. Primary purposes of this program are to improve food habits, to promote better nutrition, and to use the lunchroom as a labor-atory for teaching. Much effort has been made to correlate regular classroom teaching with activities in the lunchroom. STATISTICS CONCERNING LUNCHROOMS (Federal Reimbursement Program) IV How Many Children Are Enrolled? How Well Do Children Attend? How Many Students Graduate from High School and What Becomes of Them? ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE Enrollment in the public schools of North Carolina is steadily increasing. In 1957-58 there was a total of 1,060,187 pupils. Average daily attendance has increased even more rapidly than enrollment, thus indicating greater determination on the part of present-day boys and girls to take advantage of educa-tional opportunities. Distribution of enrollment by grades shows greater numbers in both elementary and high schools. According to the percentage by grades, the distribution of enrollment was somewhat better in 1957-58 than in 1949-50. North Carolina Public Schools 37 38 Biennial Report of State Superintendent MEMBERSHIP AND ATTENDANCE How well pupils attend school is indicated by the relationship between the average length of school term and the per cent of membership in attendance. During the 1957-58 term, 1,025,789 pupils attended school an average of 167 days. Records show that high school pupils attend school slightly better than pupils in the elementary grades. Many units find it helpful to employ attendance workers for solving school attendance problems and thereby improving school attendance. During 1957-58, 73 units (40 county and 33 city) employed 72 persons in this capacity. North Carolina Public Schools DROP-OUTS AND ABSENCES 39 There is a downward trend in both drop-outs and absences. In 1957-58 fewer than 5 per cent of enrollment dropped out of school and the number of absences was at an all-time low. These facts indicate an increasingly better holding power of the public-schools. 40 Biennial Report of State Superintendent PROMOTIONS Approximately 93 per cent of white pupils and 89 per cent of Negro pupils were promoted to the next higher grade at the end of the school year 1957-58. This was a much higher percentage than the record prior to 1949-50. How Many Teachers, Principals and Su-pervisors Are Employed? What Is the Ex-tent of Their Education? What Are the Teacher Needs? What Salaries Are Paid? What Is the Ratio of the Number of Teachers to Number of Pupils in Aver-age Daily Attendance? NUMBERS To take care of increased enrollments in the public schools, it has been necessary to increase the number of teachers, both ele-mentary and high school. In 1957-58 there was a total of 35,154 classroom teachers, 25,515 white and 9,639 Negro. Of this num-ber 3,025 were paid from local and vocational funds. The number of principals has increased also during recent years. There were 866 elementary principals and 864 high school principals in 1957-58. There were 211 white and 63 Negro supervisors of instruction employed that year. TEACHER EDUCATION North Carolina instructional personnel rank high among the states in their educational qualifications. Of the total 1957-58 staff, 94.4 per cent held certificates based on college graduation and above. Fewer than 2,100 of the 37,167 instructional personnel employed held certificates based on less than college graduation. SCHOLARSHIP LOAN FUND FOR PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS The 1957 Session of the General Assembly appropriated funds to provide for prospective teachers 300 regular Scholarship Loans of not more than $350.00 each for the first year of the 1957-59 biennium and 600 for the second year of the biennium. Also, an appropriation was made to provide 200 summer school 42 Biennial Report of State Superintendent Scholarship Loans of not more than $75.00 for each year of the biennium. Approximately 1,900 requests for application forms were re-ceived the first year the program was in effect and approximately 3,300 requests were received the second year. Approximately 1,350 completed applications were submitted each year for con-sideration by the Awards Committee. Three hundred students received assistance from the Fund during the 1957-58 term, and 620 are receiving assistance during the 1958-59 term. Limited demand for summer school awards in 1958 permitted the increase through a transfer of funds by the State Board of Education. Recipients were enrolled in 38 colleges and universities in 1957-58. The number of institutions for the current year has increased to 40. North Carolina Public Schools 43 CERTIFICATE 44 Biennial Report of State Superintendent Approximately 41 per cent of the total instructional personnel are paid higher salaries than the State schedule. Several units also employ nearly 2,000 additional instructional personnel who are paid entirely from local funds. The average annual salary paid all teachers in 1957-58 was approximately $3,745. North Carolina Public Schools 45 NUMBER EMPLOYED 4(5 Biennial Report of State Superintendent ATTENDANCE AND TEACHERS Average daily attendance in proportion to the number of teachers employed indicates the average number of pupils each teacher instructs each day. The North Carolina average of slightly less than 30 pupils per teacher is approximately two pupils above the average for the nation. Allotments of teaching positions filled by teachers paid from State funds are made on the basis of average daily attendance for the best continuous six months of the first seven months of the preceding school year. State teaching positions are allotted for the elementary schools on the basis of one for 25 pupils, two for 45, three for 70, four for 105, five for 138, six for 171, and one for each 30 thereafter. State teaching positions for the high schools are allotted on the basis of one for 25 pupils, two for 40, three for 60, four for 80, and one for each 30 thereafter. PUPILS VI What Is the Instructional Program in North Carolina Public Schools? ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS The elementary curriculum in North Carolina is designed to provide for individual children, according to their needs and abilities, a balanced program in reading, language, spelling, writing, arithmetic, social studies, health, physical education, art, music, and science. Through these subject areas, children are given opportunities to gain competence in the basic skills; and to develop properly in the important areas of intellectual, physical, and emotional maturity ; and to develop habits of good citizenship. Course offerings include: • Language arts, subjects used in everyday communication — reading, writing, spelling, listening, speaking—are tools for learning in all curriculum areas. • Through the social studies, pupils are introduced to the nature of the social world. Through related history and geography, pupils are helped to understand their own cultural heritage and the important events, discoveries, and inventions leading up to the social world of today. • Through the study of arithmetic, pupils learn to compute, weigh, and measure in exact terms. Through arithmetic pupils learn to think and solve problems quantitatively. • Art and music develop aesthetic appreciation and enable chil-dren to express themselves creatively and communicate ideas. • Health and physical education emphasize the development of sound personal, physical and mental health. Stress is placed also upon understanding and improving community health, safety, and recreation. In adapting and modifying the curriculum to varying com-munity needs, emphasis is directed to the necessity of planning a total program which promotes maximum child growth and development. 48 Biennial Report of State Superintendent This curriculum is implemented by the use of free textbooks. Library books, supplementary readers, maps and globes, art and construction supplies, music appreciation materials, and other aids are also used in instruction. HIGH SCHOOLS A study of the North Carolina public schools reveals that many of the problems relative to improving the educational opportun-ities for North Carolina youth are fundamentally associated with the small size of many high schools. The curriculum for many schools is limited to the five academic fields: English, mathe-matics, social studies, science, and foreign languages. As shown in the accompanying table, the percentage of schools offering other than the five subject areas named is as follows : Home economics 89.4 per cent Typewriting 87.9 per cent Agriculture 66.0 per cent Music 36.6 per cent Driver Education 25.7 per cent Industrial arts 18.1 per cent Vocational shop and trades 9.2 per cent Art 8.7 per cent Distributive education 4.9 per cent Diversified occupations 3.8 per cent Graduation from high school is based on four years of work beyond elementary school and the completion of a minimum of 16 units as follows : English 4 units Mathematics 1 unit Social Studies 2 units Science 2 units Health and Physical Education 1 unit Electives 6 units A few schools require 17, 18, or more, units for graduation, and one school is experimenting with the requirement of 24 units by concentrating three subjects per semester. Slightly more than half of the students who enter high school graduate four years later. North Carolina Public Schools 49 WHITE 50 Biennial Report of State Superintendent NUMBER OF North Carolina Public Schools 51 NUMBER OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS TAKING VARIOUS SUBJECTS, 1957-58 (Continued) (From High School Principals' Annual Reports) FOREIGN LANGUAGES: French I .415 10,620 198 6.793 613 17,413 French II 361 5,894 173 4.110 534 10,004 French Conversation 17 7 French III & IV . ... 1 17 1 17 Latin I 149 7,644 5 189 154 7,833 Latin II . 129 4,983 5 191 134 5,174 Latin III & IV .... 5 121 5 121 Spanish I 96 4,196 16 601 112 4,797 Spanish II 63 1,731 14 341 77 2,072 German I 1 34 1 34 German II 1 32 1 32 OTHER COURSES: Psychology 16 961 5 162 21 1,123 Family Living 30 1.146 7 393 37 1,538 Library 27 588 6 179 33 767 Radio 1 19 1 19 General Aeronautics, Aviation 2 34 2 34 R.O.T.C 1 403 1 403 Orientation 1 158 1 158 Stage Craft 1 48 1 48 Practical Nurse Training — 1 68 1 68 T. V. History 1 121 1 121 Photography 2 36 2 36 Basic Electricity 1 23 1 23 Bible I 48 2,828 3 236 51 3,064 Bible II 17 627 17 627 See page 36 for enrollments by grades. 52 Biennial Report of State Superintendent HEALTH EDUCATION Pupils develop health habits, attitudes and understandings as a result of a variety of experiences in the total school pro-gram. Some of these valuable experiences are incidental, some are related to co-curricular activities, some are closely related to subjects other than health; whereas others are planned as a part of a special health class. For convenience and clarity the total school health program is usually described under three principal aspects. Healthful School Living A healthful school environment is essential to a good health program : First, it is a primary responsibility of the schools to protect the health of children from all possible health and safety hazards of the physical, emotional and social environment of the schools. Second, the right kind of school environment will serve as an example which will carry over into the home and community and result in better health facilities in the entire community including the schools. Undoubtedly many homes now have good lights and indoor toilets and other health facilities because pupils have seen and used good health facilities at school. Third, a healthful environment will provide a medium for teaching health by providing opportunities for pupils to practice good health habits. It is false economy to buy health textbooks and to pay salaries for teachers to teach good health habits, sanitation, communicable disease control, safety, and other aspects of health, while at the same time children are deprived of the use of the best learning situations, that is, the opportunity to use adequate health facilities. Health Instruction Health instruction is that phase of the total school health pro-gram designed primarily for the development of health habits, attitudes and understandings on the part of boys and girls. Health instruction may be correlated with other subjects, such as science, physical education and home economics. It may be part of a large unit of study, such as a study of transportation, North Carolina Public Schools 53 or it may be planned and taught as special health units. Whatever methods are used, it is required that 30 minutes or the equivalent be devoted to health in grades 1-8 and 45-60 minutes, two days per week, in grade 9. Health Services This phase of the school health program includes those serv-ices rendered school children to protect and improve their health, including health appraisal procedures by teachers and nurses, health examinations by physicians and dentists, follow-up to get correction of remediable defects, adjustments of the school pro-gram to defects that cannot be corrected, procedures for the control of communicable diseases, and the care of emergency illnesses and accidents. NUMBER OF CHILDREN RECEIVING SERVICES Diagnostic Services 1952-53 1953-54 1954-55 1955-56 1956-57 Eye Examinations . ... 1,163 1,668 1,370 1,876 1,180 Medical Examinations 15,044 20,066 22,874 84,660 79,904 Chest X-rays 13 920 1,299 1,362 341 Hearing Tests with Audiometers No Report 69,367 53,220 51,732 47,236 Cases Receiving Correction of Defects by Expenditure from this Fund Tonsils 4,217 4.097 4,228 3,477 2,983 Teeth 16,713 15,817 15,285 16,427 13,699 Ears 213 962 274 175 180 Hernia 78 106 103 111 127 Orthopedic 43 35 19 31 13 Intestinal Parasites . . 1,051 910 603 546 711 Eyes (glasses) 2,343 2,197 2,203 2,620 1,862 Eyes (surgery) 27 17 80 46 32 All Others 61 1,748 1,658 775 131 1957-58 1,740 76,110 323 40,905 3,174 15,686 196 138 28 524 2,695 16 501 54 Biennial Report of State Superintendent PHYSICAL EDUCATION The objectives of the physical education program of the public schools are: • To provide activities that will develop the physical and mental health of pupils. • To contribute to the social education of pupils. • To provide opportunities for the development of recreational interest and skills. • To contribute to healthful school living. The minimum requirement for physical education in the ele-mentary grades (1-8) is 30 minutes per day exclusive of recess time and relief periods. Physical education is required of all ninth grade students— a minimum of three days per week (45-60 minutes per period.) The State Department of Public Instruction recognizes that physical education activity is needed by all boys and girls in secondary schools and recommends that local schools require physical education at least in grades nine and ten and offer it as an elective in grades eleven and twelve. Publication No. 279, Physical Education in the Elementary and Secondary Schools, North Carolina, State Department of Public Instruction, 1952, contains details regarding the organi-zation, administration and conduct of the recommended State program of physical education in grades one through twelve. According to the "Principals' Annual Reports" many schools offer physical education over and above the requirements in grades 1-9 as outlined above. The "Reports" indicate that : 299 high schools offered physical education in grade 10. 245 high schools offered physical education in grade 11. 237 high schools offered physical education in grade 12. 120 high schools offered physical education in grades 9, 10, 11 and 12. 57 high schools reported new gymnasiums. 92 high schools added lockers, showers and dressing rooms to gymnasiums. 1286 physical education teachers were employed. North Carolina Public Schools 55 578 high schools gave medical examinations to students en-rolled in physical education. 666 high schools required students to change clothes for physical education. 516 high schools required students to take showers following activities. MUSIC EDUCATION Much progress has been made during the last two years in the use of music as a means to intensify concepts taught in the social studies and other areas of the curriculum in the elementary school. The music staff of the Department of Public Instruction is in the process of developing bulletins which correlate music with each of the State-adopted social studies texts for grades 4 through 8. The sixth grade outline is now in the hands of teachers. In school systems organized on a 6-3-3 basis, music offerings are expanded to include the general music class for eighth grade students and chorus for all junior high school students. Music offerings at the high school level include general chorus, glee clubs, band, orchestra, and "consumer" music courses, elec-tives for all students. 50 Biennial Report of -State Superintendent DRIVER AND SAFETY EDUCATION The General Assembly of 1957 enacted a law providing that each motor vehicle operator paying an annual registration tax of $10.00 or more should pay an additional $1.00 tax. Funds derived from this additional tax would, under the act, be used to finance a driver training and safety education program in the public schools. Since the first levy of this tax was made in January 1958, the program in the schools could not, except for summer programs, get under way until the school year 1958-59. In the meanwhile, preparations were made in the colleges of the State for giving courses for training teachers. During the spring and summer of 1958, therefore, approximately 2000 teachers were provided with driver training instruction. During this period also, a publication, Driver Education, A Manual for Instructors, was issued by the Department. On June 30, 1958, it was estimated that 120 of the 175 administrative units would offer driver instruction to ap-proximately 50 per cent of the 35,000 high school students who would reach legal driving age during the 1958-59 school year. The Driver Education staff of the Department offers field serv-ice to superintendents and principals to give the needed assist-ance in working out local programs. North Carolina Public Schools 57 VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE Vocational Agriculture was offered in 588 of the 910 high schools operating in the State in 1957-58. The major objectives of Vocational Agriculture are to develop effective ability to: Make a beginning and advance in farming Produce farm commodities efficiently Market farm products advantageously Conserve soil and other natural resources Maintain a favorable environment Participate in rural leadership activities Agricultural training is offered to three groups : The High School Group. The emphasis with this group is to develop attitudes, understandings and abilities which will enable pupils to apply scientific principles and agricultural technology to farming programs which they are developing. Attention is given to solving those problems related to the individual's farm-ing program and to improving the home farm. An integral part of the instructional program is the activities of the Future Far-mers of America and New Farmers of America organizations which motivate the pupils and provide many opportunities for developing leadership. The Young Farmer Group, (out-of-school) The emphasis with this group is to develop attitudes, understanding and abilities which will help the young farmer to become established progres-sively in farming on a sound economic basis. Problems such as selecting a farm, renting and buying a farm, leases and partner-ship agreements, farm credit, farm management and farm mec-hanics, form the core of the instructional program. Many individ-uals enrolled in the high school Vocational Agriculture courses continue their education in these young farmer classes. The Adult Farmer Group. The emphasis with this group is to develop attitudes, understandings and abilities which will help the farmer improve the efficiency of his farm business. Agricultural research is developing new farm practices each year. The new practices are valuable only to the extent that farm-ers apply them to their farm business. Therefore, instruction for this group is planned around new farm practices applicable 58 Biennial Report of State Superintendent to the particular type of farming prevalent in the community. Special attention is given to solving problems related to new enterprises, contract farming, mechanization and farm manage-ment. f<ym&&i&~ VOCATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS The vocational home economics program makes it possible for teachers to have extended term of employment. This addition-al time enables them to know the homes in the school community through a visitation program. Knowing the families in the school program, their interests and needs, helps the teacher to supervise the home experience program through which the stud-ents take their homemaking instruction into the actual home situation. In this way the teaching is functional and family centered. Another aspect of the vocational program is education in home-making for out-of-school youth and adults. 8,400 adults enrolled in homemaking classes in 1957-58. This program includes students for satisfying family living; the instruction is centered on food and nutrition, clothing and textiles, home care of the sick, child development, family relations and housing. There were 534 departments operating in 1957-58 with a high school enrollment of 44,042. In addition there were 336 depart-ments in high schools not receiving reimbursement from State and Federal Funds. 60 Biennial Report of State Superintendent The two student organizations, Future Homemakers of Ameri-ca and New Homemakers of America, are to be found in all schools having homemaking departments. These organizations supplement the classroom program and offer opportunities for further development of students and emphasize the aims and ideals of satisfying family living. North Carolina Public Schools 61 VOCATIONAL TRADES AND INDUSTRIES The trade and industrial program is financed from Federal, State, and local funds. Trade and industrial education provides the following types of training : 1. Day trade classes for high school students, 16 years of age or older, and adults who wish to learn a highly skilled trade or certain technician occupations. 2. Part-time cooperative classes for high school students, 16 years of age or older, and adults. In the case of high school students, half of each day is spent in school and the other half on the job. Adults likewise spend a portion of the training period in the classroom, followed by practical ex-perience for another period. 3. Extension classes for apprentices in skilled occupations who attend classes during non-working hours to receive techni-cal instruction. 4. Evening extension classes for employed workers who desire technical instruction needed for advancement in their oc-cupations. 5. Preparatory and extension training for practical nursing. In 1957-58, day trade programs were conducted in 51 school administrative units, with 156 classes in which 4,810 students were enrolled as follows : Auto Mechanics 265 Machine Shop 588 Bricklaying 995 Painting 31 Cabinetmaking 82 Printing 63 Carpentry 378 Radio & Television 81 Commercial Cooking ... 78 Sewing, Power 221 Cosmetology 118 Sheet Metal 60 Drafting 115 Shoe Repair 44 Electricians 31 Tailoring 110 Electronic Mechanics . . . 363 Textiles 20 Hand Weaving 82 Upholstery 27 Knitter Fixing 92 Welding 70 Looping 896 62 Biennial Report of State Superintendent During 1957-58, 170 part-time cooperative programs, with an enrollment of 1,801 students, were conducted in 30 administra-tive units. Also, 231 evening extension classes, with a total en-rollment of 6,314 students, were conducted in 30 administrative units. The total enrollment in all trade programs during 1957-58 was 12,925. A new feature for trade and industrial education now being developed is a State-wide program of Industrial Education Cen-ters. These centers are equipped and planned to provide prepara-tory type of trade technical training to selected young adults and senior high school students and extension type training for employed workers. North Carolina Public Schools 63 DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION Financed by federal, State, and local funds, distributive edu-cation is a Vocational Education Program for those persons engaged in the distribution of goods and services from the far-mer, the producer and the processor to the ultimate consumer. It is education for the business or marketing function in our economy. Two types of programs are conducted, the cooperative program for high school students and the extension program for adults : 1. The high school program prepares boys and girls to make careers in some distributive business. Students develop tech-niques and skills through supervised work experience in various businesses as trainees. In school the teacher-coordi-nator uses work experience as a basis for motivation and the development of a broader understanding of distribution and its operations. 2. Through the extension program courses designed to improve and upgrade adults are conducted on three levels—the own-er- manager group, the supervisory group, and the employee group. Recently there has been a marked increase among owners and managers in extension training. During the past biennium more than 1600 owners and managers have been enrolled in management courses. Biennial Report of State Superintendent North Carolina Public Schools 65 A total of 58,879 Korea Conflict veterans in the State have taken advantage of training benefits thus far, either under the Korea GI Bill or the vocational rehabilitation program for dis-abled veterans. In addition, 278 war orphans have received training under the War Orphans' Education Assistance Act of 1956. VETERANS ENROLLED IN PROGRAMS AS OF OCTOBER 31. 1958: Institutions of Higher Learning 6,885 Schools Below College Level 3,722 Correspondence Only 560 On-the-Job Training 301 Apprenticeship Training 1,213 Institutional On-Farm Training 1,339 VETERANS IN TRAINING AS OF DECEMBER 31, EACH YEAR *Jt SPECIAL EDUCATION Special Education encompasses those instructional services needed by children who are handicapped, either physically or mentally, to the extent that they require services different from or in addition to those provided for in the regular school pro-gram. The following are some of the ways in which special education is being provided in North Carolina : • Special classes or centers for severely crippled children, with the children being transported in specially equipped station wagons, small buses and taxis to specially equipped ground-level classrooms. These children may be severely crippled from cerebral palsy, polio, heart, or other physical conditions. • Instruction of children confined to their homes because of physical handicaps and long periods of convalescence. School to home electrical teaching devices may be provided in con-nection with a visiting teacher for the homebound. • Instruction for children in hospitals, convalescent centers, and sanitaria. • Speech therapy provided by itinerant teachers of speech correction. These speech correctionists may serve an entire administrative unit working with children who stutter, have delayed speech, or have articulation problems. In addition, the speech therapist may provide special instruction for hard-of-hearing children. North Carolina Public Schools 67 • Classes or services for visually handicapped children whose vision is too poor to permit them to read regular textbooks and who need large or clear type books as well as other aids. • Classes for mentally retarded children—those whose intel-lectual development is so slow that they are unable to profit from regular class instruction. The following summary of the Special Education Program in-cludes only that which was provided by teachers employed full time by the public schools in an area of specialty—crippled, speech correction, hard-of-hearing, partially seeing, or mental retardation : SPECIAL education Area 68 Biennial Report of State Superintendent GUIDANCE SERVICES Guidance services are organized activities designed to give systematic aid to pupils in understanding themselves and in mak-ing wise choices and satisfactory adjustments to various types of educational, vocational or personal-social problems which they must meet. Guidance services may be classified as follows : • Individual inventory, which includes recording all pertinent data about the student and using it to help him understand himself, his problems and his needs. • Information service, which makes available the resources and provides the activities needed by students in solving their educational, vocational and personal problems. • Counseling, which guides individual students in identifying, understanding, and solving their problems. • Placement service, which helps the student carry out his plans and decisions. • Follow-up service, which maintains contact with former stu-dents, both graduates and drop-outs. It is desirable that every school have on its staff a person quali-fied to assume major counseling duties and to provide leadership in guidance activities. North Carolina Public Schools 69 SCHOOL LIBRARIES A good school library makes important contributions to all phases of teaching and learning. School library services include : • Providing a broad, varied collection of materials—including books, magazines, films, filmstrips, newspapers, pamphlets, recordings—selected to meet the needs of the curriculum and to provide for the individual needs and interests of boys and girls. • Helping students and teachers to locate and use these ma-terials. • Providing space for reading and research work by class groups and individuals. • Teaching boys and girls the skills they need in order to use books and libraries effectively. • Guiding students' independent reading and promoting life-time habits of reading. In order to develop effective school library services, schools must make provision for (1) library materials, (2) library quar-ters, and (3) library personnel. How well is North Carolina meeting these needs? Library materials. In 1957-58, the total number of library books owned by the public schools was 5.5+ million volumes, or an average of 5+ books per pupil. National standards recom-mend an average of 10 or more books per pupil. Other library materials (films, filmstrips, recordings, magazines, newspapers, pamphlets) are provided to approximately the same extent as library books. Library quarters. Each public high school in North Carolina provides quarters for housing library materials, but the space is frequently inadequate. In 1957-58, about 1250 or 60% of the ele-mentary schools had central libraries. Library quarters are in-cluded in most new school plants. Library personnel. No library personnel has been provided by North Carolina from State funds. • School librarians. Approximately one-half of the public schools are attempting to provide personnel to staff school libraries through use of local funds and/or State-allotted 70 Biennial Report of State Superintendent classroom teachers. In 1957-58, there were approximately 420 full-time librarians who were certified for school library service. There were some 800 teachers, many with almost no training in library science, who spent a part of the school day in the library. Over 850 schools with central libraries had no trained person assigned to the library for any part of the school day. The practice of employing one librarian to serve several elementary schools is being encouraged until full-time personnel can be provided. School library supervisors. In 1957-58, 16 school adminis-trative units employed fulltime school library supervisors. In addition, 8 other units employed personnel with part-time responsibility for supervising school library services within the administrative unit. Where library supervisors are em-ployed, the quality of library service has greatly improved. * » t w JUST IN TlflE COOD NEWS MO 'T5 MEk/ BOOKS North Carolina Public Schools 71 72 Biennial Report of State Superintendent VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION Vocational Rehabilitation is a public service designed to devel-op, preserve or restore the ability of disabled men and women to perform remunerative work. Each disabled person served re-ceives the combination of services which meets his individual need. These services may include medical, surgical and psychi-atric treatment; hospital care; artificial appliances; specialized training ; living expenses and/or transportation during training ; occupational tools, equipment and licenses; placement on the job; follow-up; and professional counseling during the entire rehabilitation process. Persons with disabilities resulting from birth, disease, acci-dent, or from emotional causes are served. These include arm and leg deformities, amputations, heart ailments, tuberculosis, hearing, speech and eye defects, and many other handicapping conditions. Any handicapped person sixteen years of age or older who can be reasonably expected to profit by rehabilitation serv-ices, should apply for consideration. North Carolina Public Schools 73 EXPENDITURES FOR VII What- Other Educational Institutions Are Operated in North Carolina? PUBLIC Federal Schools The federal government operates elementay or secondary schools at two military bases, Camp Lejeune and Fort Bragg, and one at the Cherokee Indian Reservation. Special State-Supported Schools Several State-supported institutions, established for certain specific purposes, also provide instructional programs. They are the following : North Carolina School for the Deaf, Morganton State School for the Blind and Deaf, Raleigh Stonewall Jackson Training School, Concord State Home and Industrial School for Girls, Eagle Springs Morrison Training School, Hoffman Eastern Carolina Training School, Rocky Mount State Training School of Negro Girls, Kinston The first two are operated under independent boards of trus-tees, whereas the latter five are under the general supervision of the State Board of Public Welfare. Vocational Trade Schools There was one public school in this classification in 1957-58, the Vocational Textile School at Belmont. This school operated under the direction of a special board of trustees and is closely supervised by the State Department of Public Instruction. Colleges and Universities The State supports twelve institutions of higher learning: six for white students, five for Negroes, and one for Indian. The ac-companying table shows the enrollment in these institutions as of October, 1957. North Carolina Public Schools 75 ENROLLMEI (As of Institution SENIOR—WHITE University, Chapel Hill State College 76 Biennial Report of State Superintendent NON-PUBLIC Kindergarten Although the law permits the establishment of public kinder-gartens, none has been provided. There is, however, a large num-ber of non-public schools operated privately, some by church or-ganizations. All such institutions are, according to law, subject to the supervision of the State Department of Public Instruction and to standards adopted by the State Board of Education. A new bulletin, Schools for Young Children, containing these standards and other suggestions for the education of children prior to their enrollment in the first grade, was issued in 1955. Elementary Schools A total of 62 non-public elementary schools (55 white and 7 Negro) , operated in 1957-58. Sixteen of these were for first-grade children only. Most of these schools were located in city adminis-trative units. High Schools During 1957-58 there were 41 non-public schools (34 for white and 7 for Negroes) offering high school curricula. A ma-jority of these were church-related. All except eight were ac-credited by the State Department of Public Instruction; 15 were accredited by the Southern Association of Secondary Schools and Colleges. Vocational Trade Schools There were three private schools of this type, two for whites and one for Negroes. They were : John C. Campbell Folk School at Brasstown ; Penland School for Handicrafts, Penland ; and Home Eckers Trade School at Raleigh. The later is for Negroes. Colleges and Universities There are 42 classified private and church-related institutions of higher learning located in North Carolina, not including a seminary for graduate students, three Bible colleges, and one un-classified institution. Of these 42 institutions, 23 are senior grade and 19 junior. Thirty-five of the 42 are for white students and seven for Negroes. The accompanying table shows the enroll-ment in these institutions as of October, 1957. North Carolina Public Schools 77 ENROLLM (A Institution SENIOR—WHITE Atlantic Christian VIM What Are the Recommendations for Improving the Public Schools? One of the administrative duties of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, as denned in Chapter 115 of the General Statutes, is "to report biennially to the Governor" such informa-tion and statistics as would reflect the status of the public schools and to submit "recommendations for their improvement." Statistical and descriptive data on school operations in North Carolina have been presented in the preceding sections of this Report; this section, therefore, constitutes the State Superin-tendent's recommendations to the Governor and the General Assembly for the further improvement of the public schools. The 1957-59 appropriation for the support of the public school enrollment of more than 1,000,000 children is approximately $320,000,000. To continue our schools during the 1959-61 bien-nium at the present levels of operation and support will require an appropriation increase of approximately $12,000,000. This projection is reflected in the "A" section of the budget request. The "B" section of the budget request contains the areas of opportunity for expansion and improvement. The recommenda-tions outlined here are in support of the "B" budget request as summarized on the following page. General Statement The "B" Budget Requests for the Biennium 1959-61 have been prepared in the belief that good classroom instruction is the real objective of the public schools. The request for additional per-sonnel, more instructional and library materials, increases in salaries, and a longer work period for teachers has as its primary objective the improvement of classroom instruction. Provision for the additional funds requested will be a forward step toward improving the quality of instruction afforded in the public schools. North Carolina Public Schools 79 "B" BUDGET REQUEST BY PURPOSES 1959-61 "B" Budget Request Purpose 1959-60 1960-61 Total A. Salarv Increase of Personnel Included in "A" Budget 1. Superintendents $ 239,618 $ 263,364 $ 502,982 2. Clerical Assistants 68,785 68,785 137,570 3. Property and Cost Clerks 23,175 23,175 46,350 4. Classroom Teachers (Academic) 12,977,486 13,279,484 26,256,970 5. Building Principals 8,573 8,257 16,830 6. Classified Principals 1,045,428 1,080,523 2,125,951 7. Supervisors 126,513 127,037 253,550 8. Janitors and Maids 456,944 466,217 923,161 9. Bus Drivers 148,662 151,956 300,618 10. Mechanics 188,442 193,618 382,060 11. Agriculture Teachers 237,640 238,880 476,520 12. Home Economics Teachers 177,913 180,647 358,560 13. Trades and Industries Teachers 99,986 103,160 203,146 14. Distributive Education Teachers .... 18,412 19,640 38,052 15. Teacher Training 14,32 5 14,752 29,077 Total Salary Increase $15,831,902 $16,219,495 $32,051,397 B. Extended Term of One Week for Academic Teachers $ 3,773.371 $ 3,860,889 $ 7,634,260 C. Additional Personnel 1. Guidance and Counseling Teachers . ..$ 414,701 $ 624,077 $1,038,778 2. Guidance and Counseling (State Office) 14,712 14,958 29,670 3. Librarians 829,402 1.248,153 2,077,555 4. Special Education 124,410 187,223 311,633 5. Additional Teachers to Enable Principals to Rendpr More Effective Service . 1.244,103 1.248,153 2.492,256 6. Home Economics Teachers 48,533 87,851 136,384 7. School Planning Division ( State Office) 43,200 50,534 93,734 Total Additional Personnel $ 2,719,061 $ 3,460,949 $ 6,180,010 D. Industrial Education Centers 1. Operation (Salaries and Other Cost) $ 377,469 $ 394,687 $ 772,156 2. Equipment 1,491,000 — 1,491,000 Total Industrial Education Centers. $ 1,868,469 $ 394,687 $ 2,263,156 E. Other Expansion and Improvement in Standards 1. Office Expense (School Units) $ 6,130 $ 6,130 $ 12,260 2. Instructional Supplies 402,689 411,474 814,163 3. Water, Light, and Power 154,325 157,457 311,782 4. Janitorial Supplies 49,668 50,676 100,344 5. Telephones in Schools 70,954 72,394 143,348 6. City Transportation 430,207 441,397 871,604 7. School Libraries 529,854 541,413 1,071,267 8. Child Health Program 183,956 187,424 371,380 9. Technical Workshops (Agriculture) . 6,000 6,000 12,000 10. Additional Scholarships — Teacher Education 52,500 105,000 157,500 Total Other Expansion & Improvement $ 1,886,283 $ 1,979,365 $ 3,865,648 Grand Total "B" Budget Request (State Board of Education) $26,079,086 $25,915,385 $51,994,471 F. Department of Public Instruction 95,479 93,669 189,148 Grand Total "B" Budget Request $26,174,565 $26,009,054 $52,183,619 A. Salaries of School Personnel The State Board of Education strongly recommends salary increases as a means of helping to obtain and hold a competent supply of personnel. There is aroused public interest in the job being done in the public schools. Only through quality personnel can we improve the quality of instruction and gear it to present-day needs. It is the considered judgment of the State Board of Education that a way must be found by which pupils in the public schools 80 Biennial Report of State Superintendent of North Carolina will continue to have the best possible teachers and administrators. Many factors are considered by young people in choosing a career. The factors which cause young persons with fine intellect, magnetic personality, and characteristics of well-balanced leadership to choose professions other than teaching must be met by the public schools. Our finest young people must desire to return to the public schools as teachers, principals, and supervisors. Salary is one realistic factor in their decision. The Board requested the 1957 General Assembly to appro-priate funds to provide for a salary schedule of $2,900 to $4,500 for teachers. Funds were appropriated to provide a schedule of $2,799 to $4,338. Even with the increase granted, the Board is of the opinion that another substantial increase must be made in the salaries of teachers and other school personnel at this time. The "B" budget request submitted for teachers' salaries dur-ing the coming biennium is based on a beginning salary of $3,100 for teachers holding the Class A Certificate and a maximum sal-ary of $4,800 for teachers holding the Graduate Certificate, for the nine months school term. The current salary schedules for principals and superintend-ents call for adjustment. Through the years there have been cases of principals receiving a higher monthly salary than the superintendent of the administrative unit. During the 1957-58 school year, there were 71 administrative units in which one or more principals received a higher monthly salary from State funds than the superintendent. There were 105 principals who received a higher monthly salary than their superintendent and 2 who received a higher annual salary in 10 months than the superintendent received in 12 months. This situation affects prac-tically every bracket in the Superintendent's Salary Schedule. In those 71 administrative units, 53 of the superintendents had four or more years experience as a principal. If this situation is to be remedied, it will be necessary to make a substantial adjust-ment in the superintendents' schedule. In addition to teachers and superintendents, similar salary in-creases and adjustments approximating ten per cent are recom-mended for principals, supervisors, and other personnel. B. Extended Term of Service for Teachers One week of additional service for teachers will improve the quality of education. It will make possible 180 days of uninter-rupted instruction for all pupils and will thereby greatly acceler- North Carolina Public Schools si ate instructional opportunity. These five additional days, a part before school opens and part after the close of school, are ur-gently needed for specific purposes of curriculum planning, con-ferences with parents and students, pupil guidance, and a posi-tive approach to the true function of the school. These days are not requested for or intended to be used for school housekeeping, nor is this request made as a means of increasing the total pay of teachers ; on the contrary, it is made in the firm belief that it will materially improve the operation of the public schools. Good teaching requires time for planning and evaluating. C. Additional School Personnel 1. Guidance Counseling Personnel: As a means of strengthening education in this State, and especially by creating and sustaining more purposefulness on the part of students, there is an unmistakable demand for guidance services in meeting the needs of North Caro-lina boys and girls. Although many worthwhile and com-mendable guidance services are being attempted in the schools, a large number of pupils do not receive the kind of assistance they need. Consequently, talents go unnoticed, poor occupational choices are made, and the best develop-ment of the pupil is not being realized. Guidance services are planned primarily to help a stu-dent in discovering his interests, abilities, and aptitudes; choosing school courses which will lead him to the achieve-ment of the best educational and vocational goals ; and in starting toward a realistic and suitable career choice. Guidance services involve assembling full information about the pupil ; giving assistance to pupils in selecting courses in school and planning post-high school education ; making information available to pupils about occupations and education opportunities—such as job requirements, qualifications needed, trends in jobs, available scholarships and loans in colleges ; and obtaining information from drop-outs and graduates in order to determine the effec-tiveness of the total school program. 2. Librarians: The quality of the instructional program in any given school is no better than the quality of the library facilities and services within that school. Through the decades North 82 Biennial Report of State Superintendent Carolinians have recognized the principle inherent in this assertion and have encouraged school administrators to establish school libraries. Under the impetus of this inter-est more than 5 million library books (an average of slight-ly more than 5 books per child) are now owned by North Carolina schools, but never has the State provided funds directly with which to employ personnel to insure satis-factory use of this vast collection of volumes. Some North Carolina schools are staffing the school li-braries through local funds. In many instances, teachers allotted by the State for other duties are used as librarians. More than 870 schools with central libraries have no trained person assigned to the library for any part of the school day. Although the organization of materials and the keeping of records are important in a school library, these are inci-dental to the work a librarian can do in relating library books and materials to the curriculum of the school. This service to teachers and pupils is a great aid in making effective the curriculum of the school. An important contribution to the improvement of all phases of public school education can be made by provid-ing, through trained library personnel : a. For better use of materials in many subject areas and on varied reading levels, including books, ency-clopedias, films, filmstrips, newspapers, pamphlets, magazines, and recordings. b. Assistance to pupils and teachers in locating mate-rials through the card catalog, printed indexes, and bibliographies. c. Assistance to students in developing effective study skills in such areas as classification and arrangement of books, note-taking, bibliography-making, and dic-tionary use. d. Encouragement of lifetime habits of reading and of using libraries by presenting outstanding books to students, by encouraging pupils to share their read-ing pleasures with others, and by helping individual pupils—gifted, average, and slow learners—to make wise reading choices. A trained librarian's service, which may be utilized in one or more schools, is a real need in the schools. North Carolina Public Schools 83 Special Education Teachers: At the present time, in 80 of the 174 county and city administrative units, 12,149 speech defective, hard of hear-ing, crippled, cerebral palsied, visually handicapped and mentally retarded children are being taught by 240 spe-cially trained teachers. Of the 240 teachers, 195 are paid from State funds. Interest on the part of parent groups as well as public school personnel has increased to the point that special classrooms designed to meet the special needs of these handicapped children are being constructed. Like-wise, local clubs and organizations are providing scholar-ships to train teachers for the handicapped and to train psychological personnel for proper identification and classi-fication of these children. Eight colleges and universities throughout the State are offering courses in special educa-tion. The growth and public acceptance of this service for handicapped children, as well as the educational merits of special teachers for special children, commend the request for expansion in this area. Funds for additional special education teachers are nec-essary if the program is to be extended to the counties where no programs exist. Funds to permit the employment of at least 30 additional special education teachers for the 1959-60 school year and 45 for the 1960-61 school year are needed to meet the demand for expansion of special education services. Additional Teachers to Enable Principals to Render More Effective Services: Three hundred additional teachers are requested in or-der that principals in the large schools may be relieved of teaching duties to perform their duties in administration and supervision. This should result in the improvement of instruction. The principal must have time for leadership if the objectives of education are to be realized. The duties of the principal within the school are of pri-mary importance and are grouped around the areas of planning, organization, supervision, and evaluation. Care-ful planning on the part of the principal with his faculty is necessary before school opens, throughout the school year, and after school closes. In the area of organization the principal carefully studies his personnel and students 84 Hiennial Report of State Superintendent in order that all functions of the educational program may be so organized as to permit maximum achievement. In the area of supervision it is the principal's chief responsi-bility to provide leadership in the improvement of instruc-tion. This includes not only classroom visitation but the development of in-service programs for teacher growth. The principal's leadership in the area of evaluation is like-wise essential. Only through a proper continuous evaluation of the school can modifications in curriculum and organiza-tion be safely made. Educational returns from the money spent on the salary of the principal can be increased materially by making it possible for him to perform his logical leadership functions involving pupils, teachers, and the community. D. Industrial Education Centers The only expansion in Trade and Industrial Education, with the exception of salary increases, is for Industrial Education Cen-ters. The Advisory Budget Commission has approved the use of the appropriation of $500,000 made available by the last General Assembly for equipment in the seven locations approved by the State Board of Education. By this action there is implied approv-al of the eleven additional centers, which were approved by the State Board, by the Advisory Budget Commission for funds suf-ficient to purchase equipment and provide for instruction. The amounts listed in the "B" Budget request are needed to provide instruction for the additional centers which need to begin oper-ation during the 1959-61 biennium. In the past few years, North Carolina's new and expanding industrial development has added a great number of skilled work-ers to the work force. All evidence of technological development points to an expanded demand for trained workers in the highly skilled occupations. The Industrial Education Center approach will enable North Carolina to fulfill economically its obligation to train both its high school and adult population for entrance into and progress in trade and industrial pursuits. It is a sound long range effort because : 1. Through better selection of students it will enable the State to offer training only to those students who can profit most from the instruction. North Carolina Public Schools 85 2. By selecting students from more than one school, and from more than one administrative unit, the classes will be larger and the per student cost should be less. 3. It will enable adults to increase their skills and keep abreast of technological change affecting their livelihood. 4. It will enable a community to meet the skilled worker needs of new and expanding industries. 5. It will provide a flexible pattern whereby communities may discontinue courses when training needs have been met, with equipment transferred to another location. The presence of vocational courses in the curriculum of many of the institutions of higher learning in the State where the instruction is most expensive, indicates a demand by students and employers for instruction in this field beyond that now of-fered in the high school. Much of this instruction can be given in the Industrial Education Centers. E. Other Expansion and Improvement in Standards 1. Instructional Supplies: The request for $402,689 for 1959-60 and $411,474 for 1960-61 represents an increase of 38^ per pupil in esti-mated average daily membership for the prior year. The present allotment for this item of $1.12 per pupil is simply inadequate to meet the needs. For the year 1956-57, the schools expended a total of $1,635,416 for instructional supplies. Of this total expendi-ture, $745,623 or 45.59% was from State funds and $889,- 793 or 54.41 % was from local funds. The cost of these ma-terials has continued to increase and many schools do not have adequate materials with which to carry on an instruc-tional program. 2. City Transportation: We are requesting $430,207 for 1959-60 and $441,397 for 1960-61 for the transportation of pupils residing in the corporate limits of cities and towns and who live 1% miles or more from school. This estimated cost is based on a sur-vey recently completed. In recent years there has been a great demand from offi-cials and patrons of city school administrative units for the State to transport, at public expense, all pupils residing within the corporate limits of municipalities who live more than one and one-half miles from their schools. This de- 86 Biennial Report of State Superintendent mand has been brought about in part because of the trend in consolidation of schools within the cities. This means that many city pupils live a greater distance from school than formerly, principally because of the consolidations and annexations made in recent years by municipalities. The problem has been further aggravated by the fact that a great many municipalities have extended their cor-porate limits to embrace certain areas formerly served by the county school systems and within these areas pupils were formerly entitled to and did receive school transpor-tation services. Under the existing law these pupils were denied school transportation service when they were taken into the corporate limits of the municipality even though they lived one and one-half miles or more from their schools. The 1957 Legislature remedied this situation for all municipal extensions made since February 6, 1957. Since this legislative action, pupils in some areas of munici-palities are transported and those in other areas are not, depending entirely upon the date that the area became a part of the municipality. City school and municipal authorities contend that under the present law their patrons are being discriminated against and that they are not receiving their full share of the school dollar because city pupils have to walk a greater distance to school than pupils residing in the rural areas or they have to provide transportation at their own expense. These authorities contend that city pupils should share in the transportation program equally with the pupils residing in the rural areas of the county and that the absence of transportation services imposes an economic hardship upon a great many of the school patrons and that the pupils are being subjected to undue traffic hazards. 3. School Libraries: The request of $529,854 for 1959-60 and $541,413 for 1960-61 is based on increasing the allotment for this item from 50 cents to $1.00 per pupil in average daily attend-ance for the prior year. The present allotment for this item of 50 cents per pupil is inadequate to meet the needs for replacement library books and for operating the school libraries. North Carolina Public Schools 87 The present allotment of 50 cents per pupil has remained constant for almost eight years, whereas the price of books, magazines, binding, and supplies has increased consistently each year for a number of years. As prices advance and the basis of allotment remains the same, the result is increasing inadequacies rather than progressive improvement in school libraries. Good libraries are essential for the devel-opment of a good instructional program. 4. Child Health Program: The request for this item of $183,956 for 1959-60 and $187,424 for 1960-61 is based on a proposed increase in the allotment of $250.00 per county and 15 cents per pupil in average daily membership for the prior year. The present allotment basis is $750.00 per county and 35 cents per pupil. This request is the same basis of allotment used for the first four years of the operation of this program, from 1949-50 through 1953-54. Practically all of these funds are expended for the cor-rection of defects of indigent children. Most of the admin-istrative units do not have sufficient funds under the pres-ent allotment basis to meet the needs for correction of de-fects. Many school pupils have defects that are affecting their health and school achievement, but their parents are financially unable to have the corrections made. Requests from school units for additional funds with which to render this important service cannot be granted under the present appropriations. 5. Technical Workshops in Vocational Agriculture: The request for $6,000 each year of the biennium to help finance technical workshops for vocational agriculture teachers is needed to help develop competencies necessary to adjust local programs of agricultural education to the rapid changes occurring in the agricultural economy of our State. More than half of the teachers currently employed by local boards of education have been teaching 12 or more years. Since their graduation from college an agricultural "revolution" has occurred. If vocational agriculture teach-ers are to exercise the leadership expected of them and if they are to adjust the agriculture curriculum to meet the need of a changing economy, in-service training is impera-tive. 88 Biennial Report of State Superintendent 6. Scholarship Loans for Prospective Teachers: Response to the Scholarship Loan Fund, created by the 1957 General Assembly, has been most enthusiastic. The program gives promise of becoming one of the most valu-able acts of the General Assembly in behalf of education and the general welfare of the State. The desire of worthy high school graduates to continue their education and to become teachers is revealed in the fact that more than 900 applications were received for the 300 awards made in 1957 and more than 1200 applications were received for the 300 additional awards granted for 1958. The Awards Committee has been very favorably im-pressed with the qualifications of the applicants. Strict ad-herence to the criteria governing a loan would permit far more awards than are possible under the present appropri-ation. Economic status appears to be the main deterrent to college admission and ultimately to a more adequate supply of teachers. Impressed with the experience of two years, the State Board of Education is therefore requesting that this pro-gram be expanded to permit funds for 450 awards annu-ally. This expansion would yield 450 teachers annually — 450 college graduates who otherwise might not have gone to college and who will stay in North Carolina and repay the State in superior teaching service. F. Staff Services—Department of Public Instruction It is the function of the State Department of Public Instruction to provide leadership for the people of the State in their quest for better schools. Accordingly, funds are requested with which to employ the following personnel: 1. Public Information Officer. 2. Supervisors in the areas of (a) high school organization and administration, (b) curriculum, (c) early childhood ed-ucation and non-public schools, (d) art, (e) audio-visual education, (f) library services, (g) instructional materials, (h) guidance and counseling, and (i) speech and hearing. 3. Schoolhouse planning engineer. 4. Architect and landscape architect. 5. Graphic arts designer. 6. Administrative officer. 7. Stenographers and clerical assistants. 3j4-
Click tabs to swap between content that is broken into logical sections.
|Title||Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina to Governor..., for the scholastic years...|
|Other Title||Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina to Governor..., for the scholastic years..|
|Creator||North Carolina. Department of Public Instruction.|
|Date||1956; 1957; 1958|
|Place||North Carolina, United States|
|Publisher||Raleigh :Dept. of Public Instruction,1907-|
North Carolina Department of Public Instruction
|Rights||State Document see http://digital.ncdcr.gov/u?/p249901coll22,63754|
|Physical Characteristics||v. :ill., ports., maps (part fold.) ;23-25 cm.|
North Carolina State Documents Collection. State Library of North Carolina
|Digital Characteristics-A||100 p.; 6.28 MB|
Ensuring Democracy through Digital Access, a North Carolina LSTA-funded grant project
North Carolina Digital State Documents Collection
|Pres File Name-M||pubs_biennialreportof19561958nort.pdf|
|Pres Local File Path-M||\Preservation_content\StatePubs\pubs_edp\images_master\|
The Library of
JAN 27 1960
BIENNIAL REPORT PART 1956-1958
BIENN IAL REPORT OF
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF
OF NORTH CAROLINA
FOR THE SCHOLASTIC YEARS
195 6-1957 AND 1957-1958
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
PUBLICATION NO. 322
Pride of accomplishment is a worthy outcome of art experience.
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
State of North Carolina
Superintendent of Public Instruction
December 15, 1958
To His Excellency, LUTHER H. HODGES, Governor
and MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF 1959
In compliance with G. S. 115-14.3, 120-12, 13 and 147-5, I am
submitting the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public
Instruction. This Report includes information and statistics
about the public schools, and recommendations for their im-provement.
I hope you and each member of the General Assembly will find
the opportunity to read this description of our public schools
in action. North Carolina, as this information shows, has made
tremendous progress in many phases of its educational program.
The Recommendations give some proposals which I believe will
improve our schools still further. These, I commend to your
earnest consideration and support.
State Superintendent of Public Instruction
Biennial Report of State Superintendent
I. What Agencies Administer the Public Schools?
A. At the State Level 7
1. State Board of Education 7
2. State Superintendent of Public Instruction ... 8
3. The Controller 12
B. At the Local Level 14
1. Boards of Education 14
2. Superintendents 16
3. District School Committees 17
4. School Principals 17
II. How Are the Public Schools Financed?
A. Sources of Funds 19
B. Expenditures 20
III. How Are the Schools Organized?
What Facilities Are Available?
A. Number of Schools 26
B. Schoolhouses and Value of Property 28
C. Length of School Term 30
D. Transportation 30
E. Insurance 32
F. Textbooks 33
G. Printing and Publications 34
H. School Lunch Program 35
IV. How Many Children Are Enrolled? How
Well Do They Attend ? How Many Students
Graduate From High School and What
Becomes of Them?
A. Enrollment and Attendance 36
B. Membership and Attendance 38
C. Drop-outs and Absences 39
D. Promotions 40
E. High School Graduates 40
V. How Many Teachers, Principals, and Super-visors
Are Employed? What Are the Teacher
Needs? What Salaries Are Paid? What Is the
Ratio of Number of Teachers to Number of
Pupils in Average Daily Attendance?
A. Numbers 41
B. Teacher Education 41
C. Scholarship Loan Fund for Prospective Teachers. . 41
D. Supply and Demand 43
E. Salaries Paid 43
F. Teachers and Attendance 46
VI. What Is the Instructional Program in North
Carolina Public Schools?
A. Elementary Schools 47
B. High Schools 48
C. Health Education 52
D. Physical Education 54
E. Music Education 55
F. Driver and Safety Education 56
G. Vocational Agriculture 57
H. Vocational Home Economics 59
I. Vocational Home Economics 61
J. Distributive Education 63
K. Veterans Education 64
L. Special Education 66
M. Guidance Services 68
N. School Libraries 69
O. Vocational Rehabilitation 72
VII. What Other Educational Institutions Are
Operated in North Carolina?
A. Public 74
B. Non-public 76
VIII. What Are the Recommendations for
Improving the Public Schools? 78
What- Agencies Administer
the Public Schools?
AT THE STATE LEVEL
1. The State Board of Education
Authority—State Constitution (Art. IX, S. 8).
Membership—13 persons: 3 ex officio (Lieut. Governor, State
Treasurer and State Superintendent of Public Instruction) and
10 appointed by Governor (8 from 8 educational districts and 2
from State at large)
Term—Eight years (overlapping) for appointive members.
Meetings—Once each month. Special meetings may be set at
regular meetings or called by the Superintendent with the ap-proval
of the Board Chairman.
Powers and Duties (G. S. 115-11) :
• has general supervision and administration of the educational
funds provided by the State and Federal governments.
• is successor to powers of (President of Literary Fund and
other) extinct boards and commissions.
• has power to divide the administrative units into districts.
• appoints controller, subject to approval of Governor.
• apportions and equalizes over the State all State school funds.
• directs State Treasurer to invest funds.
• accepts for the schools of the State any Federal funds appro-priated.
• purchases land upon which it has mortgage.
• adjusts debts for purchase price of lands sold.
• establishes city administrative units.
• allots special teaching personnel and funds for clerical assist-ants
• makes provision for sick leave.
• performs all duties in conformity with Constitution and laws,
8 Biennial Report of State Superintendent
certifying and regulating the grade and salary of teachers and
other school employees
adopting and supplying textbooks;
adopting a standard course of study upon the recommendation
of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction
formulating rules and regulations for the enforcement of
the compulsory attendance law
regulating the conferring of degrees and licensing educational
reporting to the General Assembly on the operation of the
State Literary Fund
approving the establishment of schools for adult education
under the direction and supervision of the State Superintendent
of Public Instruction ; and
managing and operating a system of insurance for public
• divides duties into two separate functions
(a) those relating to supervision and administration excluding
fiscal affairs shall be administered by the State Superintendent
of Public Instruction.
(b) those relating to the supervision and administration of
fiscal affairs shall be under the direction of the Controller.
2. The State Superintendent of Public Instruction
Authority—Constitution (Art. Ill, S. 1.).
Term—Four years, elected by popular vote.
Duties— (G.S. 115-14, 15) :
• to organize and establish a Department of Public Instruction.
• to keep public informed as to the problems and needs of the
• to report biennially to the Governor.
• to have printed and distributed such educational bulletins as
he shall deem necessary and all forms necessary for the ad-ministration
of the Department of Public Instruction.
• to administer the instructional policies of the Board.
• to keep the Board informed regarding developments in the
field of public education.
• to make recommendations to the Board with regard to the
problems and needs of education.
North Carolina Public Schools 9
to make available to the public schools a continuous program
of supervisory services.
to collect and organize information regarding the public
schools and to furnish such as may be required to the Board.
to inform local administrators regarding instructional policies
and procedures adopted by the Board.
to have custody of the official seal of the Board and to attest
all written contracts.
to attend all meetings of the Board and to keep the minutes.
to perform such other duties as the Board may assign to him.
The Department of Public Instruction:
Consists of an Assistant State Superintendent, an Adminis-trative
Assistant, a Coordinator of Teacher Education, and other
professional and clerical staff in the following divisions:
• Division of Elementary and Secondary Education. This divi-sion
provides services as follows : evaluation and accredita-tion
of schools ; general supervisory assistance in the improve-ment
of instruction ; preparation of teachers and other school
personnel ; and assistance in special areas ; for example, testing
and pupil classification, visual aids, surveys, library, music,
safety and driver education.
• Division of Negro Education. This division renders special
assistance to Negro schools, including evaluation and accredita-tion
of schools, supervisory activities, preparation of curricu-lum
materials, improvement in preparation of teachers in co-operation
with institutions of higher learning for the Negro
race, and improvement in race relations.
• Division of Professional Service. This division has charge of
the administration of the rules and regulations of the State
Board of Education with regard to the certification of
teachers ; issues all teachers' certificates ; rates teachers em-ployed
each year as to certificate held and teaching experience
and coordinates the work of the department with that of the
various institutions of higher learning in the field of teacher
• Division of Publications. This division compiles and edits
material to be printed ; distributes bulletins and other printed
material to local units and individuals ; serves as the pur-