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jL North Carolina ~ Century farmS 100 Years of Continuous Agricultural Heritage Dear Friend, The North Carolina Department of Agriculture, along with Taylor Publishing Company, would like to extend to you our thanks and appreciation for your support in the publication of The History of North Carolina Century Farms. We know you'll receive many hours of pleasure as you read about the men and women who've helped shape America's "living" past, and that this book will become a treasured family heirloom — a cherished legacy for your children and grandchildren to enjoy as well. Perhaps you would like to have an additional copy for your family, for gift-giving or as a keepsake. A limited number of books are still available and can be ordered by completing and sending us the order form below. Orders will be taken on a first-come, first-serve basis, so don't delay! Mail your order along with your payment for additional copies today!!! Century Farms of North Carolina Please send me copies of The History ofNorth Carolina Century Farms at $32.95 each (includes postage & handling). $ Mail my book to: Name Address City, State, Zip Phone Make checks payable to & mail to: Century Farms History Book P.O. Box 16384 Chapel Hill, NC 27516-6384 Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2013 http://archive.org/details/northcarolinacen1989gorm N.C. DOCUMENTS CLEARINGHOUSE DEC 5 1989 N.C. STATE LIBRARY RALEIGH This book was made possible through the generous assistance of: Wachovia CP&L Southern Bell Carolina Power & Light Company A BELLSOUTH Company United I Telephone system Planters Bank Carolina Telephone Peace ofMind. Plain andSimple. Farm Credit Banks of Columbia North Carolina CENTURY FARMS 100 Years of Continuous Agricultural Heritage North Carolina Department of Agriculture Compiled by: Libby Gorman Mary Hunter Martin Edited by: Deborah Ellison Jearlean Woody Cover Design: Michael Reep Publishing Consultant: Susan McDonald Copyright © 1989 by the North Carolina Department of Agriculture All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America by Taylor Publishing Company, Dallas, Texas. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 89-61 145 •W. H.-Morri Bstotolislicd 1847. W H. Hoi I jetton ^factors ^ ^omtnfesion Jf|erclwn^f 23, 25 & 27 Oommerce Street. v/d'U //////^i/m<se/tM& z&ceeunt it-dtic/ u>e /c^/e w(// ///c-te c&Mec/ atw/ftfi/ttc/y jafo/ac/'cty. Ok 4^ii ' ^itoceeao <^ dame //ad__£c& -J . <* • \. <• <rl x / c&ftefifft*neft/d i/cu way /( y , //ira,ud'/o made a<i fiave oui /eo/ atifen/icn, and ue o aatanSce Ja/eo at a<s gca/^i€as4 and*ajykica//d ietuiwd ao any //cuae tn me ttade. tyJety iej/tec^a//y ycuU, T. ££. ^feita / Sim. 'e aaoti to-day< : O $ / Lofton, <^y//(dd7/ny, \f cA < * " £$at/- *^/(daYtny, JAMES A G RAH AM COMMISSIONER ]Bepsu:iment of Agrtmihtrr September 1989 Dear Registered Century Farm Owner: You have in your hands the only history in North Carolina of family-owned farms dating 100 years or more. Information about these Century Farms is part of our heritage. It was too important to lose. The North Carolina Department of Agriculture, therefore, has preserved the history in book form as told by the registered Century Farm families. As Commissioner of Agriculture, I am pleased to present every registered Century Farm owner with a copy of the book. As you turn the pages, you will get a sense of the heritage of the state's agriculture through a short history which was compiled and written by James F. Devine, editor of the NCDA publication, Agricultural Review . In addition, there is a complete list, as of October 1988, of every registered Century Farm owner. It is followed by family-written histories of Century Farms whose owners wanted histories included. With many of the histories are family photographs that will bring back memories. The book was published by private corporation donation. We thank Philip Morris, U.S.A. for their major corporate sponsorship of this publication. Other contributors to the history are the Wachovia Bank and Trust Company, N.A. , Carolina Power and Light Company, Duke Power, Southern Bell, Planters National Bank, Carolina Telephone and Telegraph Company, and the Farm Credit Banks of Columbia. Without support of the corporations involved, publication would not have been possible. I thank June Brotherton and the staff of the Public Affairs Division who administer the Century Farm program. For two years, they have been working on the project. Also thanks to Susan McDonald, who represented Taylor Publishing Company, the publisher. I hope this book will be a family heirloom to you, and that it will not be the last history of Century Farms published in North Carolina. Our family farms are too important to lose. With all good wishes. diaUy, 7 Acknowledgements Agriculture in North Carolina Before the Civil War by Cornelius O. Cathey, State Department of Archives and History, Raleigh, 1966. Atlas ofNorth Carolina by Richard E. Lonsdale, UNC Press, Copyright © 1967. Indians in North Carolina by Stanley A. South, State Department of Archives and History, Raleigh, 1965. North Carolina Department ofAgriculture, How It Began, published by the NCDA. North Carolina Illustrated 1524-1984 by H.G. Jones, Copyright © 1983, The North Carolina Society. The Relation ofNorth Carolina State College to the State Department ofAgriculture by Eugene Clyde Brooks, State College Record, Volume 23, Number 3, October 1924. Illustrations By arrangement with: North Carolina Department of Agriculture, Division of Public Affairs. North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina Library at Chapel Hill. North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, Division of Archives and History. North Carolina State University, Department of Agricultural Communications, Division of Visual Communications. AGRICULTURAL HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA Compiled and written by James F. Devine, Editor of the Agricultural Review, North Carolina Department of Agriculture, April 1989. When the history ofagriculture in North Carolina is considered, it usually conjures visions of colonists breaking ground for the first wheat crop, vast shasta fields of ripe cotton being picked by hand or patches of brightleaf, green and gold. That gets only a B-plus for the history student because he forgot that agriculture in what is now the Tar Heel State predates white men by two-thousand years. NATIVE FARMERS It began with Indians creating civilization. It started when they stopped depending totally on nomadic hunting and began to like the looks of one spot. It was when they decided it was easier to plant grain than to forage and easier to raise livestock than to chase it. Believe it or not, what those Indians discovered in a past so dim that it can be seen only in stone tool fragments, weapons and bones, had a direct bearing on North Caro-lina's farm economy from colonial day-one to North Carolina 1989. Corn, or maize as the red man called it, was introduced to those early settlers from Europe. And tobacco, the crop that forged the socioeconomic culture of this modern state, was unknown to the newcomers. In other words, corn and tobacco were greater new-world finds than the hoped-for gold and silver. Of course, the colonists brought their own brand of farming from the old country. They introduced crops and livestock as well as adopted those of their new home. Small grains, fruits and vegetables came with them. Sheep, cattle, hogs, horses and chickens were not native but adapted well to the foreign soil. Still, some fundamental Indian agronomic know-how gave a boost to European methods which had changed little since the dawn of time. It was a fish and a seed, a fish and a seed method. From those native Americans, colonists learned the art of fertilization. NO MECHANIZATION In the real sense, European agriculture had progressed very little from ancient times when the first immigrants began to establish permanent settlements on the North American mainland. The Renaissance had only begun with a great deal of hangover from the Middle Ages. Machine farming was virtually unheard of. Ox and plow were about as close to mechanization as man had come or would come for many decades. Agriculture was the job of almost 100 percent of the populace and was highly dependent on human Gristmill at Yates Pond near Raleigh. Built in the 18th century, it was typical of other mills in the state. Dozens ofplank roads were built to help farmers in the 1850s, but failed due to cost and upkeep. 9 Farmers out of the mud. At least they were on this 1898 macadam road in Mecklenburg County. labor. Without the machine, it is not hard to understand how slavery was so easily introduced into the colonies. And later, even with the advent of certain machines, slavery did not decline. It increased. Some believed the cotton gin was a major factor in that increase because it created more demand for cotton. The newcomers continued to plant, cultivate and harvest just as their fathers had done for centuries. They had the same problems as modern growers but lacked the tools to fight drought, pest and disease. It was classic plant-and-pray farming. Most of the so-called non-farmers of the time were agribusiness people. They were blacksmiths, horse traders and stable operators. Even the general store owners sold farm goods. And it's a pretty good bet, most of that crowd were sundown farmers. Eating was the number one concern ofthe new Americans. Trade was the hoped-for future, but for the moment, man had to feed his family and farming was about the only way to do it. DIVERSIFICATION UNKNOWN Crops differed little from those raised by today's Tar Heel producers. Irish or white potatoes and sweet potatoes were native to the New World. The settlers quickly added them to their menu of imported carrots, onions, beets, squash, cabbage, lettuce and so on to offer a balanced diet though no one knew much about diets back then. Field crops of small grains, corn, peas and beans grew well in North Carolina's soil; so well, in fact, peas and beans provided the colony with major items of commerce. Tobacco and cotton were later to become the North Carolina's top farm income producers. Soybeans came much later and rice and sugar cane were dropped but with these additions and subtractions, crops had remained much like those of the settlers. Corn quickly became the most important food crop. It grew universally across the state and fed both man and animal. It was described by John Lawson, who wrote the first history of North Carolina, as "the most useful grain in the world." The grain was planted in hills, a method learned from the Indians. And oddly enough, the size of the crop was measured in hills planted rather than in acres. This practice was continued until the War Between the States. Hoe and hand labor were the usual planting method. Rows were not used as plant-ing was done in fields that still had stumps and roots. Cultivation was done with hand tools. Often a fish was put into each hill for fertilizer. Small grains were not widely planted in the Coastal Plain but they found their way into the Piedmont along with those settling the area. Corn, however, remained the primary grain. Rice was grown in the coastal regions but never in the quantities produced in South Carolina and Georgia. What was grown was high quality and in demand as seed from the other seaboard colonies. American Husbandry, a 1 775 London publication, was considered an accurate crit-ic of American agriculture. It said about North Carolina fruit production: "Fruit in none of the colonies is in greater plenty than in North Carolina, or finer flavour; they have every sort that has hitherto been mentioned in this work; peaches as in the cen-tral coloines, are so plentiful, that the major part of the crop goes to the hogs." Unfortunately, orchards were often in a sad shape since there were no markets for surplus figs, cherries, apricots, peaches, pears, plums, pecans, quinces, damsons and nectarines. Making brandy and drying were the only ways of preserving them. Speaking of spirits, winemaking was big business in Tarheelia until its prohibition. At one time, North Carolina was said to be the largest winemaking state in the coun-try. In recent years, native muscadines along with the European vinifera have made a comeback. Wine is produced from vinefera at the Biltmore Estate near Asheville, while Duplin Wine Cellars at Rose Hill and its affiliates make wine from muscadines. Several other wineries also operate in the state. Wool and linen were the interests of English textile manufacturers. Their need for cotton was low. Still, cotton was grown for home use. It was later that cotton became king. TOBACCO KING Commercially, tobacco today is the state's leading crop. It was then. Its production, though, was limited to counties along the Virginia line and near the Albemarle Sound. It immediately became a major export crop. Demand for the leaf became so great, it was sometimes used as currency. High as an elephant's ear was the corn in the 1950s. Bulk people rather than bulk curing in 1 926. Even though the crop was firmly rooted in the colony's economic base, North Caro-lina ranked a poor third behind Virginia and Maryland in tobacco production. Yet, most of the colony's plantations produced it. The largest concentration of slaves and the biggest farms were in tobacco growing country. It was believed that the leafgrew best on recently cleared, vegetable-decay soil. The same fields were planted again and again until they were exhausted. No attempts were made to preserve fertility or prevent erosion as the work force continued to clear new fields. Such practices necessitated plantations be large. Plantation owners believed they should own fifty acres of land for each worker for profitable tobacco production. New land was the simple solution to depleted land. Tobacco planters sold their old farms to corn and wheat growers and moved toward the Piedmont. The drift away from the Coastal Plain was going strong as the Revolutionary War approached. Livestock was the top moneymaker for early farmers in the state. They realized more profit from cattle and hogs than from any other agricultural source. Large areas of unsettled land and open range practice did not require livestock producers to fence stock. Branding, however, was needed too for determining animal ownership. Sweets are a want of any society, affluent or otherwise. Beekeeping and honey pro-duction were practiced widely throughout the colony. One writer observed in 1 773: "Prodigious quantities of honey are found here of which they make excellent spirits, and mead as good as Malaga sack." 11 PROGRESS CAME SLOWLY Yet, with all the land offered its new tenants, progress came hard for colonial North Carolina. Even though farmers grew quality crops, their access to markets was limit-ed. There were no good ports and internal transportation was lacking. Emphasis was put on growing variety for feeding the family and local population rather than money crops. Farms devoted to producing cash crops such as tobacco and cotton were few compared to Virginia and South Carolina. Ifa house could only talk what tales it might tell; a reminder of things that were in eastern North Car-olina. Memories ofol'-time stubbornness and aching backs. During the war for independence from Great Britain, food supplies for the popula-tion were usually adequate. There was some want of food in those areas of military activity. In fact, as the war was coming to an end, North Carolina was a main source of livestock and livestock products for both the Continental and British armies. Commerce was disrupted, however, as a result ofthe British naval blockade for the small number ofNorth Carolina farmers producing for the export trade. So effective was it that it was almost impossible to deliver those commodities to market. Imports were also cut off. Sugar, rum and molasses were hard to come by, so hard that rum shortages brought on liquor stills and winemaking. Selling surplus grain and fruit as spirits became big business in North Carolina for several decades. More land went into cotton production during the war due to the inability to import textile goods. It was used mostly in the home and did not become an important export until Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1 792. By that time, the state had recov-ered to pre-war trade levels but the dollar value of export items were well below those of Virginia and South Carolina. Not much changed for OF North State agriculture following the revolution. It was not until the late 1 830s that railroad building was encouraged and that step was a step in the right direction. SEEDS OF AGRICULTURAL REFORM There were from the beginning advocates ofagricultural reform. Many ofthese pro-gressives saw the state as backward and unresponsive to new ideas. The problems were seated in lack of education for the common people. Without that factor, they were deeply resentful ofany tax increases or breaks from the idea that, "If it was good enough for grandpa, it's good enough for me." It was not until 1840 that tax-supported public schools were established. It is ironic that a people almost totally dependent on the industry of agriculture were so resistant to new farming methods which would have improved their lot. George W. Jefferies, one ofthe state's earliest agricultural reformists wrote in 1 820: "Our present, is a land-killing system, which must be altered for the better; for if pre-served in, it must ultimately issue in want, misery and depopulation." Of course, there were many seers and thinkers in Tarheelia. Unfortunately, the depleted soil and lack of new ground forced many of them to leave during the west-ward migration. This deprived the state of some of its finest minds and young people from all parts of society. By the 1820s, the situation was epidemic. From 1790 to 1816, Archibald D. Murphey, an agricultural reformist, estimated 200,000 people headed west, sometimes abandoning their farms for lack of buyers. Despite efforts to keep people in North Carolina, the losses continued until the 1850s. 12 The "Agricultural Revolution," as it is sometimes called, came to America in the 1780s. Its effects were felt in North Carolina in spite of the barricades to progress. It was conceived by practical English agriculturists and its methods were adopted by a small number of North Carolina farmers. This would prove to be a major factor in North Carolina's rise as a modern, progressive state. Those early North Carolinians who accepted the idea that there might be a better way to farm were usually not well informed in scientific agriculture. Rather, they were practical men who believed that farming should be handled more business-like. For the first time, they kept records of soil preparation, seed selection, time of planting, cultivation, and costs. Success bred success and the movement caught on. Word spread by mouth, corre-spondence and newspaper. As a result, the number of reform-minded growers increased but the majority continued the "pa did it, so I'll do it" method. Still, the interest in reform had set a new cadence with more and more farmers marching to it but the pace remained slow until after the Civil War. Dr. Clarence Poe, editor of the Progressive Farmer magazine, at age 18. Poe was an advocate ofimproved AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES COME INTO BEING agriculture andfarm life. Societies supportive of agriculture came into being shortly after the start of the nineteenth century. The Cape Fear Agricultural Society was founded in 1 8 1 at Wil-mington. Others followed with the Rowan County society one of the most active. It required each member to pledge "to turn his attention (as much as the situation will allow) to the study of agriculture, and on all occasions to impart to the society any improvements or discoveries he may make; also, to use every exertion in his power to procure correct models of the most approved farming implements in use in any part of the country." The Rowan society sponsored the first agricultural fair in the state in Salisbury in 1821. Success of the societies fostered interest and from the interest, a state-wide organi-zation evolved in 1818, the North Carolina Agricultural Society. Its primary aim was to promote farm reform. Decline of the societies set in, unfortunately, in the late 1820s. It is believed poor farm prices and lack ofmarkets were contributing factors. But interest in agricultural reform renewed in the years just before the Civil War. Improvements in transporta-tion, communication and markets were some of the causes. 13 Side-wheeler, thought to be the Cotton Plant on the Cape Fear River in 1851. King Cotton has made a comeback as at least a duke. WAR FARM PRODUCTION Cotton and tobacco showed sharp increases in production in the two decades pre-ceding the Civil War. Cotton had been in some decline since 1 825 but new agronomic practices seemed to cause the resurgence in the fiber. Flue-curing leaf was a factor in the tobacco upswing. Demand was good for the high quality, rich flavored leaf that took on the color of gold when subjected to the forced curing process. Self-sufficiency on the farm was the goal of many farmers and to do so meant that grain had to be produced. Corn could be grown successfully in every part of the state unlike several other cereals. Corn filled that bill because it was an ideal food for both man and beast. Wheat also became widespread, though heaviest production was in the Piedmont. Rice was grown only in the coastal areas and never became a major industry. Fruit had only slight commercial importance though apple growers took the crop seriously and won several awards during the 1850s. Vegetables had not reached great heights as money crops, but the quality and quantity improved during the sweep of agricul-tural reform. There seemed to be ample supplies for home use. Sweet potatoes were grown on a fairly large scale and were the most popular vegetable in North Carolina. Irish (white) potatoes were produced, too, but on a much smaller scale. Peanuts, which are now a leading money crop, were just beginning to prove themselves as a commercial commodity. Animal agriculture was big business during Colonial times. Surpluses were pro-duced primarily in cattle and swine. So much so, they were sold in Northern markets and the West Indies. By 1 820 circumstances had reversed so that the state was no lon-ger self-sufficient in livestock. The reasons were many. There was less range land due to widespread dirt farming; little attention had been paid to selective breeding; shel-ter and winter feeding were not considered important; farmers neglected to produce enough livestock for on-farm use and livestock management had not changed since the Colonial period. On the eve ofthe Civil War, 70 percent offarmers owned less than 1 00 acres. Thirty percent owned 500 acres, and they were the slave owners. Unlike the movies, in which everybody had slaves, only the rich minority were owners. This is an indication ofthe great socio-economic gap that existed between the classes in the state. It tells history students of North Carolina's leading industry, agriculture, that farm reform, educa-tion and transportation were essential to the healthy development of a productive Tarheelia. THE NEED The Civil War—and its destruction and "reconstruction" —devastated the econ-omy ofNorth Carolina. Agriculture, the mainstay ofthe state's slightly more than one million people, was severely stricken. Many farm families lost sons and fathers as well as farm property and livestock. The crops that were produced were poor and prices were low. After the war a system offarm tenancy developed which resulted in smaller farms with decreased efficiency. In an effort to combat these and other problems, farmers joined organizations such as the Patrons of Husbandry (the Grange) and the Farmers' Alliance. While these 14 organizations did give farmers a united voice for sounding their grievances, they did not solve many ofthe existing problems. To the majority of farmers, the most feasible solution seemed to be the establishment of an agricultural department as part of the state government. As early as 1 860 Governor John E. Ellis had urged the General Assembly to estab-lish a Board of Agriculture, but the request was ignored by legislators who were con-cerned primarily with the oncoming war. In 1 868 the foundation for the establishment of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture was laid when North Carolinans approved the state constitution by popu-lar vote. The constitution provided: "There shall be established in the office of the Secretary of State a Bureau of Statistics, Agriculture, and Immigration under such regulations as the General Assembly may provide." But this agency did not provide for the real needs of agriculture, and thus failed to receive the favor of farmers who still demanded an independent department. THE BEGINNING Satisfaction came, however, in 1 875 when the Constitutional Convention amend-ed the provision to read: "The General Assembly shall establish a Department of Agriculture, Immigration, and Statistics under such regulations as may best promote the agricultural interests of the state and shall enact laws for the adequate protection and encouragement of sheep husbandry." In March, 1 877, a bill to establish such a department was introduced in the General Assembly and passed. The event was heralded by The Observer, March 1 1 , 1 877, as follows: "The Depart-ment of Agriculture. The bill to establish this department has become law. This we believe to be the only instance in the history of the state in which the farmers, as a body, have come before the legislature for aid and protection, and to the credit of the legislature it may be said that they promptly gave them all that was asked for, though not exactly in the shape proposed by them." The original law enacted by the General Assembly provided for a seven-member Board of Agriculture to supervise the department's activities. The board was to be composed of the Governor, ex-officio chairman; the State Geologist; the Master of the State Grange; the president of the State Agricultural Society; the president of the State University at Chapel Hill, and two agriculturists. One of the board's first tasks was to select a commissioner to act as administrative head of the department. Chosen was Colonel Leonidas LaFayette Polk of Anson County who had been a moving spirit in the establishment of the NCDA. Polk, an outstanding agricultural leader and spokesman, (and later founder of the Progressive Farmer) was an obvious choice. For a salary of $2,000 a year, Polk was charged to carry out the following Rice fields on the Orton Plantation in 1890. The mansion can be seen in the background. 15 Washington Duke at his first tobacco factory in 1820 in Durham. Royster Guano Company of Tarboro in 1895. Fertilizer use increased due to education and agricultural associations. duties: 1 ) to find a means ofimproving sheep husbandry and curb high mortality rates caused by dogs; 2) to seek the causes of diseases among domestic animals, to quaran-tine sick stock, and to regulate transportation of all animals; 3) to seek to check insect ravages; 4) to foster new crops suited to various soils ofthe state; 5) to collect statistics on fences in North Carolina, with the object of altering the system in use; 6) to work with the U.S. Fish Commission in the protection and propagation of fish; 7) to send a report to the General Assembly each session; 8) to seek cooperation of other states on such matters as obstruction of fish in interstate waters; and 9) to make rules regu-lating the sale of feeds and fertilizers. In addition, the Department of Agriculture was to establish a chemical laboratory at the University ofNorth Carolina for testing fertilizers and to work with the Geolog-ical Survey in studying and analyzing the State's natural resources. The young department saw a number of changes in staff organization and Board of Agriculture representation. One of the most significant board changes occurred in 1883 when members were first chosen from each congressional district to represent the state's major agricultural interests. The last "non-farmer" was removed from the board in 1889, when a board member, not the governor, became chairman. In 1 899, the legislature provided for election ofa commissioner by the people ofthe state, not by the board. The first commissioner elected was Samuel L. Patterson of Caldwell County. Patterson had served earlier by board appointment. A PLACE TO CALL HOME The first official home ofthe Department ofAgriculture was the second story ofthe Briggs Building on Fayetteville Street in downtown Raleigh. With the office staff came the entire State Museum and Geological Survey. Other department employees were located at the Agricultural Experiment Station in Chapel Hill and in other office buildings in Raleigh. In 1881 the Board of Agriculture decided to bring all the divisions of the depart-ment together and bought the National Hotel property for $ 1 3,000. The hotel was on Edenton Street, the present site of the Agriculture Building. The building was later enlarged and remained the home ofthe department until 1 923 when the Edenton and Halifax streets parts ofthe building were torn down and the present neo-classic build-ing erected. A five-story annex was added to the main building in 1 954 to provide new quarters for the Natural History Museum and space for laboratories and offices. DEPARTMENT PROGRAMS: WHY AND WHEN Fertilizer Analysis Much deception and fraud were being practiced in the sale of fertilizers at the time the department was established. Dr. Albert Ledoux, the Department of Agriculture's first chemist, said that of the 1 08 brands of fertilizer sold in North Carolina in 1 876, some were "miserable stuff, others down-right swindles." He reported that one brand had been found to contain as much as 60 percent sand. It was natural then that one of the first responsibilities of the newly created Department of Agriculture would be fertilizer inspection and analysis. The original law provided that there should be an annual privilege tax of $500 for each brand sold. For several years, this tax was the sole source of revenue for all the programs of the department. However, the privilege tax was later contested and the courts ruled it unconstitutional. In its place, an inspection fee was levied by the legis-lature of 1 89 1 , with the stipulation that the revenue could be used only to support the fertilizer control program. Experiment Station The actual analysis of fertilizers was to be carried out by the Experiment Station in Chapel Hill. In addition, the Experiment Station was directed to conduct experi-ments on the nutrition and growth of plants, to ascertain which fertilizers were best suited to the crops of the state and if other crops could be grown on its soils, and to conduct any other investigations the department might propose. Created in 1 877 by the same act that created the Department ofAgriculture, the sta-tion was the first in the South and the second in the nation. The initial movement to set up field testing stations began in 1 885 when the Gener-al Assembly directed the Board of Agriculture to secure prices on lands and machine-ry. The board obtained 35 acres on the north side of Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, and the job of clearing land, laying out test plots, and constructing buildings began. The station was transferred from the NCDA to the newly created N.C. College of Agricultural and Mechanic Arts in 1889. The Hatch Act, which had provided funds of $15,000 to each state for agricultural research, had specified that the money be 16 An 1890 view of the Agricultural and Mechanical College for the Colored Race in Greensboro is now the Agricultural and Technical State University. directed to the land grant college. In establishing the A&M College, the General Assembly had provided that the college would receive all land-grant benefits. While the Department of Agriculture maintained its association with the station, it shifted its effort to establishing test farms in various locations across the state. The purpose was to experiment with different crop-fertilizer-soil combinations to find the most suitable for certain locations. The first two research stations were in Edgecombe and Robeson counties. State Museum As a result of legislation of 1 85 1 , a State Geologist was appointed by the Governor to retain samples of the minerals of the State. This collection, known as the Cabinet of Minerals, was housed on the third floor of the capitol prior to the Civil War. It formed the nucleus of the State Museum. After the museum was transferred to the Department of Agriculture, the legislature expanded its responsibilities to include the illustration of North Carolina's agricul-tural and other resources and its natural history. Much of the department's time and interest in the early days was directed toward immigration. The goal was to encourage the settling of good citizens in the rural sec-tions of the state and to advertise to the world the advantages of the soil, natural resources, and climate of the state. The department staff produced a number of cred-itable exhibits of resources and products of the state in Vienna, 1873; Atlanta, 1881; Boston, 1883; New Orleans, 1884; Raleigh, 1884; Chicago, 1893; Paris, 1900-1907; Charleston, 1901; St. Louis, 1904; Boston, 1906; and Jamestown, 1907. Many of these exhibits became permanent displays in the State Museum. At the state exposition of 1884, counties displayed their industrial and agricultural progress. Tobacco dominated this Durham County exhibit. Entomology Among the original duties given to the department were "investigations relative to the ravages of insects." However, until the late 1 880s, department reports declared a "remarkable exemption of the crops of the State" from insect pests. The situation changed considerably around 1 900 when pests, such as the San Jose Scale in orchards, began to move in. The San Jose Scale was called the "worst enemy of the deciduous fruits." The department responded by hiring an entomologist to work in conjunction with the alredy existing Commission for the Control of Crop Pests. A program of inspec-tion was begun, including inspection of the state's nurseries. Nurseries found to have no pest problems were certified as pest free. Another task of the entomologist's office was the establishment of an insect collec-tion. The collection documented the specimens found in the state and served as a use-ful tool in identifying pests for the public. The office was often successful in prescribing remedies to combat pest problems as illustrated in this letter from a North Carolina apple grower: I had more matured apples than I have had in one season for the past ten years ... All trees sprayed are as green, (or) nearly as green, now (October 14, 1 90 1 ) as they were in summer ... I sprayed one side of a large fall apple tree. The side sprayed is green today, while the other side has no leaves. To be brief, all trees sprayed are full of leaves, while those not sprayed are destitute ... I am very well pleased with my spraying, and next year will spray again more thoroughly than I did the past spring. The honey and bee program began in 1916 with authority from the legislature to conduct investigations to promote the improvement of the honey bee industry and especially investigations relating to diseases of bees. it An early view ofthe State College ofAgriculture and Mechanical Arts in Raleigh, now known as North Carolina State University. Farmers Institutes In 1 887, the General Assembly had instructed the Board of Agriculture to "cooper-ate and aid in the formation of Farmers' Institutes in all the counties of the State." These institutes were an early attempt at educating the farmer in areas such as con-serving the nutrients of the soil, diversification of crops, and modern methods of dairying. To carry out the institutes, the board was to send the Commissioner of Agriculture and other agricultural representatives to every county in the state at least once every two years. In 1 906 the first institutes for women were begun, with the purpose of upgrading farm conditions and farm life. North Carolina was the first southern state to offer such a program for women. While the institutes that were held proved to be quite effective, the agricultural leaders who were charged to conduct them found it difficult to meet the heavy travel schedule. The most successful organization therefore developed from individuals on the local level who banded together to form ongoing educational programs. These institutes were the forerunners of the Agricultural Extension program in the state. N.C. College ofAgricultural and Mechanic Arts The N.C. College ofAgricultural and Mechanic Arts was an offspring ofthe Depart-ment ofAgriculture. In 1 887 the board began seeking donations for the establishment of an industrial college and looking for sites. A 3'/2-acre lot in the northwest part of Raleigh was purchased for $2, 1 00. "Brad's Drink" created by Calab Bradham became "Pepsi- Cola." Bradham's assistant, R.F. Butler, stands in front of the pharmacy in New Bern where the soft drink was invented. Subsequently, R. Stanhope Pullen donated a sixty-acre site near a proposed park, and the gift was gratefully accepted. The college opened in 1889 with eighty-five students. All the funds for building, equipment, and maintenance were furnished by the board. In 1 892, the General Assembly separated the college from the Department of Agri-culture and made it a distinct corporation. Veterinary Even though the original act establishing the Department of Agriculture called for animal health protection, it was 1898 before a State Veterinarian was appointed. Chosen for the position was Dr. Cooper Curtice of Columbia Veterinary College. Dr. Curtice launched an investigation of the cattle tick and was able to show that the tick was a carrier of Texas fever. Not only was this the first step toward eradication of the fever, but it was also the first time that anyone had proven that parasites are capable of transmitting disease in mammals. Curtice's work set the pattern for similar investigations into human dis-eases. Another threat to livestock at the time the veterinary program was begun was hog cholera, which had first been reported in the state in 1859. By 1877, it was killing one out of every nine hogs each year, and many years were to pass before control efforts would be successful. In the early days, the State Veterinarian was not only concerned with animal pro-tection but also with promotion of livestock. The idea was that more livestock would improve soil fertility and better livestock would increast profit. Eventually this responsibility was given to a separate division in the department. In 1 925 the department was charged with the supervision of slaughtering and meat packing establishments in the state. This service was not compulsory at that time, but it did enable any establishiment that chose to use it, to sell anywhere within the state without further inspection by a city or town. Food Protection Under the first elected commissioner, Samuel L. Patterson, the department was given more regulatory duties. One of these was the administration of the Pure Food Law, passed by the General Assembly in 1 899. The purpose of this law was to prevent the adulteration and misbranding of food and drink for both humans and animals. G.G. Viverette ofHalifax County brought his tobacco to a Rocky Mount warehouse in the state's first automobile-drawn trailer in 1913. North Carolina ranks number 2 nationally in cu-cumbers for pickling. The food program was placed under the Chemistry Division with B.W. Kilgore as State Chemist. In the beginning Dr. Kilgore sought to study existing conditions and to educate manufacturers so they could comply with the law. In 1 900 a survey across the state revealed that over 50 percent of all canned vegetables were adulterated with harmful preservatives. With the enforcement of the Pure Food Law, however, the percentage of adulteration decreased to 1 7 percent in four years. Cattle and stock feeds were also inspected and found to be of a low grade. A few even contained poisonous substances. The first analyses showed a large amount of worthless material used in the stock feeds as a filler. In reference to the success of the stock feed program, Commissioner Patterson said, "It has already worked beneficent results, for shameful frauds had been practiced upon our brute friends, who had no voice to protest against them." Gasoline and Oil Inspection The first laws relating to petroleum products were passed in 1903, at which time heating oil, "kerosene," was being used primarily for lighting. Some of this product contained such large amounts ofsulphur that it was found to be a health hazard as well as causing deterioration of various fabrics and other materials. By 1 9 1 7 the department was also given the responsibility ofenforcing the Gasoline Law. This law applied to gasoline and other liquids used for heating or power pur-poses. According to an official of the department at that time, the law was "enforced with considerable difficulty." At the time the program began, many companies were trying to sell low grades for the same price as higher grades. Seed Testing The testing of seeds for germination and purity actually began with the early work of the Experiment Station. However, it was 1 909 before a seed law was passed and a program established for seed analysis. To assist in the seed program, Miss O.I. Tillman, a seed specialist, was sent to Raleigh by the United States Department of Agriculture. Every firm selling seeds in the state was required to pay a license of $25.00 to defray the costs of inspection. The law specified which weed seeds could not be sold in seed mixtures. Of the first seed samples collected, 70 percent of the dealers were found to be han-dling seeds below state standards. By 1914 the test service had gained respect and farmers were voluntarily sending in their seeds for purity and germination tests. A guiding force in the operation ofthe seed laboratory was Miss Suzie D. Allen who was laboratory supervisor for forty years. During her tenure, the seed testing program was removed from the Division of Botany and became a separate division. Markets The marketing service began in 1 9 1 3 as the "Division ofCooperative Marketing." Its early work involved compiling lists of dealers of farm products and finding mar-kets for North Carolina sweet potatoes, butter, and apples. A market news service was begun for cotton and cottonseed. A few years later the division begun putting much time into helping local farmers organize into cooperative marketing organizations. A very popular project of the Markets Division in the early 1 900s was the publica-tion of the Farmers' Market Bulletin, later called the Market News. This publication included articles on the marketing conditions of certain crops, as well as agricultural items for sale. By 1 924 Market News reported that the division had eight branches: livestock and poultry; fruits and vegetables; farm crops; statistical reports; market news service; rural organization; farm financing through cooperative banks; and a state warehouse system. Information Office The need for communication between the Department ofAgriculture and the agri-cultural public it served was evident from the beginning. In 1 877, Commissioner Polk started a weekly farm paper called The Farmer and Mechanic. This paper eventually became independent and was replaced by The Bulletin ofthe North Carolina Department ofAgriculture. The Biennial Report of 1891 referred to the Bulletin as "the mouthpiece of the Board which goes to the homes of the people." The first purpose of the Bulletin was to inform farmers of fertilizer analyses so they could judge their money value. Soon, however, the Bulletin expanded into all areas of agricultural production, and it became necessary to hire a bulletin superintendent. In 1914 an information office 20 vas set up to coordinate a news service for the Department of Agriculture and the State Agricultural and Engineering College. This arrangement ended in 1925 when ;he agricultural extension service, which had been a joint program of the department ind the college, was moved entirely to the college. In that same year the Publications Division began to publish the Agricultural Review a semi-monthly paper which is still serving farmers and agri-business interests today. State Warehouse System At the beginning of World War I, cotton was difficult to sell and could not be used as collateral for borrowing. There were few warehouses to store it in until market prices improved. The limited number that did exist were in large cities and inaccessi-ble to most farmers. To protect the financial interests of cotton growers, the legislature of 1 9 1 9 passed a law creating a state warehouse system. The system established a guarantee fund so that a warehouse receipt would be universally accepted as collateral. The Warehouse Act was later amended to benefit other commodities including grain and sweet potatoes. Currently, warehouses operate under the federal system. Hand-tied leaf is sold at a 1926 tobacco auction in Wilson. Crop Statistics Even though the original title of the department included "statistics," the intent was mainly to collect statistics relating to farm fences. Commissioner Polk did try sending forms to farmers, asking them to list their taxable assets and their crop pro-duction, but most forms were never returned and the few that came in were incom-plete. By 1 887, it was apparent to Commissioner John Robinson that a statistical service was needed. In the Biennial Report he wrote: "The means ofacquiring statistical information are very inadequate. Such infor-mation is one of the necessities of the times. There are frequent calls upon this office for such statistics, the applicants thinking that we had the information for distribution, and they were warranted in expecting to find correct information in regard to agricultural products in this office." In 1916, Frank Parker, a representative of the Federal Crop Reporting Service began statistical work in cooperation with the State Department of Agriculture. Three years later he moved his office to the Agriculture Building and became the director of the Agricultural Statistics Division. The Farm Census was begun on a voluntary basis in 1 9 1 8 and became law in 1 92 1 . Home cooking the North Carolina staple, pork barbecue! The on-farm value of the hog business is $438 million. Small grains are an economic necessity to North Car-olina. 21 A home economics class in the early days of the discipline. Dairy Products Because the wholesomeness of dairy products was of vital importance to each citi-zen of the state, a law was passed in 1921 giving the Department of Agriculture authority to inspect dairy products and plants. The Food and Oil Division was desig-nated to carry out this law by checking plants for sanitation and products for purity. The division was also made responsible for checking the butterfat tests used in the purchase of milk and cream from producers by creameries and factories. Between 1928 and 1930, a separate dairy division was created to assume these activities. It was 1 947, however, before the division gained the real authority it need-ed to provide stability to the dairy industry and to insure a wholesome milk supply for consumers. In that year, the Board of Agriculture adopted statewide standards for milk and other dairy products. This was an important step in eliminating local trade barriers and making production and processing more uniform. Wheat threshing and hay baling on the Fred Oliverfarm near Charlotte. The combine under the shed did both chores. Weight and Measures Inspection The department's involvement with the inspection of weighing and measuring devices began with the enactment of the Uniform Weights and Measures Law in 1927. It was felt at that time that the regulations of weights and measures should be directly under an elected official. The 1 927 law provided that the inspection program be funded by fees collected from those inspected, but opposition led to an amendment in 1931 that provided for the inspection work to be supported by an appropriation from the General Assembly. The change made it possible to conduct inspections more than once a year, in order to more efficiently eliminate fraudulent practices. Among the early responsibilities of this division were the approval of all weighing and measuring devices as to type and operation before they could be distributed for use; regulation of the sale of ice; regulation of the sale and distribution of coal, coke, and charcoal; insuring that all scales were placed in plain view of the customer, and Ifyou believe you've seen everything, take a look at the pig races at the North Carolina State Robin Watson, an NCDA regional agronomist, Fair. pulls a soil sample for free nutrient need testing. N.C. State Fair The first State Fair, held in November, 1853, was sponsored by the State Agricul-tural Society. The site was about 1 blocks east of the Capitol in Raleigh. In 1873 the fair was moved to a 53-acre lot on Hillsboro Road, near the present Raleigh Little Theatre. The Society poured approximately $50,000 into the development of the grounds. In all, the Agricultural Society sponsored the State Fair for 73 years, with interrup-tions during the Civil War and Reconstruction period. Among the most famous guests of the fair during the Society's sponsorship were Theodore Roosevelt in 1 905 and William Jennings Bryan in 1907. By 1 924, the Society asked for aid from the State and the City of Raleigh. A State Fair Board was appointed, and in a few years the fair was moved to its present site on the west side of Raleigh. In 1 930 the State Fair was first placed under the Department's administration. For a few years the department leased out the operation commercially, but in 1937, Com-missioner Kerr Scott decided that the management should be directly under the department. Dr. J.S. Dorton was chosen as manager, and the fair first began to show profits. Soil Testing The Department of Agriculture demonstrated an interest in soils from its earliest years. Much of the soil work was conducted by the office of the State Chemist. This office worked with the United States Bureau of Soils in surveying the soils of each county and collecting samples for analysis. In addition to chemical analysis, the office set up plot tests on each important soil type in the state. These plots demonstrated to the people of the state the benefits of various types of fertilizers and crop rotation. 23 It was 1 938, however, before the General Assembly passed a law establishing a Soil Testing Division in the department. This division was set up to accept soil samples from growers and homeowners across the state for analysis and to furnish them with information on their fertilizer needs. Much time had to be spent in educating the pub-lic on the availability of the service. In the first fiscal year, 70,000 different tests were made on approximately 6,500 soil samples. Food Distribution Modem tobacco cultivation. In 1944, the department began a cooperative effort with the U.S. Department of Agriculture to receive and distribute surplus agricultural commodities. Such com-modities as evaporated milk, potatoes, beets, eggs, and grapefruit juice were sent to public schools for supplementing meals. Not only did the school benefit by being able to serve low cost meals, but the program helped hold agricultural prices at or above levels acceptable to producers. In a few years, the distribution of the products was expanded to other recipients such as camps, child care centers, and charitable institutions. Pesticides In the 1 940s, pesticides began to appear in large numbers and in broader effective-ness. Added to the agricultural insecticides and fungicides already on the market were various weed and grass poisons, defoliating chemicals, chemicals to control the pre-mature falling of fruits, and new and more powerful insect and rodent poisons. It was obvious that these products needed special attention to assure reasonable effective-ness, safety, and fair-dealing. The General Assembly responded to these needs by passing the Insecticide, Fungi-cide, and Rodenticide Act of 1947. Under this law, the Department of Agriculture was charged with the registration of all pesticide brands to prevent misbranding and adulteration. Examinations were made of pesticide labels to insure that the percent-age ofeach active ingredient and total inert matter were indicated and that other label statements were acceptable. In 1953 the department began licensing contractors and pilots for the aerial appli-cation of pesticides. Structural Pest Control Public concern for the unethical practices ofsome structural pest control operators in the state led to the enactment of the N.C. Structural Pest Control Law by the 1 955 General Assembly. The intention of the law was to protect consumers and the pest (Above) A hand planter eliminates much of tobacco's backbreaking work. (Right) First cotton mill in North Carolina, built by Michael Schency in 1813 in Lincolnton. TOA' !M| 1.1. IN /VOKTH ' ^7 24 control industry since the fraudulent practices of a few operators could reflect harm-fully on the many honest operators in business. The law created a policy-making board called the Structural Pest Control Commis-sion and gave the Department of Agriculture responsibility for the inspection of the work of structural pest control operations. In 1967 the law was revised, abolishing the commission and creating a Structural Pest Control Division in the department with the responsibility of administering the law under the Commissioner of Agriculture. A structural pest control committee was set up to make necessary rules and regulations and to hold hearings relating to viola-tors of the law. State Farmers Market Prior to 1955, fruit and vegetable dealers were scattered all across Raleigh. To improve this situation, a large market facility was established on a 1 8.5-acre site near U.S. 1 in Raleigh. The market, which was at that time privately owned, provided room for both individual farmers and wholesalers. In 1958, the farmers' portion of the market was taken over by the Department of Agriculture, State College, and the Department of Conservation and Development. In 1961, the NCDA purchased the facility to be run as a state market. Within the first year, the market was operating entirely on its own receipts and had paid the first annual installment on the purchase price, as well as paying for extensive repairs and some additions. The market, located at a central point between the mountains and the coast, prom-ised farmers a profitable outlet for their produce and consumers fresh produce year around. State Farms Until 1 974 a number of farms were owned and operated by the departments of Human Resources and Correction. The legislature then transferred the farm lands to the Department of Agriculture for operation until the best use of the land could be ascertained. The purpose ofthe farms is twofold: to provide a good supply offood, economically produced, for residents of institutions and to provide facilities and animals for research conducted by North Carolina State University. There are currently five large farms and seven small farms. Most of the food pro- . . _ . , _ ... duced goes to state mental health centers. J"mes A Graham North Carolina s present ° Commissioner oj Agriculture. NCDA TODAY During its first 100 years of service, the Department of Agriculture has continued to add new services and to improve and expand existing ones. Major program changes include the following: When the Experiment Station was moved to N.C. State University, the department began to refer to the outlying test stations as research stations. Today there are fifteen agricultural research stations in the state, covering nearly every climate, soil, and pop-ulation center important to North Carolina farming. The stations are a cooperative effort on the part ofthe N.C. Department ofAgriculture, the N.C. Experiment Station at N.C. State University and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The NCDA owns nine stations and provides administrative support. The other six stations are owned by the Experiment Station, which provides project leaders to con-duct research. The USDA supplies some funds and project leaders. The Museum of Natural History has increased its service to the public and to the scientific community, not only through new and updated exhibits, but also with more intensive work in research and education. An additional responsibility is the admin-istration of the Maritime Museum in Beaufort. The Markets Division has expanded its advisory services to provide assistance in areas such as harvesting, handling, sorting, packing, storing, transporting and pricing of products. The division is constantly seeking new markets, both domestic and for-eign, for the state's farm products. In addition, the division is the only authorized agency in the state for reporting official market price information and for determin-ing and certifying the official grade on farm products. Three farmers' markets operated by the NCDA in Raleigh, Asheville and Charlotte offer customers fresh produce direct from farmers and warehouse space for food wholesalers. Promotion plays a leading role in marketing. Two major programs are Flavors ofCarolina, a nationwide activity that lets buyers "taste-test" North Carolina food products, and Goodness Grows in North Carolina, a method by which Tar Heel food products are identified for consumers. 25 i What goes around, comes around. True of wind power in 1890 and 99 years later. This windmill was at Beaufort. J t German, Dutch, Polish, Russian and Italian farmers establish themselves at Castle Hayne, Van Eden, St. Helena and Terra Ceia from 1914 to 1920. Hard work and grape production were part of the European culture. The Animal Health Division has been authorized to inspect livestock markets to see that animals have received proper tests and vaccinations and to insure that sick animals are not offered for sale. Nine animal disease diagnostic laboratories have been set up across the state to serve farmers, practicing veterinarians, animal health personnel, and pet owners. In addition, the inspection of meat and poultry facilities has been made compulsory. The department inspects all plants that ship within the state and performs some inspections for interstate shipment under a cooperative arrangement with the federal government. The department has continued to monitor the manufacture ofanimal feeds and pet foods, with greater emphasis in recent years being put on those products to which drugs have been added. Forage feeds are also tested for nutrition. The seed testing program has become nationally recognized for its interest in refined germination techniques and for its field staff of inspectors trained for field analysis. The laboratory tests more samples and more kinds of seeds than most labo-ratories in the nation. Endophyte testing is employed to protect livestock from the fungus that causes sev-eral problems including tail rot and abortion. Fertilizers are tested to detect contami-nation that could injure plants. Sewage sludge and animal wastes are also tested for nutrient content and contaminants. The services ofthe soil testing laboratory have been expanded to include plant anal-ysis and nematode testing. These three services now compose the Agronomic Services Division. In addition to providing these three services to all the citizens ofNorth Car-olina, the division carries out methodology research and educational programs. Pos-sible groundwater contamination has gotten the attention of the NCDA. In concert with the state departments of Natural Resources and Community Development and Health Services, the three agencies are exploring a testing program. Broader responsibility in controlling pesticides was given to the department under the Pesticide Law of 1971. The NCDA licenses pesticide applicators, dealers, and consultants and makes inspections and takes samples at all levels ofpesticide produc-tion, sales and use. The 1971 law also provided for a seven-member Pesticide Board which acts as a policy-making body. From the initiation of the entomology program, the duties and responsibilities of the department have expanded to include the total area of plant protection. Programs dealing with insects, diseases, and weeds have become more sophisticated and encompass such tools as integrating pest management and biological agents for the control of pests. Such agents include insect parasites which are reared at the pest con-trol laboratory for release on other pest insects. The NCDA is currently developing regulations for biochemical use. The Rural Rehabilitation Corporation was transferred to the NCDA in 1971. The corporation finances rural undertakings and enterprises through low interest loans. The department has also been designated to collect and hold assessments for agri-cultural promotional organizations and foundations. As a result ofthe internal reorganization ofthe Department ofAgriculture in 1 972, three administrative offices were established: Agribusiness, Fiscal Management, and Consumer Services. With two exceptions, all department programs were placed under these offices. The exceptions include the Office of Public Affairs, which pro-vides informational services for all programs, and the Environmental Affairs Office which was added in 1974. The State Board of Agriculture is still the policy-making body of the department. The board adopts regulations under the powers conferred upon it by the General Assembly. There are ten members of the board, with the Commissioner of Agricul-ture serving as ex-officio chairman. ESTABLISHMENT OF NCDA/NCSU SPURS CHANGE Change was rapid following the establishment of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture. The industrial revolution was underway and that put a new slant on farming. Mechanization was encouraged though the real effect of it would not be realized until after the turn of the century. Action in agriculture might well have been the slogan for the late 1 9th Century. The dual emergence of the NCDA and what is now North Carolina State University were probably the most remarkable events that have ever happened in North Carolina farming. Both were mandates of the Legislature. When the North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts opened in 1 899, agriculture had little scientific background. But as that background developed, and the NCDA and the college (now N.C. State University) evolved, the two agencies began to duplicate activities. To avoid doing the same job, they agreed on March 10, 1911 to cooperate. 26 The Commissioner of Agriculture and the president of the college along with their respective committees passed a resolution that said: "All the scientific experimental work of the two institutions will hereafter be consolidated with one experiment sta-tion, under a director and a vice director, and with the director's office at the Col-lege." The General Assembly made it law. Evolution of the two agencies continued with consolidations of responsibilities. Some went to the NCSU and some to the NCDA. Education and extension went to the (now) university. Marketing came to be the job of the department of agriculture, along with the other duties mentioned earlier. Today, the two institutions jointly operate agricultural research and cooperate in many other areas even though their charges are clearly defined. Home plate had been put in place. Agriculture in North Carolina had a base; gov-ernmental and educational. But who would have predicted in those days the enor-mous impact the dual institutions would have on the economy in the coming century. The Civil War was over and with it the abolition of slavery. These two events brought on radical economic change throughout the Confederacy and North Carolina was no exception. An almost feudal system of tenant farming arose to fill the labor vacuum; a system that remained well into the 20th Century. MACHINES TAKE TO THE LAND Large landholders provided acreage and dwellings for tenants who farmed on shares with their landlords. As time went on, however, many of the tenants were able to buy their own farms and a new system of small farms developed. During this period between the war and 1 900, remarkable breakthroughs in technology, such as electric lights, the telephone and the automobile were signaling even more radical change. Horseless carriages as they were called probably had the most immediate effect on agriculture. Many an engineer of the day saw its first cousin, the tractor, doing the work of animals. But it was a little slower era and things took time. Tractors began to show up in the early 1 900s. They were largely experimental, driv-en by both steam and internal combustion engines. Obviously, only the well-to-do farmers could afford such luxury and many of them were skeptical. But during the 1920s the iron-wheeled monsters could be seen once in a while. Still, animal power, particularly the mule, was the farm machine well into the 1950s. No doubt, the Depression of the 1930s and World War II threw a body block on farm technology yet that same war gave agriculture a quantum leap when it ended. From it emerged chemicals, tools, machines, and buildings in shapes, sizes and ability undreamed of. Even better, they were available and affordable. The post-war boom had not bypassed rural North Carolina. Even as the war had held up civilian progress temporarily, the Great Depression had a similar effect on the economy. Following the years of 1 94 1 through 1 945, pro-duction capacity in all areas burst upon the nation like a ruptured dam. During the depression, forces were set in motion that would play possibly an even greater role in agriculture. Those forces were called federal farm programs. NEW DEAL CHANGES FACE OF AGRICULTURE The three affecting North Carolina the most were tobacco, peanuts and cotton. During the New Deal era, President Franklin D. Roosevelt realized that supply was killing demand for certain farm commodities. Tobacco, peanuts and cotton were mainstays, yet over production was price-killing. As a result, acreage allotments were granted to producers. In the 1 960s these allotments were modified to include pound-age restrictions. For North Carolina, it turned an economic corner unequaled. Farmers began to show a profit and the tobacco and peanut programs became the most successful farm programs before or since. King cotton began a decline in the state in the 1 950s and tobacco became the new king. Tobacco farmers became so good at their work that it was necessary in 1 964 to put poundage restrictions on production. It was about this time that the surgeon gen-eral decided cigarette smoking was harmful to health. In the following years, the debate on the health question raged and cigarette consumption did decline. Still, in the mid 1 970s, farmers grossed $ 1 billion from the leaf. Tobacco remains the leading field crop and North Carolina leads the nation in its production. Cotton, though down, was not out and with the advent of the federal-state and far-mer boll weevil eradication program, North Carolina is a ranking cotton producer. Peanuts are another high and reliable source of farm income with an annual farm gross of $ 13 1 million. The state ranks fourth in peanut production. Garrett and Company winery in Halifax County, out ofbusiness because prohibition in North Carolina became law in 1908. Mountain beefcattle as they used to be. 27 State Agriculture building as it appeared in the mid- 1950s. | Tar Heel cornucopia. s Other boomers for the later halfofthe 20th Century are livestock and poultry. Poul-try is another $ 1 billion industry with livestock approaching three-quarters of a bil-lion dollars. TODAY'S DIVERSIFICATION Crop listings for Tarheelia go on and on to the extent North Carolina is the third most diversified agricultural state in the union. It leads the other 49 in flue-cured tobacco, total tobacco (includes burley), turkeys and sweet potatoes. It is second in cucumbers for pickles, third in burley tobacco and poultry. Peanuts rank fourth; hogs, eighth and corn, soybeans and small grains are big crops. Colonial times saw fruits and vegetables as big crops with no markets. They are still big crops but now there are markets. In fact, aggressive marketing by the NCDA in cooperation with commodity groups, farmers, food dealers, NCSU and various state and federal agencies have given North Carolina agriculture unprecedented outlets nationally and internationally for virtually all of its produce. Agribusiness has equally prospered in North Carolina. Production, processing, packaging and marketing companies have flourished. Many are based here. These include livestock, poultry, grain, tobacco, vegetable, seafood and winemaking firms. The list is expected to grow as the result of demonstrated success. Of course, all was not without planned effort and some setback. Little more than 100 years ago, Colonel Leonidas LaFayette Polk set the stage and James Allen Gra-ham, the present commissioner of agriculture had added a few acts of his own. When he took office in 1 964, farm profit, crop diversification, marketing, animal health and plant health took center stage. Farm profit depended on the latter four. Hog cholera would soon become a major problem in the 1970s but Jim Graham, his veterinary staff, the state swine industry and the U.S. Department of Agriculture teamed and defeated it. The state is now hog cholera-free. Brucellosis and TB in cattle got similar treatment. During his administration, the poultry industry has been virtually free of serious disease and he is now waging war on swine pseudorabies. Departmental marketing programs have moved from doing the job to looking for jobs to do. In the last few years, NCDA marketing specialists have become product-wise to every commodity grown, packaged or processed in the state. No farm item is too small or too large to receive the attention of the marketing division. Experts in foreign and domestic trade focus on livestock to asparagus along with grains, fruits, vegetables, poultry, fiber and tobacco. Commodities are sold by placing buyer and seller together through trade shows, foreign sales trips, domestic promo-tions, taste-test receptions and direct contracts. Two of the more recent programs are "Flavors of Carolina," buyer-seller meetings held across the U.S., and "Goodness Grows in North Carolina," an official designa-tion of North Carolina agricultural products. The system works to the tune of export sales at $ 1 billion a year and a state agricul-tural industry worth up to $ 16 billion from farm to dinner table. Diversification played only a minor role in the state's farm scene during most ofthe 20th century, but in the last 20 years, it has received top billing. Seafood, including catfish, trout, bass, eel, crawfish and shellfish farming are on or are nearly on the menu. Other new or experimental crops are Christmas trees, ginseng, ornamentals, sunflowers, kenaf, herbs, grapes and exotic animals. These crops and others on the drawing board keep marketing viable. They also require the support troops ofthe NCDA's other divisions, NCSU, the USDA, agribu-siness and the all-important farmers. Success and continued success is almost assured because of cooperation by these agencies. It must be understood that North Carolina is not a one-crop state. Often the charge is leveled that tobacco is the alpha and omega ofTar Heel agriculture. That is not so. Tobacco is the largest crop but of the $4 billion gross farm income, three-fourths of that comes from virtually everything but tobacco. The gap should continue to widen as more new crops are introduced and markets increase for existing commodities. Beginning at any point in the history of North Carolina's 2,500 year civilization, it would be impossible to ignore agriculture. Granted, the 01' North State has made uncountable contributions to uncountable disciplines, professions, trades and arts. All civilizations begin with agriculture but with many, it moves way down the list eco-nomically. Yet, agriculture through all time, has remained North Carolina's number one industry. By taking care of man's primal need, food, all else became possible. Two thousand five-hundred years ago civilization began in what is now North Car-olina. That was the day the gatherers became growers. That was the day the Indian put down literal and figurative roots making one place his home. Five hundred years later foreigners from the east dug in with an agrarian economy ... an economy that remains the bedrock industry of North Carolina today. 28 MANUFACTURED B Y ^5 GRANI//LLE COUNTY Farmer's Alliance TOMCCO MANUFACTURING (5 OXFQHD M E-THE ONLY GENUINE ail/ance tubAnna IN THE WORLD ! TAILOR COTTON PRESS, MANUFACTURED BY Seaboard, Northampton Co., N. C. ADVANCE PHINT, WILSCN N C Century Farm Owners 29 Century Farm Owners ALAMANCE James Phillip Aldridge George C. Allen Emma B. Allen C.K. Bailey Howard T. Braxton Bobby E. Coggins Mr. Ray Coon Mrs. Ray Coon William F. Covington Mrs. Jesse J. Danieley Lucy Sharpe Davis Edward Kerr Freshwater Robert W. Gibson, Jr. Koy C. Ingle Grover Russell Isley Ralph K. Isley Mr. James P. McPherson Mrs. James P. McPherson Howard A. Pickett George O. Rogers, Jr. Earl M. Sartin, Jr. Grover C. Shaw George N. Zachary, Jr. ALEXANDER Atwell Alexander Albert Hubbard Rowena Hubbard J. Woodrow Payne Coy Reese Dale Reese Mrs. Lelia T. Wagner Helen M. Wike Walter D. Doughton Philip Martell James Martell Elizabeth M. Moxley ANSON Bertha Carpenter Mary Elizabeth Carpenter Nancy I. Landen T.J. Ingram, Jr. Elizabeth I. Little (heirs) Cecil F. Steagall Marvin L. Tyson Annie L. Tyson ASHE G. Earl Blevins Virgle Brown Lorene Brown Clyde Cox Mary Sue D'Alcamo Sara S. Fisher James Gwyn Gambill Elizabeth R. Graybeal Linda G. Hahn Alfred B. Hurt, Jr. Bruce Miller Robert J. Osborne Clara D. Perkins Joseph Phipps Katherine Phipps Mrs. Eleanor B. Reeves J. Breece Spencer Martin Sturgill Wilma Sturgill John E. Woodie AVERY William W. Avery Jason P. Hughes BEAUFORT Jane Latham Dilday LP. Hodges R.R. Leggett, Sr. Ada L. Mizell Arthur S. Perkins Burlington Graham Snow Camp Snow Camp Graham Graham Mebane Burlington Burlington Haw River Mebane Burlington Burlington Snow Camp Snow Camp Burlington Graham Burlington Graham Snow Camp Stony Point Taylorsville Taylorsville Taylorsville Taylorsville Taylorsville Taylorsville Sparta Marinette, WI Laurel Springs Wadesboro Lilesville Wadesboro Peachland Wadesboro Crumpler Crumpler Laurel Springs Grassy Creek Laurel Springs West Jefferson West Jefferson West Jefferson Crumpler Lansing Creston Lansing Jefferson West Jefferson Lansing Creston Sparta Plumtree Linville Belhaven Washington Washington Greenville Robersonville Joseph E. Ratcliff Timothy Sanderson Alice Sanderson BERTIE Mrs. Mary E. Barnes Joseph M. Browne, III Johnna R. Browne Lindsey Chamblee Lula Mae Chamblee Olga Butler Wm. Hoggard Melvin R. Cobb, Sr. Robert Holley Sallie Holley Cecil S. Holloman, Sr. Mac W. Lawrence Edwin M. Parker Mrs. Harold R. Sessoms BLADEN Ottis Lee Cain Thelma Cromartie Sophia K. Floyd Eugene R. Floyd, Sr. Mrs. John F. Freeman Jabe T. Frink William L. Frink Fleta L. Harrelson Ida Irvine Edna Robeson W.H. Taft McCall Dorothy Burney Rose G. McDougald F.D. McLean (heirs) Robert F. Melvin Mary B. Odom James M. Gibson Annie R. Parker Margaret G. Watts Nellie Ray Parker Mr. Henry Layton Ross Mrs. Henry Layton Ross Albert Roy Shaw Issac W. Singletary Sarah K. Singletary Julius M. Suggs BRUNSWICK Glenn E. Carpenter, Jr. Edwin S. Clemmons T.J. Gilbert BUNCOMBE Carter F. Brown Thomas William Cochran Craig MacKenzie Coggins Jesse L. Israel, Jr. F.M. Miller Clyde Parker Sandra Parker Irene E. Peeke M. Catherine Peeke BURKE Vernon Guy Huffman Ivey E. Lowman Norman E. Lowman James H. Martin David McGimsey Margaret E. McGimsey Robert B. Sisk Albert G. Wilson CABARRUS George Barnhardt Margie Barnhardt Eugene W. Cochrane, Sr. J. Vigil Hahn W. Reid Honeycutt Amanda K. Miller Mrs. J.F. Moose Pantego Bath Kelford Kelford Aulander Merry Hil Colerain Ahoskie Colerain Windsor Ahoskie Elizabethtown Elizabethtown Kelly Bladenboro Bladenboro Bladenboro Clarkton Tar Heel Clarkton Clarkton Lake Waccamaw Fayetteville Clinton Elizabethtown Elizabethtown Clarkton Bladenboro Elizabethtown Supply Supply Bolivia Leicester Arden Black Mountain Candler Candler Weaverville Weaverville Connelly Springs Valdese Valdese Hickory Morganton Morganton Connelly Springs Mt. Pleasant Charlotte Mt. Pleasant Gold Hill Concord Mt. Pleasant 30 Century Farm Owners Willard Moose Annie W. Peninger Carl D. Pless, Sr. George L. Pless Wade H. Ritchie, Jr. Edith Walker Sarah E. Walker CALDWELL Brenda Swanson Bartles Mrs. Ruby Carlton Margaret Carter-Minton Margaret S. Dabrowski Mrs. Hill C. Lackey Ray C. Starnes Howard Teague Mary Teague Lois S. Whisenant Rick Winkler Amanda Winkler CAMDEN Albertson Farms, Inc. H.C. Ferebee III John E. Ferebee H.T. Mullen, Jr. Rebecca M. Tarkington Sarah T. Walston Charles B. Williams Mrs. Rebecca Williams CARTERET Archie R. Hardesty Leslie D. Springle, Jr. CASWELL Ralph Aldridge Lillie H. Allred Bessie M. Bradsher Novella Earp S.N. Rice Spencer T. Richmond Otis F. Saunders Charles Franklin Smith W. Osmond Smith, Jr. Mr. Edwin Thompson Mrs. Edwin Thompson William McNeill Turner CATAWBA Louie D. Baker Alma H. Baker Elizabeth Burnette John K. Cline Thomas W. Danner, Sr. Samuel Eckard, Sr. John Lewis Hewitt, Sr. Earl H. Moose Howard B. Reinhardt Dalthard L. Sigmon Oliver D. Smiih Thomas W. Warlick Martha W. Brame CHATHAM Betty Jo Amick Walter M. Atwater Paul G. Bright Walter R. Clark Tommy Elkins Louise Ellis John S. Glosson Norman A. Jordan T.C. Justice, Sr. Louis C. Kidd C.W. Lutterloh J. Lamont Norwood Alfred O'Daniel Barbara T. Proffitt Gene F. Sears Grady O. Vestal Catherine E. Vestal Mt. Pleasant Mt. Pleasant Rockwell Rockwell Concord Concord Lenoir Lenoir Lenoir Lenoir Lenoir Granite Falls Taylorsville Granite Falls Granite Falls South Mills Camden Elizabeth City Chester, VA Camden Shiloh Elizabeth City Newport Beaufort Yanceyville Elon College Monroe Milton Reidsville Leasburg Elon College Leasburg Semora Blanch Yanceyville Rural Hall Newton Lincolnton Catawba Hickory Clareinont Conover Maiden Hickory Conover Wilkesboro Pittsboro Chapel Hill Sanford Pittsboro Goldston Raleigh Pittsboro Siler City Pittsboro Bennett Pittsboro Pittsboro Chapel Hill Siler City Apex Siler City J.G. Williams A.R. Wilson Cecil Wilson Juanita Clegg Burdine Womble Mrs. Obelia S. Womble CHEROKEE Mrs. Cleva Anderson Meb Sudderth Hendrix Paul A. Ledford Annie S. McGuire Ralph Sudderth Jerry T. Sudderth CHOWAN Ira Hollowell Eure W.P. Jones Elizabeth S. Taylor A.D. Ward, Jr. Florence W. Webb T. Benbury H. Wood CLAY Richard E. Bristol CLEVELAND David E. Beam Ruth S. Beam Ashbury C. Harrelson John W. Harris Macie R. Harris Edith Lutz Everett Lutz Ima C. Seagle Billy Wilson COLUMBUS Sarah Blackwell Jack B. Blake John M.M. Blake John W. Blake John M.M. Blake, Jr. Keith Blake Thelma Blake Mrs. Gladys McLean Cumbee Edna Worley Jolly Charles L. Lennon, Sr. Mary W. Mintz Annie Newsome Marie Council Lillian Peterson Manly E. Porter Clara W. Price Winifred P. Stout John L. Woolard Mary D. Woolard Alfred J. Worley Ottis R. Wright Olive Battle Wright Jack M. Yates Robert A. Yates Lois W. Yoder CRAVEN Peggy Fulcher James A. Ipock, Jr. J. P. Ipock, Jr. Charles M. McCoy Scott Woodrow McCoy Gene Ormond Georgia Ormond Graham Richardson O.G. Richardson Parnell West James B. Whitley, Sr. Joe D. Williams CUMBERLAND Gene Sterling Ammons Evelyn B. Bullard Bynum Apex Siler City New Hill Murphy Murphy Murphy Andrews Murphy Murphy Hobbsville Edenton Edenton Hobbsville Edenton Edenton Hayesville Lawndale Shelby Shelby Lawndale Lawndale Shelby Cerro Gordo Chadbourn Chadbourn Chadbourn Chadbourn Chadbourn Chadbourn Whiteville Tabor City Clarkton Hallsboro Whiteville Bolton Whiteville Whiteville Whiteville Delco Cerro Gordo Tabor City Chadbourn Chadbourn Whiteville Vanceboro New Bern New Bern Cove City Cove City Kinston New Bern New Bern Dover Cove City New Bern Linden Autryville Century Farm Owners Troy A. Fisher, Sr. Olive M. Glock Walter L. Underwood CURRITUCK James H. Ferebee, Sr. James H. Ferebee, Jr. W.W. Jarvis, Jr. Roy Franklin Sumrell Mrs. Mary E. Sumrell Manly M. West Hilery T. Whitehurst Sarah F. Whitehurst DAVIDSON Howard Kent Beck Ralph G. Beckerdite, Sr. Mrs. Albert M. Cole Paul A. Cole James Reece Crouse John L. Delapp Noah Edgar Garner Johnnie Griggs, Sr. Florence Griggs Ewa Hanes Travis Hanes Ronnie S. Harrison Hoy L. Long Mrs. Elva H. Miller Frankie J. Miller Conrad F. Motsinger Robert F. Motsinger Robert L. Nance Fred W. Perryman Mrs. Ralph Riffle John E. Sink Jimmie B. Sink David Lee Smith, Jr. W.L. Smith, Jr. Frank Ward (Estate) Mildred Warfford Jeffrey Warfford Calla H. Welborn Betty B. Welborn Jack C. Wood Bruce Wright Sarilla Wright DAVIE H.F. Blackwelder, Jr. E.F. Etchison Marshall E. Glasscock Veola S. Miller J. Vernon Miller L. Gene Miller James L. Ratledge Bettie R. Rix Margaret Rich William M. Seaford Pauline B. Seaford Donald H. Smith E.C. Tatum, Jr. Charles W. Woodruff DUPLIN Kilpatrick Farms, Inc. Mordicai R. Bennett Mrs. Robert Blackmore Theodore C. Bland Stephen D. Boone David O. Byrd, Sr. Mrs. H.C. Carr Thomas A. Cavenaugh Florence S. Currie Patricia J. Denise Kathleen Brice Fisler Nina M. Garner Erma W. Glover Walter V. Gresham Rosalyle B. Hall Alvin E. James James Oliver Loftin III Charles B. Marshburn Fayetteville Hope Mills Fayetteville Shawboro Moyock Harbinger Harbinger Currituck Knotts Island Lexington Winston-Salem Denton Denton Lexington Lexington Denton Lexington Clemmons Denton Winston-Salem Clemmons Lexington Winston-Salem Winston-Salem Denton Lexington Winston-Salem Lexington Lexington Denton Lexington Denton Lexington Thomasville Virginia Beach, VA Lexington Mocksville Mocksville Mocksville Mocksville Mocksville Mocksville Charleston, SC Greensboro Mocksville Mocksville Mocksville Mocksville Kenansville Mt. Olive Warsaw Wallace Rose Hill Rose hill Durham Wallace Kenansville Faison Burgaw Mt. Olive Chapel Hill Kenansville Rose Hill Wallace Roanoke, VA Wallace Adelle T. Matthews Silas James Maxwell Emileigh Maxwell Latham Eugene R. Outlaw H.C. Powers Horace Rhodes Mary L. Rhodes Troy P. Rhodes Arline C. Rhodes DeLeon Smith, Jr. James W. Stroud Ruth B. Waller and children Stephen D. Williams Kermit P. Williams Leonidas P. Williams, Jr. Ruth W. Alford Margaret W. Norfleet DURHAM Mary M. Husketh Coley Edna S. Page Beulah S. Simko Leland Wheeler Mary Wheeler Stephen Wheeler EDGECOMBE Simmons Farms, Inc. George Thomas Bottoms, Jr. Carl V. Brake Dorothy L. Braswell Douglas W. Braswell Mrs. H. Mayo Cherry Willis Cobb Lucy L. Cobb Mary Daughtridge Vivian Viverette Paul Whitley, Jr. Charles Whitley Elizabeth Gay Edna Wood Luther Gay, Jr. Elizabeth Adams Thomas M. Gorham Charles M. Harrell Oliver Pervis Powell Irma L. Resico Daniel Russell Taylor Rufus A. Thomas William Wiggs Margaret Wiggs James C. Worsley Josephine D. Worsley FORSYTH Ruth S. Abell James Baker, Jr. Maynard Baker Faye A. Burns Ned Conrad Betty Conrad Richard Maxwell Conrad J. Conyers Gladys C. Doub Berry Holden Mrs. W.G. Moore Carole Nicholson Benny Perry Susan Hunter Petree James Speed FRANKLIN Frank M. Baker, Jr. Henry K. Baker, Jr. James H. Baker, Jr. Mrs. S. J. Beasley Billie P. Ethridge Linda P. Jones David Watson Mitchiner Gladys M. Scott Charles A. Sherrod James D. Wheless Albany, GA Austin, TX Mt. Olive Wallace Beulaville Wallace Wallace Pink Hill Kenansville Mount Olive Kenansville Kenansville Clinton Durham Durham Morrisville Durham Rocky Mount Tarboro Rocky Mount Rocky Mount Rocky Mount Fountain Fountain Rocky Mount Rocky Mount Battleboro Macclesfield Rocky Mount Rocky Mount Greenville Rocky Mount Pinetops Conetoe Pfafftown Zebulon Louisburg Winston-Salem Winston-Salem Pfafftown Franklinton Pfafftown Youngsville Winston-Salem Murfreesboro Zebulon Tobaccoville Louisburg Louisburg Zebulon Louisburg Louisburg Louisburg Smithfield Franklinton Bunn Louisburg Louisburg Century Farm Owners GASTON William Carpenter Mattie Carpenter William N. Craig Alvin H. Delliger Edward E. Friday Jack W. Grier Lynda W. Hancock Howard D. Harrelson Wade Hovis Edith Pasour Clay Pasour Mary F. Ratchford Paul N. Ratchford, Jr. Paul N. Ratchford, Sr. Thomas G. Sparrow D. Russell Stroup A. A. Stroup Sarah R. Watts GATES Frank S. Barnes E. A. Blanchard (heirs) Joseph R. Freeman, Jr. E.J. Freeman (Estate) J.D. Hill John R. Langston, Jr. Christine L. Modlin Samuel L. Morgan S.E. Nixon Mrs. Nina Gatling Parker Margaret L. Piland Charles Walter Rountree Elizabeth Rountree Herbert F. Rountree Doris L. Stephenson Edward P. Story Mrs. Kate Walters Carl Webb Marvin Wiggins Maxine S. Wiggins GRAHAM Amanda R. Blankenship GRANVILLE Fred Blackwell William A. Bobbitt (heifs) Jacksey M. Bobbitt W.B. Crews Jack Thomas Dickerson Elsie Dickerson Mrs. M.T. Geer James B. Haney Richard W. Harris, Jr. Solomon H. Harris Pearl Sears Howell F. Earl Hunt, Jr. Nan G. Hunt Daniel Hunt Jean Hunt Robinette M. Husketh Edward Thomas Husketh, Jr. Ralph H. Lane, Sr. Alfred W. Lyon Mark Lyon James O. May Mrs. Mary I. Parham Adelle W. Perry Claude A. Renn Robert C. Renn L. Ray Royster Mrs. Emma M. Summers William A. Terry Lemon Thales Turner Rosa W. Turner (heirs) Thomas William Winston GREENE Claude L. Barrett, Jr. L.O. Beddard Martha E. Croom Lincolnton Gastonia Cherryville Dallas Gastonia Gastonia Cherryville Bessemer City Dallas Gastonia Gastonia Gastonia Bessemer City Bessemer City Corapeake Hobbsville Gates Gates Sunbury Gates Suffolk, VA Corapeake Sunbury Gatesville Raleigh Gates Gates Gates Severn Eure Hertford Gates Hobbsville Robbinsville Oxford Creedmoor Oxford Oxford Durham Oxford Oxford Oxford Kittrell Franklinton Franklinton Creedmoor Creedmoor Rocky Mount Creedmoor Creedmoor Franklinton Oxford Franklinton Oxford Franklinton Roxboro Durham Henderson Morehead City Virgilina, VA Kinston Snow Hill Stantonsburg Albert Sidney Darden Henry C. Dixon John R. Edmundson, Jr. Wm. C. Edmundson Roy T. Forrest J. Paul Frizzelle William J. Galloway Sandra H. Garner James W. Herring Charles F. Sugg, Jr. GUILFORD W.T. Ballinger Emily Ballinger Mr. Max Ballinger Mrs. Max Ballinger Edith M. Bartko John Garland Clapp, Sr. Leonard Fields William W. Greeson Charles Ingram Kathryn Ingram Jack B. Johnson Robert W. McNairy J. Benjamin Miles Fred Nix Nellie Nix Thomas Osborne George Osborne Eula R. Osborne Cleora C. Payne Walker W. Scott John Henry Stewart Franklin J. Teague Mrs. Jew Irvin Wagoner John B. Wagoner HALIFAX Mrs. Thomas Braswell Robert B. Fleming Claude Garner Laura Garner Quentin Gregory, Jr. Annie R. Hockaday William H. Lewis Raymond F. Shearin HARNETT DeLorese Caviness Thomas Caviness John D. Champion F. Junius Denning Lamas Floyd Mack R. Hudson Betty H. Johnson Ralph L. Johnson Robert M. Kinton Katherine Kinton Daywood E. Langdon Shirley W. McDaniel Thelma F. Parrish Hoke Smith Dorothy A. Smith HAYWOOD Robert Fulbright Sylvia Echols Clifford M. Harrell, Jr. John H. Kirkpatrick, Jr. Way Mease, Sr. Hugh L.Noland Riley W.Palmer HENDERSON Carl L. Brannon Wallace Case Betty Case Edward Leroy Hawkins Charles B. Ingram Clara H. Ingram W.V. Levi Pauline Levi Farmville Snow Hill Snow Hill Ayden Maury Walstonburg Snow Hill Snow Hill Snow Hill Greensboro Greensboro Greensboro Stokesdale Julian High Point Winston-Salem Greensboro McLeansville Gibsonville Greensboro Kernersville Browns Summit McLeansville Elon College Gibsonville Gibsonville Enfield Louisburg Roanoke Rapids Halifax Roanoke Rapids Palmyra Raleigh Fuquay-Varina Fuquay-Varina Angier Benson Benson Dunn Fuquay-Varina Fuquay-Varina Angier Coats Elizabethtown Kipling Waynesville Waynesville Clyde Canton Clyde Asheville Horse Shoe Zirconia Hendersonville Hendersonville Zirconia Century Farm Owners HERTFORD Henry Thomas Brown, Jr. Henry Thomas Brown, Sr. Samuel T. Burbage, Jr. Patricia O. Burke Elizabeth C. Sessoms Elsie H. Snipes Louis W. Snipes Ruth Thomas Mary Thomas HOKE Delia Raynor Harold M. Thrower HYDE T.E. Bridgman (heirs) Camille B. Clarke George T. Davis, Jr. Calvin B. Davis Coleman C. Davis Mary Louise McGee Tra Jennette Perry Christine F. Ramon IREDELL Mrs. Rose H. Albea Thomas A. Allison Josephine T. Anderson L.M. Beaver Mrs. Emma K. Boyd Addie T. Bradsher Wallace R. Bradsher Robert T. Brawley William Kerr Brawley David Edgar Douglas, Jr. Russell Avery Douglas Martha S. Goodin Linda S. Goodin John E. Hendren Melmoth W. Hill John Howard Charles C. Lynn Glenn Mayes Mable Mayes Roy S. McNeely Ralph Moore Lucile Moore Henry P. Mullis William M. Pressly Harry Prevette Dean T. Redmond and Brothers Mrs. John D. Stevenson Robert S. Thomas Mrs. Mary D. Warren Mrs. George B. Weaver T.W. Weaver Wesley O. Weston Mrs. Irene P. Williams JOHNSTON Claudia Atkinson Samuel T. Avera Demetrius H. Bagley Mrs. Worth Bagley Myrtle Bailey Mamie P. Bailey L.W. Bailey (heirs) Lunette Barber Charlotte B. Parker Susan S. Barbour Ayden Barefoot Harold Jake Barnes Rochelle H. Bolyard Mrs. Bertha H. Boyette Ray A. Boyette Edell Watson Boykin Zilphia A. Brantley Margaret Britt Leonard Britt Joel Thurman Brown Jesse Herman Brown Raleigh Woodland Como Ahoskie Ahoskie Ahoskie Ahoskie Cofield Raeford Red Springs Swan Quarter Greenville Swan Quarter Engelhard Swan Quarter Colerain Engelhard Norfolk, VA Statesville Statesville Statesville Mooresville Roxboro Mooresville Mooresville Statesville Statesville Statesville Statesville Turnersburg Hickory Union Grove Statesville Raleigh Statesville Harmony Harmony Stony Point Raleigh Statesville Statesville Harmony Statesville Statesville Olin Statesville Olin Clayton Smithfield Washington, DC Kenly Selma Fayetteville Clayton Smithfield Newton Grove Wendell Clayton Selma Kenly Kenly Wendell Princeton Selma Selma Martha Sanders Burns Smithfield G.H. Coats, III Salt Lake, UT Leonard R. Creech Oxford Wade Sidney Creech Smithfield Mrs. Henry J. Cross Selma Mary Elizabeth Davis Kenly Clara P. Kirby Mr. W.R. Denning, Jr. Benson Mrs. W.R. Denning, Jr. Lamas Denning Benson Raymond E. Earp, Jr. Selma Mary E. Moore Honey L. Edwards Clayton Barbara T. Ennis Clayton Patricia Taylor Addie Barbara Fuller Smithfield Tryon George Four Oaks Elizabeth George James J. Godwin Kenly William P. Godwin Kenly Sue Gray Trenton Bonnie Greene Kenly Mrs. Lois R. Hatcher Selma B. Hinnant Kenly William D. Hinnant Selma Ralph H. Hinnant Kenly Mrs. Rebecca H. Hinton Zebulon Clyde H. Honeycutt Willow Spring Edward Osmond Jeffreys Zebulon Harold Layton Johnson Four Oaks Margaret H. Johnson Clayton Emily Coats King Willow Spring S. Aaron Langdon Benson Will H. Lassister, III Four Oaks Will H. Lassister Four Oaks Wade A. Lassister Four Oaks Iris H. Lawrence Raleigh Mrs. Viola Lee Four Oaks William Homer Lee Benson Jacqueline W. Lee William Dayton Lee Benson Roger Lynch Selma Yoakum Austin Matthews Benson Samuel B. McLamb Smithfield Jean McLean Chapel Hill Ruth McLean Cora McLean George Ammie McLemore, Jr. Mary Moore Velton Calvert Moore Sam Narron Susie Narron Lela R. Ogburn Beebe Oliver Parker L. Donald Parker William Parker Norma Tuttle Lawrence B. Peacock Merlin A. Peedin Wilbur M. Bailey Ramona Bailey Phillips Henry A. Pittman John Robert Richardson Edith Pike Richardson Joseph Bryant Rose, Sr. James Royall Thomas Royall Alice Royall Elizabeth B. Sanders Mrs. Maytle J. Stephenson Milton Stephenson Velma Stephenson Alfred T. Taylor, Jr. Mavis Atkinson Thorne Charles E. Tomlinson Evelyn H. Vinson Herman C. Vinson Turner Vinson, Jr. Kathleen L. Walton Linda L. Whitley Cleo J. Williams Walter R. Williams Charles W. Wilson Alyne K. Woodall Herman Leo Woodard New York, NY Selma Four Oaks Middlesex Willow Spring Pine Level Benson Summerfield Benson Princeton Selma Selma Kenly Wendell Kenly Kinston Smithfield Smithfield Benson Willow Spring Burke, VA Dunn Clayton Clayton Clayton Four Oaks Four Oaks Four Oaks Kenly Clayton Goldsboro Princeton Century Farm Owners Johnnie Woodard Eula Woodard E. Worth Lillie P. Yelverton JONES William Clen Bynum, Jr. James E. Foscue Sarah T. Foscue Sue M. Huggins Gray Beasley M. Jones William M. Kime LEE William T. Brooks John A. Eades Veanna P. Goodwin Dorothy Smith King Doyette Lett Vernie L. Womack Mrs. Clarence M. McNeill William A. Riggsbee Walter Scoggins Ruby Scoggins Martha B. Swaringen LENOIR R. Lindsey Dail Isabelle M. Fletcher and Sons Sally M. Lowe David Herring Whitford Hill Alton Rouse Mary Rouse Frank A. Rouse W. Ralph Taylor, Jr. Oscar W. Waller Wilbur A. Tyndall LINCOLN Larry B. Baxter J.E. Carpenter, Jr. Anna Casper John K. Cline Nancy J. Conner Mrs. Frances N. Hains Ruby M. Heafner L.J. Hovis Mrs. Coy Lantz Coy F. Lantz Harold Reep Kathleen M. Turner William R. Warlick Craig L. Wood Dolores L. Wood MACON Floyd Bradley Charles L. Browning Eula Bryson Robert Bryson Mrs. Lily C. Moody Cabe Eugene E. Crawford Elmer W. Crawford Robert L. Crawford Ralph J. Dean Lolita Dean Robert Enloe Milton Fouts Mary Fouts Cecile Gibson Sam K. Greenwood II Thomas Henry Emma Henry E.A. Howell Jeff W. May Robert McGaha Mattie McGaha Charles William Nolen John F. Raby Annie Smith Jesse L. West, Jr. Selma Smithfield Selma Pollocksville High Point Trenton Pink Hill New Bern Sanford Lemon Springs Apex Broadway Lillington Sanford Sanford Sanford Sanford Kinston Kinston LaGrange Raleigh Seven Springs Kinston Kinston Kinston Pink Hill Shelby Lincolnton Iron Station Lincolnton Lincolnton Charlotte Lincolnton Lincolnton Lincolnton Lincolnton Lincolnton Lincolnton Lincolnton Lincolnton Franklin Franklin Franklin Franklin Franklin Franklin Franklin Franklin Franklin Franklin Franklin Aberdeen Franklin Franklin Topton Franklin Franklin Franklin Franklin Franklin Raymond Womack Betty Womack MADISON James R. Allen, Jr. Hall Bruce W. Wayne Fisher Homer Plemmons Ruby Plemmons Gilbert Stackhouse MARTIN Elizabeth H. Coltrain King Cratt Annie Cratt William Simeon Daniel Charles G. Forbes Napoleon Green Sylvia G. Smith Daniel McCoy Griffin Rufus S. Gurganus Sybil P. Gurganus Clay W. Harris Samuel David Jenkins Ben Gray Lilley Annie Peele c/o Charles Peele Jean G. Rogers Mary Griffin Mickie Nelson Mrs. Delmus Rogerson Bessie H. Savage Harry Smith Nina Smith Berry Warren Betty Warren John Smallwood Whitley Mcdowell Henry Brown Wilda Brown Patricia H. Brown Kent W. Brown Julie P. Brown Rebecca L. Hemphill Jacqueline R. Templeton John D. Templeton Thaddeus Conley William G. English Charles H. Greenlee Wm. G. Greenlee Ruth McEntire Greenlee Charles F. Ledbetter J.M. Mackey Clara R. McCall Lloyd G. Miller Daniel L. Rowe Abraham L. Simmons MECKLENBURG John F. Black Mary E. Cato Edith Ewart Carolyn I. Regan Depuy William E. Hipp Mrs. Dan Hood Elizabeth W. Matthews John McDowell Davis Robinson Sam Rone Janie M. Ardrey Edna A. Scott Lillian M. Stephenson Mrs. Miriam S. Whisnant Mrs. Lilyan S. Hunter MITCHELL Mrs. Lorene P. Greene Rex Peake Max Peake Dean Peake Guy Silver JoAnn Silver Franklin Mars Hill Marshall Marshall Hot Springs Marshall Jamesville Williamston Jamesville Robersonville Williamston Williamston Williamston Williamston Robersonville Jamesville Williamston Williamston Williamston Williamston Williamston Williamston Williamston Raleigh Marion Raleigh Marion Marion Old Fort Alexandria, VA Old Fort Marion Old Fort Nebo Marion Huntersville Huntersville Charlotte Charlotte Matthews Charlotte Charlotte Charlotte Pineville Charlotte Raleigh Cornelius Spruce Pine Bakersville Century Farm Owners MONTGOMERY Martha M. Ayers Emma Bruton Bessie Bruton David William Joseph Bruton Crissie L. Dunn Mary Leach Harper G.A. Haywood, Jr. Jean McKinnon Hubbard W.A. Leach Mary Harper Estelle Allen B.D. McKimmon Charlie Singleton Brenda Singleton Arthur G. Stewart Willie L. Stewart Frank P. Tedder Mattie Tedder J.C. Thompson Cleo Ottis Wooley Bessie Wright Valerie Wright W.C. Wright, Jr. MOORE John M. Baker Herbert N. Blue J. Sam Blue Wiley Harrison Callicutt George R. Cameron Ruth S. Cameron Henry Lester Caviness Helen Caviness Billy Cole Betty Cole Mrs. Margaret Foushee Mrs. Maude Blue Hendren Mrs. Myrtle Garner Hussey Mrs. Lucile H. Hyman Alice Ann Hyman Robert J. Hyman, Jr. Douglas Floyd Kelly Arthur Lawhon Cary Lee McLeod, Jr. Mary Ruth H. McLeod Fred B. Monroe Billy J. Poley Charles G. Priest Arthur L. Read Helen M. Garner Scott James W. Shaw John Alex Smith Robert G. Wadsworth, Jr. NASH W.B. Austin, Jr. Maymie W. Barnes Lucy M. Batchelor Mary D. Batchelor Norman R. Batchelor R. Winslow Bone Justice A. Boyd Sallie Edna Braswell Mrs. Helen B. Jones Bessie Evans Brown Ronald E. Capps Pearl C. Capps Mary Lee Coley Dorothene W Cooper Samuel A.J. Deans Guy Farmer Jerry Farmer Luther Fisher Everette J. Glover William O. Griffin Mrs. Florine R. Jeffreys Louise M. Johnson Charles H. Jordan Donald L. Lamm Russell A. Lamm, Sr. Sallie M. Lamm S.D. Lamm Fairmont Mount Gilead Biscoe Troy Mt. Gilead Mt. Gilead Troy Mt. Gilead Troy Troy Jackson Springs Mt. Gilead Mt. Gilead Candor Biscoe Cameron Carthage Carthage Seagrove Cameron Carthage West End Glendon Carthage Robbins Carthage Carthage Jackson, MS Carthage Carthage Carthage West End West End Vass Vass Robbins Cameron Vass Carthage Kernersville Rocky Mount Nashville Spring Hope Spring Hope Nashville Rocky Mount Nashville Wilson Rocky Mount Rocky Mount Nashville Spring Hope Raleigh Battleboro Bailey Red Oak Nashville Nashville Elm City Bailey Bailey Nashville Dolly M. Leonard W.R. Mann C.J. Matthews Hattie Evans Moore Frank Parker Philips, Jr. Jack W. Price Christine Vester Price Carl Rich Ray Lee Rose Mrs. Hazel Cooper Rose A.R. Stallings David Strickland E.T. Taylor, Jr. Mozelle Taylor Henry Ivan Tharrington Benjamin L. Ward Gene Watson Sara Watson Leon Weaver Mae W. Williams Lou Jean D. Winstead Walter M. Winstead NEW HANOVER Betty Jo Floyd Hulin NORTHAMPTON Howard G. Barnes Lizzie F. Edwards Alice H. Elliott G.B. Fleetwood Hubert Fenton Floyd Marvin L. Floyd Peter Floyd Calvin Moore Floyd Leon Flythe Travis J. Flythe William W. Grant Marshall W. Grant Mary G. Haigwood Barbara Harris Mrs. L. Samuel Harris Edward T. Hollowell M.B. Johnson Abner P. Lassiter, Sr. Mrs. E.W. Martin Miss Jimmie N. Martin Mrs. Rosalie T. Melvin John S. Sykes Mrs. Anne L. Warren J.R. Woodard ONSLOW Irene Cotton Russell Uzzell James Uzzell Family Anthony Cox James Cox Janelle Girouard Avanelle Y. Girouard Mitti P. Hewitt Sam P. Hewitt Martha B. Hodnett Mary M. Hoods Reba G. Justice Mrs. Bernie B. Kesler Dixie L. Mattocks Pauline M. Sanders Mrs. Ruth V. Mills Mrs. Martha M. Olive Mrs. P.M. Paschall James A. Rouse William Mattocks Sanders Mrs. Harriet D. Scott Joseph Rhem Taylor, Jr. Wayne B. Venters Elmer J. Venters Mrs. C.H. Venters, Sr. Roland V. Venters ORANGE Elbert H. Allison N.K. Andrews Nashville Rocky Mount Nashville Rocky Mount Battleboro Rocky Mount Rocky Mount Cary Elm Grove Nashville Rocky Mount Middlesex Wilson Rocky Mount Battleboro Whitakers Rocky Mount Maudlin, SC Nashville Wilmington Severn Virginia Beach, VA Woodland Severn Garysburg Gaston Gaston Roanoke R apids Conway Garysburg Garysburg Greenville Chester, VA Woodland Pendleton Conway Conway Conway Raleigh Conway Raleigh Conway Hubert Garner Angier Hubert Richlands Dover Jacksonville Richlands Stella Richlands Richlands Atlanta, GA Hubert Hubert Jacksonville Richlands Jacksonville Richlands Richlands Fletcher Hurdle Mills Hillsborough 36 Century Farm Owners Elizabeth N. Blalock Thomas N. Blalock James M. Blalock J. Fred Bowman Betty Bowman Jane M. Branscome L.M. Merritt E. Mangum John H. Cate, Sr. Flora Dick Dellinger Edna Dellinger Cothran Dellinger Gene Dellinger Katherine Kirkpatrick Floyd Fox Miller Shelton L. Ray Richard Roberts Ollie Roberts L. Phillip Walker Bryant J. Walker PAMLICO James B. Hardison Alfred D. Jones William F. Tingle Shirley L. Tingle I. Lee Whorton PASQUOTANK Annie B. Lowry Walter Lowry, Jr. Richard F. Stallings Johnnie W. Stallings PENDER Johnie C. Garrason Carolyn G. Garrason Joab F. Johnson, Jr. Emily Johnson Albert H. Pridgen, Jr. Rebecca W. Reynolds J. Paul Reynolds William L. Reynolds PERQUIMANS Mattie F. Boyton Linwood G. Boyton Noah Felton, Jr. Emma Smith Mary Floyd L.G. Howell William Nixon, III Gene Perry Lydia Perry Claude N. Rountree Elizabeth S. Taylor J.H. Skinner S.S. Tarkington Doris R. Winslow Elizabeth R. Felton PERSON Richard H. Bailey Paul Bailey Mr. Eugene C. Berryhill Mrs. Eugene C. Berryhil Eddie M. Blackard Bessie M. Bradsher W.L. Bradsher Alice S. Broach Brooks R. Carver Mrs. Pearl C. Crumpton Fred Fox, Sr. Fred Fox, Jr. John W. Glenn Addie Jones Hall Lois Hamlin Eleanor Dunn Joy Mangum Roberta W. Hanna John Hanna Larry C. Hester Hurdle Mills Burlington Chapel Hill Zebulon Mebane Raleigh Hillsborough Chapel Hill Hillsborough Hillsborough Hillsborough Arapahoe Pamlico, FL Oriental Bayboro Elizabeth City Elizabeth City Wilmington Burgaw Atkinson Wilmington Hertford Hertford Hertford Hertford Hertford Belvidere Edenton Winfall Roxboro Roxboro Roxboro Roxboro Roxboro Hurdle Mills Roxboro Roxboro Roxboro Roxboro Roxboro Roxboro Roxboro Hurdle Mills Patrick C. Hester Lucile B. Hicks James H. Holeman Stephen Long Annie Long John H. Merritt, Jr. Mildred S. Nichols B.I. Satterfield A.J. Satterfield Mrs. O.W. Pointer Maurice B. Robertson Richard Suitt Yvonne Suitt William Tillett Thomas Tillett John W. Vanhook PITT G.W. Benson Helen Jewep Cannon Mrs. Dodie M. Carson Margaret B. Dwyer Lottie Ellis Bruce Ellis Boyd Ronald H. Garris Worth B. Hardee Charles T. Hardison Susanna A. Harris James T. Lang T.W. Lang Mrs. Edward W. May Robert W. May Alfred McLawhorn, Jr. (heirs) Haywood A. McLawhorn (heirs) Milton R. Moore Clarence H. Moye, II G.A. Newton Bert S. Smith, Jr. Robert S. Spain Iris Taylor Herbert Taylor Mrs. Julian B. Timberlake, Jr. Clifford S. Whichard Edward A. Whichard J. Eric Whichard Delano R. Wilson Chester Worthington POLK Bernard J. Womack RANDOLPH R.C. Adams Robert L. Blair, Jr. Robert F. Brittain Ulnah A. Brittain Pauline S. Brower H. Grady Brown Branson Coltrane Thelma Coltrane E. Cone Mildred E. Spencer Clarice C. Cox Howard C. Craven Lynden H. Craven D.S. Davis Connie C. Haskins Jay Hohn, Jr. Linda A. Hohn Virtle Craven Holloway Hal J. Luther Myrtle McDaniel J. Allen McDaniel Julia E. Newberry Samuel Vernace Pugh, Sr. Mary C. Purvis Joe W. Routh Clyde R. Spencer Clay Sugg Ruby Sugg Mary Alice White Earl Reece White Hurdle Mills Roxboro Timberlake Roxboro Roxboro Roxboro Hurdle Mills Roxboro Roxboro Raleigh Roxboro Ayden Kinston Bethel Farmville Winterville Ayden Greenville Greenville Ayden Farmville Farmville Farmville Winterville Winterville Grifton Farmville Farmville Farmville Raleigh Ayden Tarboro Stokes Stokes Stokes Winterville Greenville Mill Spring Denton Trinity Asheboro Siler City High Point High Point Trinity Siler City Franklinville Ramseur Randleman Concord Randleman Asheboro Asheboro Asheboro Greensboro Franklinville Asheboro Franklinville Archdale Seagrove High Point High Point Century Farm Owners RICHMOND James L. Dawkins Lila C. Dawkins John Hybert Dockery Ray Gibson Robert S. Gibson Mrs. Mildred M. Laton Alonzo Bliss McQueen Mrs. Emmett A. Rivenbark Grayson Watson ROBESON John Hybert Atkinson Carl Ayers Edward C. Baker Betty G. Barnes Knox M. Barnes Bahnson N. Barnes Walter R. Baxley Sarah Baxley Naomi Bracey Leon Douglas Bridgers Douglas Bullock B.O. Burns Mrs. H.D. Burns Margaret L. Dutton W. Fred Fisher Norma L. Fisher Lester W. Floyd Fred W. Floyd (heirs) Thomas Greyard Douglas Hammond Clifford H. Hammond Edwin J. Humphrey Annie Humphrey Lawrence F. Ivey James H. Ivey Jack Leggett Jenkins, Jr. Jack Leggett Jenkins, Sr. J. Garth Lewis John H. McArthur, Jr. Langdon T. McCormick Neill McCormick William N. McCormick Julia Mclver Nan McKellar M.G. McKenzie, Jr. Edward H. McKinnon Katie McLean Mary W. McLean Mrs. Robert McMillan Mrs. Laelia Pate McRae Mrs. Doris McRae Moore Paul S. Oliver, Jr. James R. Oliver Joseph Page George Reed Pate Charles H. Pearce Islay C. Pittman Benjamin Pittman, Jr. Thomas Powers Preston Powers Muldrew Powers Mrs. John B. Regan Margaret Rice Carson C. Sessoms Benjamin F. Shaw, Jr. L.R. Shaw Mrs. Wilma Shooter Mrs. Ada A. Shooter Blanche N. Skillman Charles T. Smith Earl Smith Okey Stephens Carl D. Stephens Mrs. A.F. Stone Aldena Stone Leon Stuart Robert Stuart, Jr. Jane B. Thrower Daniel Earle Townsend Mabel A. Townsend Evelyn S. Waddell Mrs. Beulah W. Ward Rockingham Myrtle Beach, SC Norfolk, VA Radford, VA Ellerbe Ellerbe Rockingham Ellerbe Lumberton Rowland Maxton Lumberton Lumberton Lumberton St. Pauls Rowland Rowland Rowland Rowland Fairmont Lumberton St. Pauls Lumberton Four Oaks Fairmont Rowland Rowland Shannon Orrum Orrum Fairmont Fairmont Wakulla Fairmont St. Pauls St. Pauls Lumber Bridge Rowland Orrum Rowland Maxton Maxton Fairmont Rowland Rowland Fairmont Fairmont Fairmont Rowland Fairmont Rowland Lumberton St. Pauls St. Pauls Lumberton Lumberton St. Pauls Lumber Bridge Fairmont Lumberton Red Springs Lumberton Lumberton Lumberton Lumberton Lumberton Lumberton Rowland Fairmont Red Springs Durham McDonald Orrum Rowland ROCKINGHAM Paul Payne William David Bennett Mrs. Grace S. Brannock Charles F. Burton, Jr. Thomas S. Butler Ralph W. Cummings H.J. Dye Samyria W. King John D. King Mrs. Rachel C. Lufty C. Alton Pearson T.E. Witty ROWAN James W. Brown, Sr. B.N. Fleming Charles T. Graham Turner C. Hall, Sr. Mrs. Burton L. Jones R. Howard Knox Harold R. Overcash Charlie M. Sloop J.C. Stirewalt Mrs. Ben B. White Roy E. Wyatt RUTHERFORD Margaret Bostic Walter Byers Lucille Byers James D. Carpenter John D. Carpenter Howard L. Daniel Margaret S. Davis William F. Davis Mrs. Emma G. Depriest J. Baxter Doggett Carl M. Edgerton Mrs. Lucy F. Ellis Mary F. Geer Jack M. Freeman, Jr. William Melvin Harris Jerome Holler Beth Holler Mary V. Miller Huss Judson F. Koone Samuel L. Lawing Robert L. McKinney Ruth G. Melton Mrs. O.R. Padgett Frances F. Phillips J.O. Toms SAMPSON Marion A. Allen Mary K. Allen Sallie Allen George B. Autry Leroy Autry Annie Belle Herring Bass Thera Godwin Bass T. Ray Best Alton Byron Bizzell Herbert S. Bland, Jr. Janellen Bradshaw Delmon Bradshaw Mrs. Charles Bryant John C. Bryant Thomas F. Darden Corretta Darden Charles Earl Daughtry Sudie O. Davis James Godwin Jane Godwin James E. Hairr Margie Hall Lester Hall James L. Hines, Jr. Cloyce C. Honeycutt Hannibal W. Jernigan, Jr. Lucille Jernigan Clarence O. Jones Madison Stokesdale Reidsville Reidsville Reidsville Raleigh Eden Reidsville Reidsville Summerfield Summerfield Mt. UHa Cleveland Cleveland Mt. UHa Woodleaf Cleveland Mooresville Salisbury Rockwell Salisbury Richfield Bostic Forest City Forest City Forest City Forest City Ellenboro Ellenboro Union Mills Forest City Rutherfordton Bostic Ellenboro Forest City Union Mills Rutherfordton Union Mills Forest City Rutherfordton Rutherfordton Mooresboro Bostic Forest City Rose Hill Chapel Hill Autryville Clinton Dunn Clinton Smithfield Willard Faison Clinton Clinton Faison Newton Grove Fayetteville Dunn Siler City Autryville Turkey Roseboro Dunn Clinton Newton Grove Century Farm Owners Harold B. Lamb L. Murray Lewis Billy C. Lockamy Floyd Lockerman Alton McGee Robert W. McLamb W.I. McLamb Elizabeth J. McLamb Marshall. J. McLamb (heirs) Mrs. Alice P. Merritt Flossie Autry Mobley Vida Autry Claude H. Moore Charles Henry Murphy James A. Parker Bertie A. Parker Stacy Hamilton Peterson Ed Purcell Romie G. Simmons H.L. Stewart, Jr. Jean B. Sutton W.I. Taylor, Jr. Charles Thomas Floyd Lockerman Mae H. Troublefield Marshall. H. Troublefield Mr. James R. Vann Mrs. James R. Vann Houston B. Warren Loyd C. Warwick Edith M. Westbrook Granger A. Westbrook Lillian J. Worley SCOTLAND James A. Cooley Graham B. Gainey Nancy M. Gainey Mary McRae Lee Doris McRae Moore Jeannette McGirt Wright Parker Mozelle Parker Sarah McRae Rowan Joyce Pate Ward STANLY Mrs. Maudie Aldridge Margie Allen Paul Bowers Etha Bowers C. Spurgeon Brooks Luther B. Efird George F. Eury Edna R. Hathcock Farrington M. Hathcock G.A. Hatley U.A. Hatley Kathy M. Little Bill Moore Virgil C. Moss Grady Palmer Joyce H. Pickler John S. Pickler, II Robert A. Stoker W.L. Thompson, Jr. Mrs. W.L. Thompson, Sr. STOKES Etta M. Boles Wanda Brewer Charles Brewer Minnie W. Cates Willie Mae Cates Trudie W. Dalton Luther Ferguson Worth Gentry Marquerit Gentry Ethel Cates Hutchison Wendell V. Keiger Mabel S. Lawson Ralph W. Lawson Mattie Cates Lewillyn Garland Faison Clinton Salemburg Turkey Roseboro Garland Roseboro Clinton Autryville Turkey Tomahawk Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Mt. Olive Burgaw Salemburg Faison Faison Clinton Roseboro Newton Grove Burgaw Mt. Olive Clinton Wagram Laurinburg Rowland Wagram Gibson Rowland Hillsborough Norwood Norwood Albemarle Richfield Albemarle Mt. Pleasant Oakboro Albemarle Albemarle Albemarle Albemarle New London New London Randleman New London Albemarle Albemarle Albemarle Germanton King Greensboro Westfield King King Greensboro Tobaccoville King Danbury Walnut Cove SURRY Anna Pell Broadwell Grady Cooper, Jr. Grady Cooper, Sr. Irene H. Dobbins Brenda O. Mabe Robert G. Snow TYRELL Basil T. Cahoon UNION George S. Crook C. Lynn Eubanks Edwina Eubanks Roy S. Helms Helen Lowder H.B. Biggers, Jr. Mildred Austin Evelyn Biggers Hester Ross John Biggers Mrs. Tom McCollum VANCE William R. Alston John Bullock Kate Taylor Bullock Mrs. Lucy R. Burwell Mrs. Sylvia Cawthorne Joan Cawthorne Knott Cawthorne Gwen Mclnnis Thurston T. Coghill Peter D. Coghill Ethel W. Crews Irene Woodlief Mrs. Nellie B. Crews B. Mac Crews Mr. Albert H. Crews Mrs. Albert H. Crews Mrs. Evelyn C. Burroughs George T. Dickie II Dorothy Wiggins Ellis Mrs. David P. Evans Charles B. Finch, Jr. Marshall M. Floyd Louise Dickie Formyduval Charlie U. LeMay Agnes Dickie Long Joe D. Mabry, Jr. Jane Dickie McGlaughon Mrs. W.L. Moss V.E. Rawles, Jr. Junius W. Rogers, Jr. Walter R. Rogers Edward G. Rogers Thelma B. Satterwhite W.M. Spain Mrs. Hazel W.Steagall Mrs. Helen W. Finch Olivia Taylor Betty B. Tucker George N. Tucker III Mabel G. Wade William W. White, Jr. Charles M. White Myrtle S. Woodlief Mrs. Mildred S. Wortham WAKE Cora C. Bailey Mrs. L.Y. Ballentine Susan L. Burroughs Elmer C. Burt Dewey Corbin H. Harold Cotton A. Winstead Dove Isabelle B. Fish Rufus T. Fish J.R. Fowler, Jr. Ernest Greene Sally Greene Gibsonville Raleigh Dobson Elkin Pilot Mountain Dobson Columbia Monroe Monroe Monroe Charlotte Monroe Henderson Raleigh Henderson Oxford Henderson Henderson Henderson Henderson Henderson Henderson Henderson Henderson Henderson Henderson Henderson Henderson Henderson Henderson Henderson Henderson Henderson Kittrell Henderson Henderson Henderson Franklinton Henderson Henderson Kittrell Chapel Hill Henderson Henderson Manson Kittrell Henderson Wake Forest Raleigh Raleigh Fuquay-Varina Franklin Fuquay-Varina Willow Springs Wilson Zebulon Raleigh Century Farm Owners Robert E. Horton Titus M. Jones Mrs. Grace C. Kilkelly Mitchell L. Lawrence Emily R. Merntt Mrs. Maude S. Morrow Felcie O'Briant R. Louis Pearce, Sr. Herman C. Pearce, Sr. Mrs. J. Wesley Perry, Sr. Mrs. Lizzie E. Powell William Powell Naomi Powell Annie Powell Vivian J. Shearon Charles Hinton Silver John Smart Gertrude Smart Mrs. Robbie J. Smith F.D. Sorrell Allen Sorell A.L. Sorrell J.D. Denning W.E. Denning W.R. Denning, Jr. R.A. Stevens Katharine J. Watson Mrs. Bailey P. Williamson WARREN William Robert Alston Mr. Max D. Ballinger Mrs. Max D. Ballinger Raleigh Esters Gordon James A. Hayes, Jr. Ellen P. Perkinson E. Cliff Robertson Willie T. Robinson W.F. Rooker (heirs) Patricia Alston Scott William Edward Alston Albert Seaman Mrs. J.L. Skinner William T. Skinner Mary E. Walker Taylor WASHINGTON W.T. Holmes W.W. Mizell WATAUGA Mrs. Thomas J. Banner Paul Braswell Ruth Braswell Maxine Bradley Burrows Mary Margery Coler Robert Orville Jackson David P. Mast, Sr. Guy H. Norris Josephine B. Reid Ira D. Shull WAYNE Lucile R. Andrews Andrews Farms of Wayne Co., Inc. Karl M. Best Mrs. Mabel S. Daughtry Bernice G. Davis John R. Deans Jesse R. Denning Billy H. Denning Pearl D. Denning Sedalia Smith Green Edna W. Hinson Charles T. Hooks, Sr. Mrs. Mary Grady Jones Nina B. Joyner L.H. Lane William H. Lane, Jr. John L. Pippin James N. Price Arthur Raymond Zebulon Raleigh Zebulon Fuquay-Varina Wake Forest Raleigh Raleigh Rolesville Wake Forest Zebulon Wake Forest Middlesex Raleigh Raleigh Holly Springs Fuquay-Varina Benson Garner Raleigh Knightdale Henderson Warrenton Pinnacle Norlina Wise Macon Macon Norlina Henderson Norlina Littleton Norlina Creswell Roper Vilas Vilas Franklinville Camarillo, CA Boone Sugar Grove Boone Lenoir Banner Elk Goldsboro Goldsboro Mount Olive Fremont Goldsboro Four Oaks Mount Olive Fremont Seven Springs Fremont Goldsboro Mount Olive Stantonsburg Fremont Fremont Seven Springs Wilmington Currie H. Smith J. Edgar Taylor Ivan Westbrook Margaret Westbrook Louise Williams Mrs. John N. Wolfe WILKES Lois Bass Claude D. Billings Thomas W. Ferguson Finley L. German Gwyn Hayes Elva K. Hayes Mrs. Violet J. Miller Mrs. D.F. Payne Joy Belle Foster Payne Leeman Bronson Walls Lucy Sparks Walls WILSON Joseph E. Adkins Frank M. Barnes Mrs. J.R. Boykin, Jr. Douglas W. Braswell Dorothy L. Braswell Sally F. Cook Clarence D. Cook J.B. Etheridge Estate Marvin E. Evans Elgia Scott Farrior Hugh Buckner Johnston J. Russell Kirby William Kirby (heirs) Ivey A. Lamm, Jr. J.C. Langley, Jr. Jack H. Liles Charles H. Phillips Beulah P. Price Marvin L. Robbins Carl S. Smith Curtis L. Thomas Travis Thompson Redmond Thurman Thorne Daniel Whitley, Sr. Dora Williford Mrs. Wyatt C. Yelverton YADKIN Mervin K. Barron E.H. Cooper Betty Poindexter Cooper Ralph S. Dobbins Mrs. Fannie S. Doub Lucy Brendle Hinshaw John W. Long, Jr. Paul Matthews W. Bryce Reavis Flora B. Scott O.C. Scott Dale Thomason Paul Windsor Thad A. Wiseman Claude G. Wiseman Mt. Olive Fremont Four Oaks Goldsboro Mt. Olive Lucama Traphill Ferguson Lenoir Elkin Millers Creek Boomer Boomer Ronda Wilson Lucama Wilson Rocky Mount Lucama Wilson Wilson Kenly Wilson Wilson Kenly Lucama Elm City Bailey Bailey Kenly Rocky Mount Wilson Wilson Stantonsburg Elm City Stantonsburg Macclesfield Fremont Hamptonville East Bend Elkin East Bend Yadkinville East Bend East Bend Yadkinville East Bend Hamptonville Hamptonville Yadkinville 40 Century Farm Family Histories 41 Alamance Alamance County THE ALDRIDGE FARM The family tradition is that Susan A. Aldridge and her son, William (Bill) Harrison Aldridge, came from England. They settled in the Union Ridge community, Faucette Township, Alamance County, North Caroli-na about 1850. The Aldridges have lived in Alamance County since 1850. William married Nancy Benton Crawford. From this union five children were born. The Aldridge house was built circa 1871 by William Aldridge, who was deeded 65 acres of land in consideration that he provide for and support his mother-in-law during her natural life. William was a true farmer, using up-to-date methods and keeping his land in a high state ofcultivation. In later years when the soil con-servation was terracing the land, they were amazed at the terraces they found on the Aldridge farm. In 1882, William Aldridge built a store at the crossroads near the center of Union Ridge. In that day this was one of the largest trading centers in the northern part of the county. Here people came from far and wide to do their trading. One of the features of the store was the handling of tobacco scraps. Union Ridge post office was a part of the gen-eral store for many years. The store was oper-ated by members of the Aldridge family for many years. Following William's death in 1 903, his son, Charles Phillip Aldridge, bought the two hun-dred acre farm from the other children with the understanding the mother would stay with him in the homeplace. Charles died at the age of fifty leaving the farm to his wife, Lessie Lea Garrison Aldridge, who kept the farm going. In 1 947, Charles' son, Charles (Bill) Manley Aldridge, bought the farm from his mother. Following the death of Charles M. Aldridge in 1977, his son, James Phillip Aldridge, and his wife, Helen, and daughter, Anne, moved to the homeplace. The Aldridge farm holds the second oldest Farm Bureau number in the state. Farming has been a way of life for the Aldridge family for many generations and it is the aim of this generation to keep tradition alive as they hon-or and conserve the farm. Submitted by James P. Aldridge THE ALLEN FARM The century farm I now own is located in the Snow Camp community. It was a grant to my great-great-grandfather, John Allen, Jr., in 1756 by Lord Granville of the Lords Pro-prietors. TheJohn Allen housecan befaintly made out behind the tree in the yard ofthe current house. The Allen family had emigrated from Ire-land to Pennsylvania in the early 1 700s. From family tradition my great-great-great-grandfather, John Allen, Sr., visited Carolina in 1750 or 1751, and applied for a grant of land. He returned to Pennsylvania, became ill and died in 1 754 before the grant was validat-ed. The grant, therefore, was made to his old-est son, John Allen, Jr., who with his mother, three sisters and two brothers came to Caroli-na around 1760. The 90 acres now left con-tains the original homesite and has never been deeded out of the Allen name. The Aliens were Quakers and it was a Quak-er settlement. Therefore, there were no slaves ever. It has been a diversified activity; grain, produce, cattle, sheep at times, hogs and poul-try. The soil was not suitable for cotton or tobacco. No tobacco would have been grown anyway because of their commitment to their Quaker beliefs. A deep religious faith and a strong belief in and support of education was typical of the Allen families. Also, the men were fine crafts-men for their day. John Allen, Jr. taught school for many years. He also handcrafted many pieces of high quality furniture for the house. William Allen farmed heavily, the homeplace and two farms in Randolph Coun-ty. He also kept store at the home, obtaining his supplies from the riverport at Fayetteville by ox drawn wagons. William Graham Allen returned home after serving in the War Between the States and apprenticed for Millwright and Cabinet Maker status. He followed this vocation on an "as needed basis" in conjunction with farm-ing. George Lester Allen as a youth began work-ing in the infant textile industry in the area. As a young adult he married and settled in the home community and began farming the homeplace while continuing working at the Woolen Mill during the winter. In 1910 he moved the family to the Allen Farm so he could better take care of his aging father. The Woolen Mill was burned in 1912 and was not rebuilt. He then turned to carpentry for sup-plemental income as conditions permitted. By the time my generation reached maturi-ty, the farming revolution had begun and there was no way a 100 acre farm could sup-port two families. Realizing this, all five boys went into public work. From the late 1940s when my father had to give it up until 1972, the land was rented to neighbors who were still operating as family farmers. In 1972 the open land was turned to pasture and until 1 983 I ran beef cattle on it. It is now rented to a dairyman for pasture. At the homesite there is a spring that has never gone dry in the 225 years it has been in use. In fact in two of the very dry years of the late 1 920s three of us working in a water line tried to dip it dry but failed. Also there is a section of about 1 5-20 acres of woodland that according to word passed down has never been under plow. In the 1 960s, the North Carolina Historical Society was assisting the Alamance County Historical Society in developing a Memorial Park on the Alamance Battleground site. They were looking for a typical log house of colonial days to place on the grounds. The sec-ond house on the Allen farm built by John Allen, Jr. in 1782 was still standing and well enough preserved to be restored. This is the log house that can be seen at the park today. Our story is not sensational, but it is valid history of an era that is only a memory. Submitted by George C. Allen, Sr. THE BRAXTON FARM When William Braxton, the first Braxton in this area of North Carolina, was settling on the old Braxton homeplace in the 1 750s, fam-ily records indicate there were Indians still in the area with wigwams on the hills above the family spring which the Indians used also as their source of water. During the Revolutionary War, Tory sol-diers raided the larder of Thomas Braxton's home, the old home place, eating the week's supply of bread and butter. Mary McPherson Braxton, daughter-in-law of William the Planter, saved the horses by driving them into the woods. She saved the pewter ware and other valuables by tossing them through a trap door in the floor, then she spread a quilt over the floor on which she placed a baby. The soldiers carefully avoided the quilt area. The earliest document we have pertaining to this farm now owned by Howard T. Braxton, is a surveyor's plan representing "a tract of land surveyed for William Braxon on the south side of Haw River and Cane Creek on Piney Branch." It contains 262 acres of land which was surveyed in 1 756. The second document, a grant of land to William Braxton, is an indenture made between John Earle Granville, Viscount Car-teret, Baron Carteret, of Hawnes in the coun-ty of Bedford in the kingdom of Great Britain of one part and William Braxon of Orange (now Alamance) county in the province of North Carolina, Planter of the other part in which for ten shillings John Earl Granville granted William Braxon 262 acres of land lying in the Parish ofSt. Luke in the County of Orange near Cane Creek on Piney Branch. This indenture is dated January 1 , 1761. The original 262 acres have been handed down from father to son according to the fol-lowing lineage: William Braxton, died 1 77 1 : to son Thom-as (1745-1815): to son John (1782-1860): to son Hiram Braxton (1741-1926) to son John Hiram Braxton (1882-1955): to son Howard Alamance Taft Braxton (1908), the present owner and occupant of part of the original 262 acres. By terms of a will this land will be inherited by the son of Howard Taft Braxton whose name is Howard Taft Braxton, Jr. Thus there will be seven generations of continuous ownership and occupancy of land granted by John Earl Granville to William Braxton in 1761 by the direct descendants of William, the Planter. The original home place was a log cabin of which only the remains of the stone founda-tion and the stone chimney can possibly be identified. The crops produced through the more than 200 years of history are corn, cotton, cows, garden products, hay, hogs, oats, rye, timber, tobacco and wheat. The fa
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|Title||North Carolina Century Farms : 100 years of continuous agricultural heritage|
Martin, Mary Hunter.
Devine, James F.
North Carolina. Department of Agriculture.
Century farms--North Carolina--History
|Place||North Carolina, United States|
(1945-1989) Post War/Cold War period
|Description||Spine title: The history of North Carolina Century Farms; Includes bibliographical references (p. 8); Agricultural history of North Carolina / James F. Devine -- Century Farm owners -- Century Farm family histories|
|Publisher||N.C. Dept. of Agriculture|
|Agency-Current||North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services|
|Rights||State Document see http://digital.ncdcr.gov/u?/p249901coll22,63754|
|Physical Characteristics||247 p. :ill. ;32 cm.|
|Collection||North Carolina State Documents Collection. State Library of North Carolina|
|Digital Characteristics-A||34 MB; 260 p.|
|Digital Collection||North Carolina Digital State Documents Collection|
|Pres File Name-M||pubs_ag_centuryfarms1989.pdf|
|Pres Local File Path-M||\\Preservation_content\pubs_ag\images_master|
jL North Carolina ~
100 Years of Continuous Agricultural Heritage
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Digitized by the Internet Archive
DEC 5 1989
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100 Years of Continuous
North Carolina Department of Agriculture
Compiled by: Libby Gorman
Mary Hunter Martin
Edited by: Deborah Ellison
Cover Design: Michael Reep
Publishing Consultant: Susan McDonald
Copyright © 1989 by the North Carolina
Department of Agriculture
All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America
by Taylor Publishing Company,
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 89-61 145
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