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S K Y- L AN D STORIES OF PICTURESQUE NORTH CAROLINA The People's Magazine Volume 2 JUNE, 1915 Number 3 Entered as Second-Class Matter at the postoffice at Act of March 3, 1879 Winston-Salem, N. C, Under the MAE LUCILE SMITH Editor and Owner Published Every Month Sent by Mail, One Year — One Dollar Single Copies Fifteen Cents ADVISORY BOARD Locke Craig Governor of North Carolina Josephus Daniels — — ....Secretary of the Navy Lee S. Overman United States Senator F. M. Simmons United States Senator Joseph Hyde Pratt.. State Geologist. W. A. Erwin, President Durham Cotton Manufacturing Company Durham, N. C. Julian S. Carr, Manufacturer and Banker ..Durham, N. C. J. Harper Erwin, Secretary and Treasurer Pearl Cotton Mills Durham, N. C. J. C. Pritchard Judge United States Circuit Court of Appeals S. B. Tanner, President Henrietta and Carolene Mills Charlotte, N. C. John E. Ennis, M. D St. Petersburg, Fla. R. M. WiLLCOX.. President Greater Hendersonville Club, Hendersonville, N. C. R. R. Haynes President The Cliffside Mills, Cliffside, N. C. W. A. Smith President Laurel Park Electric Railway, Hendersonville, N. C. L. L. Jenkins President American National Bank, Asheville, N. C. F. E. Durfee President Citizens Bank, Hendersonville, N. C. B. Jackson ...President The People's National Bank, Hendersonville, N. C. The cover pageJand^'entire contents of this Magazine are protected by copyright, and must not be reprinted without the publisher's permission. CX3^< jforetoorti Co <lEbtoarb fibber OBraljam a3nti guarli tfjee, notile moulber of poung mtntig. Ji^ap fcDisibom from on ttgt) comtiine toit!) ttjine Co fjoltr tlje truti) anti rtgfjt, anb error gljwn; Co fjelp tlje toeafe, to leab lt)e carelegg anb to teacf) Cfjp strong tohi besit tfjeir pofcoersi to use Jfor pure, unsielfisii) enbg anb aims ntosit fjigf). k Wt fenofco tfjp toortf), ttp calm, unflinching ga^e l©f)ict) loofesf Ujitl) equal epe into tfje Ijeart of tljings! Bnb mibgt conflicting \iit\3)i bisicernsi tfje trutf); Wt fenott) ttp £Jtrengtl) to feeep tljp course aright, iFearleag of barriers! grim tfjat block tlje toap, l^nsftoerbeb to rigtt or left bp boices falsie: OBob guarb tfjee, fa^bioner of countlesis; soulsi, Hnb map carb one of tbesfe to tnl^om tljou gib'sit a^l tbine oton sif If a bital gparfe be animate It^itlj ttp btgb purpose anb, returning bjljence Cfjep came, leaben tfje race anb all goob tfjinga increasfe. —Uatorence ^. tolt, 31r. ^1^ r^ SKY- LAN D STORIES OF PICTURESQUE NORTH CAROLINA The People's Magazine Volume 2 JUNE, 1915 Number 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Foreword—To Edward Kidder Graham Lawrence S. Holt, Jr. 10 Frontispiece ..^ - Mrs. William N. Reynolds 12 EDITORIAL COMMENT Level-Headed Legislators -... „ .— 189 The Textile Industry Historically 189 Labor Troubles .— . 190 More Recent Troubles 190 "The World Do Move" ...:.... :_..:_ ^ 191 "The Empire State of the South" 192 The State of Resorts 193 A Business Governor 194 Large Ruby Deposits 194 The Center of the State.. 195 Col. A. B. Andrews 195 To SKY-LAND Readers 196 Ah! Dreaming Violets—Poem . R. E. Walker 196 SPECIAL ARTICLES Slighting Southern History and Literature C. W. Lively 197 The New North State Archib.\ld Henderson 212 Looking In On Thomas Dixon ..Mrs. O. Barg.a.min Crocker 219 IN NORTH CAROLINA'S CALCIUM LIGHT Mrs. William N. Reynolds 221 Edward Kidder Graham—R. E. F., '98. :. 224 FICTION The Diamond Crop and The Wedding Bells Charles Anderson 227 Spring—A Poem J. Robin Aglee 229 Cats and Soforth By Dred Vaux 230 The Soul of Adam—A Play—Act II .....Hillard Booth 236 INDUSTRIAL SECTION Alamance County in Industrial North Carolina 243 Graham—The Ideal 261 Some Interesting Products of Child Labor 271 Bigger, Better Burlington : 275 RESORT ARTICLES Carolina Beach—-The Golden Resort 278 MRS. WILLIAM N. REYNOLDS, Retiring North Carolina State Regent of the Daughters of the American Revolution. SKY-LAND MAGAZINE 189 EDITORIAL COMMENT By R. E. W. Level-headed Legislators. WHEN the sensationalist and the p' demagogue hold forth in the legislative halls of a people, ignorance and prejudice are the two legislative disqualifications that yield to them most readily their desired end and often-times burden a State with unwise laws. Certain it is though that, in the case of the Weaver Bill, the legislators of North Carolina in the last session of the Gen-eral Assembly showed themselves to be actuated by neither ignorance nor pre-judice and to be remarkably free from the influence of those who would cripple the industries of the State. Certain labor sensationalists may charge ig-norance. But if ignorance be the case, in their ignorance the legislators were wise in refusing to be bunglers and in refusing to accept as final evidence of needed legislation the representations of well meaning sensationalists and those of the hirelings of an organization whose patron saint is said to be vitally inter-ested in some twenty Northern manu-facturing enterprises. That the Weaver Bill was given much publicity was quite natural in view of the fact that it lent itself easily to sen-sational comment and afforded the opportunity for much rhetorical well-doing. And that it touched and rallied the hearts of the public is not strange when one considers that in this day and time the public is easily moved to tears by tales of suffering and oppression provided the alleged unfortunate be not near enough to receive material aid. That amidst it all the legislators sat steady in the boat and calmly considered the provisions of the bill in the light of present conditions and future posibili-ties, we should be thankful. For the Southern cotton manufacturer the days of tremendous dividends are no more. Time was when they were large. But year by year they have dwindled. They have been reduced greatly by the increased cost of the raw material ; they have been reduced by the increase in wages paid the operatives; they have been reduced by increased taxation; they have been reduced by legislative curtailment of the hours per week that he may operate his plant; they have been reduced by competition—to say noth-ing of reductions caused in other ways. That large dividends were declared in the past and that great fortunes have been accumulated in the textile industry is no occasion for revenge. Retalia-tory legislation is never wise. And during these days when the sensationa-list and the demagogue seek public preferment by declaiming against the cotton manufacturing industry and other large enterprises as well, that man who calmly sits at his desk with facts and figures before him and lends his in-fluence towards securing legislation that will preserve and increase the wealth of his State, with due consideration for humanity, is great. He is on the short-est road to Utopia. The Textile Industry Historically. TTISTORICALLY the manufacture -'--'- of cotton goods in North Caro-lina is exceedingly interesting. It began with the late Edwin M. Holt, who built 190 SKY-LAND MAGAZINE the old Alamance Mill in 1837 and manu-factured cotton plaids. The industry received its greatest impetus some years after the Civil War; and today it has reached enormous proportions. During the almost magical develop-ment of the industry in North Carolina through the past several decades, textile manufacturers have until quite recently paid little or no attention to publicity regarding the condition of their opera-tives. Indeed, they have hardly had the time to do so, so busily have they been occupied in building up the State's great manufacturing industry. Neither did it occur to them that such publicity would be necessary in a State where every man was concerned with retriev-ing his fortunes and with upbuilding his unfortunate State. So the textile industry grew to its present proportions (employing over sixty-four thousand operatives and vital-ly affecting over one hundred seventy-seven thousand, five hundred and sixty-four persons) without the manufacturers troubling themselves about letting their left hand know what their right hand was doing. And they prospered, as all men do who apply themselves to a business with possibilities. Labor Troubles. TI) UT the textile sea was not to be for- -'-^ ever calm. Some years ago, a fairly long time ago now, there appeared at several mills throughout the State labor union representatives. These peo-ple came, presumably from the North. They were pleasing of manner and oily of speech. With their gifts of picturing to the mill operatives the terrible condi-tions under which they were working (but which the|^ operatives were never quite able to comprehend) and with their glowing tales of the benefits of organization, they succeeded in es-tablishing several unions throughout the State. Here and there strikes were ordered on this alleged grievance or that. Ow-ing either to the satisfaction of the operatives with things as they were or to their lack of the sense of organized action, this effort to injure the manu-facturing interest of the State turned out to be little more than a fiasco. And from that day to this the operatives have been loyal to their mills. These troubles served, however, in many instances to interrupt the friendly, cordial relations between employer and employed and to place a distance be-tween those who had hitherto had a community of interests. One of the State's oldest and most successful man-ufacturers recently spoke of this phase of the matter to me in terms which showed him to be sincerely and deeply grieved that the relations of former days should have been strained and that the employes had come more and more to be known by the pay roll rather than by name. More Recent Troubles T~^URING recent years the textile -"—^ manufacturer has encountered the labor agitator in this State under another guise. He now appears as the agent of the National Child Labor Committee, whose paid agent in this State is one Swift of Greensboro, and as sentimen-talists who agitate in various w^ays the public thought. The avowed business of these men is to alleviate the condition of the mill operative. They ignore the direct method of personal effort among the employes and their families and seek to aid them by securing legislation which would curtail their income, which, SKY-LAND MAGAZINE 191 those seeking to help them claim, is al-ready too small. To accomplish this end, bitter and persistent warfare is waged against the manufacturer. He is represented al-ways in his worst light, if not in a false light. The poorest and most unfor-tunate among his operatives are photo-graphed, the malcontents among them are interviewed and the photographs and the interviews are scattered abroad as representing the conditions that pre-vail. Some notable examples of child labor that have been overlooked by Mr. Swift and his sympathizers will be found in another part of this magazine. The story will be interesting. "The World Do Move" TT IS doubtful whether so much has -- been done for any class of people dur-ing the last thirty years as for the mill operative. The mill men were among the first to recognize the principles of sanitation and to build and equip their plants along the most modern and approved lines. To be sure, the old mills and the old tenements do not meet the requirements of the modern idea of things. They were built according to the knowledge and ideas of their time; and so were built the stores, the resi-dences of the cities and the farm houses of those days. But just as new residences and farm houses are being built according to the latest and most approved designs, so are the mills of today. For an idea of what the condition of the cotton mill opera-tive is coming to be, do not visit a mill that has been running for thirty years and that is nearing the end of its life unless new machinery is installed and better provisions are made for the opera-tives. Visit one of the modern plants. Note the high ceilings, the systems of ventilation, the water supply, the wel-fare work that is being done by the com-panies. A study of the growth of the textile business in this State will reveal a remarkable tendency towards improve-ment in all things that concern the operative. Were these manufacturers forced into these things by law? Hardly. These things are the results of education. Through the years that have been pass-ing, the manufacturer has learned, just as the farmer, the merchant and other men, what will build up his business and what will not. He has learned that it is economy to conserve the health of his operatives, to educate them, to develop their social life, to make their lives not only tolerable, but happy. The modern manufacturer wants an educated, pros-perous, happy, contented people. He must have such a people to secure the best results. And more and more he will come to develop such a people purely from a business standpoint, if not from a religious. And there is no amount of legislation that can contribute one iota of what the manufacturers themsleves can and do contribute towards the development of their people. This is not the case in some of the older mills. No one will deny that in some instances conditions are not what they should be. But will shorter hours remedy the situation? In all probabil-ity they would simply hasten the day of receivership and leave the operatives in a state worse than their first. Then too, the development of the human being is slow. No one but God can make of him a new creature in an instant. So the process must be one of evolution. And religious sentiment and keen business perception in the heart and head of the manufactuerr are doing for the mill operative a hundredfold more than all: 192 SKY-LAND MAGAZINE the agitators, who are harrassing the manufacturers, poisoning the mind of the public against the State's greatest manufacturing industry and placing the mill operative in a false light before the public. "The Empire State of the South" SOUTH of us lies the largest State east of the Mississippi, Georgia. In point of the production of cotton, Georgia stands second and takes first place in general lines of manufacture. To this "Empire State of the South" the nation and the world owes much. Georgia was the pioneer in the education of women, the first female college having been established at Macon. And it was from the hands of Georgia that the world received the cotton gin and the sewing machine, two of mankind's great-est inventions. Georgia is rich in natural resources. It is a State of quarries, mineral deposits, gardens, orchards, fields of yellow corn and snowy cotton. Many streams place at the disposal of industry an almost inconceivable number of horsepower. More than twenty million dollars has already been expended in the develop-ment of this enormous source of wealth. Early the people of the State saw the possibilities in the manufacture of cotton and led the South in this industry by establishing a mill as far back as 1827, the Georgia Factory, at Whitehall. Nine years afterwards the Princeton Manufacturing Company came into existence near Athens. Eight years from that time a factory was completed at High Shoals. In 1850 there were thirty-five cotton mills in Georgia. The industry along with everything else was paralyzed by the Civil War. But some years after its close a new impetus was given the textile][business and the manufacture of cotton goods went forward by leaps and bounds. Today there are more than one hun-dred and forty-five cotton mills in the State, with a combined annual output valued at forty-five million dollars. It is significant too that during the years of this remarkable development and growth of their industry, the tex-tile manufacturers of Georgia have here and there, and in ever increasing num-bers, been turning their attention toward the improvement of the condition of their people. Georgia was among the first if not the leader in welfare work. We find that as early as 1845 the Put-nam Manufacturing Company near Etatonton had built a church and a school house and that in the latter both day and night classes were conducted for the operatives. In this school the Bible had a conspicuous place. There has been among Georgia manu-facturers a general spreading of the sense of obligation to their employes; and today welfare work has a large place in their activities. It is understood that the North Highlands School at Columbus is in session the year round with day and night classes. It is equipped with kindergarten for the little children and with a manual training shop for the boys. Also, the school is equipp-ed with shower baths, gynmasium, swings and joggling boards. - The work at these schools, that at LaGrange and that in the textile department of the Georgia School of Technology offers unusual advantages to boys of ambition. Last year Georgia was afflicted with the demoralizing work of the I. W. W, They pitched their tents near the fac-tories of the Fulton Bag and Cotton Company and day by day poured their venom into the ears of peaceful, happy employes. In due course of time came the usual strike. Marion Jackson and SKY-LAND MAGAZINE 193 others, being stirred by the sight of the marching strikers and seeing an oppor-tunity for some sensational rhetoric and verbal well-doing, took up their pens against the company. Nothing was left undone to turn the tide of popular opinion against the Fulton Bag and Cotton Company. Mass meetings were held at which sen-sational speakers waged windy, wordy warfare against the manufacturers in behalf of the striking operatives. Daily semi-religious, yellow bulletins appeared in the papers, set in large, scare type and signed by the executive committee of the Men and Religion Forward Movement. There was never a more determined effort to discredit a large manufacturing interest and to increase the distance between employer and employed. Yet the cry of these sensationalists was "Unite." Recently I was in one of the cotton mills of this State talking to a foreman. I pulled some letters out of my pocket and among them happened to be one from Mr. Oscar Elsas, president of the Fulton Bag and Cotton Mills. The man with whom I was talking smiled when he saw the envelope. "I worked for those people," he said. "What do you think of them," I asked. "Finest people I ever saw, " he replied. "Never saw people better to their help. " It is also true that, while the tents of the I. W. W. were pitched over against the mills of the Fulton Bag and Cotton Company, just over the way could be seen the attractive welfare buildings where the company had been spending large sums of money in educating their employes and in bettering their social life. Hardly is it necessary to say that individual improvement and advance-ment lie before the mill operative today if he will avail himself of his opportuni-ties. And neither is it necessary to say that the man who serves him is the man who points out the way to success and not the man who fills him with dis-content and hatred towards his employ-er. The State of Resorts. NORTH CAROLINA is pre-eminent-ly the State of resorts. They are strung out all along the coast. In the mountains of the State they are almost without number. And here and there in almost every section of the Old North State they will be found. Only a few more weeks and these popular places of rest. and recreation will throw open their doors to the public. Hundreds and thousands of people, not only from this State, but from all parts of the country, will flock to them to spend their vacations and their summers. There is something about the North Carolina spirit that gets into a person, once spending a season within her bounds, and draws him back again. Where is the man, woman or child who has spent a summer in the land of the balsam and the long-leaf pine and who has no desire to return? They all come back and bring their friends, who have become enchanted with their stories and praises of the "land of liberty and love. " What charm thus works upon the natives of the State to make them love it better than any land on earth and that makes the visitor wish to return, our poets have never told us. Whatever it is it dwells in the State from one end to the other. May it not be the wildness of the waves of Hatteras, the calm of the Blue Ridge, the song of the pines, the shade of the oaks and the elms, the blush of the apple and the peach, the rolling of the hills, the stretching of the plains, the blowing of the grain, the singing of 194 SKY-LAND MAGAZINE the streams, the beauty of the girls and women, the chivalry of the men and hospitality of the whole people blending into one powerful, pleasing, heart and soul satisfying influence? Be that as it may, they will come again this year. And they will be happy. We welcome them. A Business Governor. NORTH CAROLINA'S biggest busi-ness is North Carolina. All other enterprises in the State are comprehend-ed within the State and the conducting of its business. Yet there will be found at the head of no business a man except one of long, thorough training. Where-in then lies the business shrewdness of placing the gubernatorial powers in the hands of a man whose life has been given over to splitting legal hairs and winning popular notice through press and public speeches? Do these things qualify a man for the governorship of North Caro-lina? They may develop a man into a politician. And the degree of his great-ness is in direct ratio to his ability to utter the greatest number of words with-out saying anything and to do the greatest number of things without accomplishing anything. Is this the most desirable type of man to place at the head of the affairs of the State? Would it not be better, wiser to place in the Governor's Mansion at the next election a business man rather than a politician? Would the State not fare better under the administration of a man of farsighted business acumen than under that of a machine-building politician? And the logical business man for the place is General Julian S. Carr. General Carr is one of the builders of North Carolina. He has always been deeply interested in the development of his State along all lines. He is a friend of education, a friend of the poor, a friend of the prisoner—for whom he desires more humane treatment—he is the friend of every movement for the betterment and upbuilding of the State and with it all he is a successful business man. The whisperings of policy and expediency, as they might affect his personal career, would fall upon deaf ears; and General Carr would give to North Carolina what she has so long needed—a business administration. He has served his State well in war and in peace. He is an able, honored son today. And his mother has no other to whom she may point with greater pride or upon whom she may lean in greater security. Large Ruby Deposits. HAT is said to be the largest ruby-garnet, rhodolite deposit in the world is that found at the Great Ruby Mines Camp of Col. S. A. Jones in Jackson county, North Carolina. Expert engineers have stated in their reports that these mines have a deposit that will turn out over forty million tons of one hundred per cent pure high-class abrasive material. Colonel Jones is in possession of con-tracts upon which he would now be de-livering one thousand tons per annum of abrasive material to Germany alone had it not been for the outbreak of the present war. For twenty-one years he has struggled to develop these great deposits and plans are now on foot for the installing of improved machinery that will enable him to compete success-fully with foreign producers and with the manufacturers .of carborundum at Niagara. Col. Jones and his associate, Mr. I. L. Council, who control these deposits of abrasive ores, are organizing a new SKY-LAND MAGAZINE 195 company to develop the mines on a large scale and expect before the end of the year to be employing over five hundred men. It is their hope that by the last of August they will be turning out material at the rate of five thousand tons per annum. The opening of these mines will mean great things for North Carolina and will bring into the western part of the State a new stream of wealth. ^• The Center of the State. IN a very vital sense Chapel Hill is today the hub of North Carolina. Time was when the State reolved around the Capitol City. With the coming of Edward Kidder Graham into the life and consciousness of the Old North State, the center of things has shifted to the State University. The influence of that institution today reaches into and affects every section of the State in a manner other than through its alumni. Through its extension work the people of the State feel the power-ful pulse beats of the institution's strong, steady, life-giving heart. The lamps of knowledge lighted and kept burning there no longer await the coming of the students. Out into even the remotest corners of the State they fling their enlightening rays, and thousands are walking in a greater light. Thanks to President Graham for this. North Carolina is exceedingly fortunate in having a University President whose brain has not been lured from the ways of men by the ignis fatuus of mysticism and speculation. Dr. Graham has sur-vived the temptation of distance and the siren luring of the Unknowable—things which beset the mental pathway of every intellectual pilgrim. He has kept himself close to life; and all his visions and dreams have been related to the life of mankind in a practical way—best of all, to the lives of the people of his State. And as the years go by, North Carolinians will come to appreciate more and more the greatness of Ed-ward Kidder Graham. Col. A. B. Andrews. QUINCE the printing of our last issue ^^ there has passed from our midst one of the empire builders of the South. With the death of Col. A. B. Andrews North Carolina sustains the loss of one of her greatest sons. So long had he been with us and so accustomed had we become to his great achievements that we hardly realized their significance. But verily this man was a Titan. Born a Tar Heel more than seventy-one years ago, Colonel Andrews devoted practically his entire life to his native State, for which he had a passionate love. Loyalty to North Carolina and a passion for upbuilding and furthering her every interest were great motives in his long, useful life. And today the entire State, and the western part of it in particular, owes to the memory of Colonel Andrews an ever enduring gratitude. Entering the Conferderate army as a lieutenant. Colonel Andrews rendered his State and the Confederacy brave, loyal service and came out of the war with the rank of captain. After the war he engaged in railroad work and became superintendent of the Raleigh and Gas-ton Railway in 1869. This road be-came a part of the Seaboard Air Line and Colonel Andrews afterwards occupied important positions with a number of roads in this State and Georgia. He became third vice-president of the Richmond and Danville road in 1892; and when this road became the Southern, 196 SKY-LAND MAGAZINE he was made first vice-president of that road, which position he held until his death. During his term of service as first vice-president of the Southern, the privilege of taking the presidency of the road was his; but he declined, choosing rather to remain in North Caro-lina, the State which he had helped to build. Colonel Andrews was also president of a number of smaller roads in the State, which developed under his direct-ing genius. His greatest service to the State, however, was the building of the Western North Carolina railroad across the Blue Ridge. Through his untiring energy, enthusiasm and indomitable will this great enterprise was pushed to completion in the face of almost insur-mountable dif^culties; and Western North Carolina with its resources and its beauty was transformed almost as if by magic. This work will ever stand as a monument to the great man North Carolina now mourns and as an example of what courage and perseverance may accomplish. To SKY-LAND Readers. THE management of SKY-LAND MAGAZINE regrets exceedingly that no May issue of the ' publication appeared. Special effort will be made to prevent a similar occurrence; and all subscriptions will be continued one month longer that subscribers may receive their full number of magazines. -SI-VIOLETS By R. E. Walker Ah! dreaming little violets, A cluster of blue eyes. When I behold your loveliness. What memories arise! Again she looks into my soul With tender, wondering eyes. That caught their softness from the clouds. Their blueness from the skies. Again her languid lashes droop. Her tinted eyelids close; And in her cheeks there reappear The blushes of the rose. Again the perfume of her breath Like incense from above! Again her kiss and her caress And whispers of her love! Again her sacred bosom's heaving. Her head upon my breast ; Again those silent moments when Our tired hearts found their rest. And O! sweet violets, bear to her My heart's own wildest love With all its dreams more tender than The heart-thoughts of the dove! And in her presence offer there The Great Perfumer's art, An incense rising to her from The censor of my heart. And O! sweet violets, on the breast Of her who keeps my heart, With all thy magic plead for me. Tell her we must not part. SKY-LAND MAGAZINE 197 SLIGHTING SOUTHERN HISTORY AND LITERATURE BY C. W. LIVELY THE Literary Digest of May 31, 1913, summarized certain articles under the heading "Slighting Southern Litera-ture, " which had appeared earlier in May in the New York Times. Mrs. Leigh of Alabama, in one of the articles had condemmed the textbooks on history and literature as being unfair to the South. She especially condemned the textbook of Brander Matthews on American literature and claimed by way of com-parison a place for several Southern writers equal to that given the leaders of the North. An anonymous writer replied to her in the Times and defended the textbooks. He made the usual Northern claims that Southern intellect was turned away from art, science, and literature and into law and politics by slavery, and that Southern authors were, when compared with those of the North, I "surprisingly imitative. " I shall attempt to show that the Old South has not been treated with fairness by the Northern textbooks on history; that she did her full part in education, religion, science, and art; and that slavery did not hinder any kind of intellectual development at the South; and that the average Northern text writer on American literature is exceed-ingly ignorant, or he is almost insolent in his unfair treatment of Southern literature. The anonymous writer of the Times clearly shows his ignorance of Southern Hfe and literature, as well as his egotism, when he refers to what he calls Mrs. Leigh's "extravagant assertions" as being "a lurid reflection of milder claims to the same effect ... by other Southerners." I am satisfied that the leading scholars, authors, and historians of the South are as capable of forming correct estimates of her people, their history and literature, as Barrett Wendell, Stedman, Matthews, the anony-mous writer of the Times, or any other person at the North. But I shall cite evidence in support of my claims from Boston, where they tell God how to do things, and from New York. The average Northern text writer on history and literature aims to bring reproach on the early settlers of James-town by calling them "adventurers," "profligate sons of the nobility," etc., while the Puritans and Pilgrims are worshiped as gods and goddesses. If the Pilgrims were so great and so much under the control and guidance of the Almighty, why did they not come to America at the time the Virginia "adven-turers" came? They went to Holland instead. Some of the Pilgrim faith did go to Maine about that time, but soon returned because of the hardships en-dured. After the Virginia "adventur-ers" had founded a new nation, erected twin altars to learning and to God, made permanent homes, established representative government, explored and mapped out New England, after they had sent back to the mother country glowing accounts of their happiness and prosperity, and after Dutch neighbors of the Pilgrims in Holland had settled in New York and the French had settled in Canada, the Pilgrims came to settle near their Dutch neighbors in New York. 198 SKY-LAND MAGAZINE Regardless of what history says, I am of the opinion that it took as brave, noble, and as virtuous, if not more determined, men to make the first permanent settlement at Jamestown as the Pilgrims and Puritans who later came to New England. John Smith, Percy, Strachey, Sandys, Hunt, Bucke, Thorpe, Whitaker, the "apostle of Virginia," and their associates deserve as much admiration and praise as the leaders of the Pilgrims and Puritans. Because many of the early settlers at Jamestown died of disease contracted in the forests and swamps and of starvation, the textbooks charge it to their imcompe-tency; but the large number of deaths among the Pilgrims is laid to the in-hospitable climate and treachery of the Indians. These textbooks call the stories of Smith and Pocahontas, the Mecklen-burg Declaration, and others at the South mythical; but the stories of Plymouth Rock, the Charter Oak, Revere's Ride, and others of New England, which are heralded as facts, are at least as doubtful. They tell of the Boston Tea Party, but fail to men-tion the tea that was sent to the Southern ports. A street brawl, which John Adams and Josiah Quincy defended and justified, is given much space in the textbooks as the Boston Massacre; but the battles of Alamance, Point Pleasant, Moore's Creek, and other important events at the South leading up to the Revolution are not mentioned. Warren and Hale, New England patriots are given their well-earned praise; but Isaac Hayne and John Laurens, of the South, are forgotten. The aid given the partiot cause by Robert Morris is chronicled, but that given by Nelson and Page, of Virginia, and Ralph Izard, of South Carolina, is not. Hayne, Calhoun, and South Carolina are al-ways condemned for threatening nulli-fication in 1832; but these textbooks find no room to condemn such treason-able and unconstitutional acts at the North as the Faneuil Hall noninter-course resolutions, Essex Juntos, "blue lights", Hartford conventions, and personal liberty laws. Without reading the speech of R. Y. Hayne, the text-books tell us that he was "demolished" by Webster in the great debate. How-ever, John Q. Adams said, "Webster left his argument hanging on a broken hinge," and the Phildelphia Express stated what was probably the majority opinion of Americans at that time when it said: "I do not think Mr Hayne, completely overthrew Mr. Webster, but I am decidedly of the opinion that Mr. Webster did not overthorw Mr. Hayne. " It has been the textbooks which have overthrown Mr. Hayne. Old John Brown is still looked upon by many Northern text writers as a saint and martyr, while John . Wilkes Booth is classed with Satan. Both of these men are and always have been looked upon by the people of the South as criminals of the same class. Both were guilty of murder, and Brown was guilty of treason. The same kind of motive impelled both of them to their criminal acts. The South is condemned for trying to destroy the Union in 1861. There was no real union when the South seceded. The religious and political ties which bind nations together had already been broken by the North. The personal liberty laws of the Northern States had annulled the Constitution and Acts of Congress. To the abolitionists the Constitution was a "covenant with death and a league with hell," because it rec-ognized and protected slavery. Many at the North said the Union was not worth preserving in connec-tion with the South and slaverv, and SKY-LAND MAGAZINE 199 urged the Northern States to secede. The South stood by the Union, the Constitution, and the laws of the country for forty years amid all of this discord, clamor, and confusion, and finally sought peace and independence. Though the provocation was a hundred times as great, the right was denied in 1861 just as it was denied in 1776. The textbooks condemn the South because it is claimed that the people were "aristocratic." But Capt. John Smith, Nathaniel Bacon, Oglethorpe, Patrick Henery, Jefferson, Mason, Gads-den, Marion, Houston, Andrew Jackson, Lowndes, Nathanial Macon, and their followers at the South were certainly more democratic than William Bradford, Winthrop, the Mathers, Hamilton, Jay, Adams, Pickering, Cabott, Ames, Web-ster, Sumner, and their followers at the North. Aristocrats as well as monarch-ists, in a governmental sense, believe in the centralization of the powers of government. This centralization was opposed by the South, while the North generally and New England especially have been its main defenders. The textbooks complain of the lack of progress in the Old South; but South Carolina, with a smaller population, had a greater assessed property valuation in 1860 than Massachusetts. From 1791- 1813 five Eastern States exported $299,- 000,000 worth of products, products mostly from the Southern States first transferred and then reshipped; while five Southern States during the same time exported $509,000,000 worth of products. The commerce of the South was prosperous until the tariff acts of the first third of the last century worked a discrimination against the South and in favor of the East. Was not the cry of New England for a protective tariff during this time really an admission that she could no longer support her-self without the aid of the richer South? Did not New England thereby admit that unless she could get government aid she could not establish manufactories? It was government aid and not the New Englander's superior wealth or ability that made her manufacturers prosper-ous. When she first called for help, did not the South respond nobly and thereby agree to feed, clothe, and support New England until she could get a start? The "beggars," as Ran-dolph called them, continually insisted on the increase of the rates until South Carolina finding herself impoverished by the tariff, demanded the right to say how much she could afford to give to this government charity. The text writers condemn Calhoun, Hayne, and South Carolina for that and call New England great. And, despite the con-tinued threats of secession and nulli-fication by New England from the adoption of the Constitution down to 1861, she has escaped without a stain, and all of these sins have been charged to the South. The textbooks, however, claim that slavery, agriculture, and aristocracy hindered the growth in population and wealth of the Southern States. Slavery, as well as the free negro, has undoubtedly turned many of the best immigrants from the South. But the presence of the negro, bond and free, in the South was more the fault of old and New England than it was of the South. But it would be just as fair to compare the growth of Maine with Massachusetts or New Hampshire with Connecticut or Maine with Illinois as it would be to compare Massachusetts with Carolina or Ohio with Kentucky. Why not compare the the growth of Canada with the United States? Was it slavery, aristocracy, and agriculture which caused the diff-erence in growth in the North? The 200 SKY-LAND MAGAZINE South in 1860, with one-fifth of the population of the country, showed forty-five per cent of the property valua-tion, twenty-eight per cent of the bank-ing capital, and, with one-fourth of the area, was producing more than one-half of the agricultural output of the whole country. She built twice as many miles of railroad as all the New England and Middle States combined, and her manu-facturing interests showed a larger per cent of growth than the rest of the country for the same time. The South was producing her own supplies of corn, wheat, oats, and live stock; she pro-duced nearly all of the tobacco, nearly all of the sugar, all of the cotton, all of the rice, and most of the fruits that were then grown in this country. Yet the textbooks tell us that the Southerners were developed "only in certain narrow grooves and that they could think in no others." They say the farmer at the South who produced cotton became a narrow-minded aristocrat, but the manufacturer of cotton in New England became a broad-minded democrat; that farming in the South retarded the pro-gress of that section, while farming in the Middle West was a great boon to pro-gress; that men who worked fifty servants on their farms at the South were inferior classes of men, while those who worked a thousand servants in the mines and factories of the North became noble men. There were but few large fac-tories at the South before the war, but nearly every home had its wheel and loom and every community had its shop where necessary implements were made. The South, like New England followed what seemed most profitable. Let us notice what the Old South did in the'way of art, science, and invention. It is doubtful if Eli Whitney should be given the sole credit for inventing the cotton gin, as Bull, Lyons, and McCloud, of Georgia, seem to be equally entitled to the honor. McCormick, of Virginia, invented the reaper and mower, though he is rarely mentioned. M. F. Maury, of Virginia, "furnished the brains" and told Field how and where to lay the Atlantic cable. Humboldt and other great men of Europe called Maury one of the world's leading scientists and benefactors, but the Northern text writers have not heard of him. James Rumsey, of Virginia, invented the steam-boat, and not Fulton, of the North. ShafTner, of Virginia, Rogers, of Mary-land, and Vail, of New Jersey, deserve as much credit for inventing the tele-graph as Morse, of Massachusetts. The textbooks always tell of Ericsson and the Monitor, but fail to tell of John M. Brooke, of Virginia, who invented the deep-sea sounding vessel and was the builder of the Merrimac, the first iron-clad battleship and which defeated the Monitor. Jefferson invented the modern plow. Gatling, of North Carolina, invented the famous gatling gun. Goulding, of Georgia, has a better right to the honor of inventing the sew-ing machine than Howe, of New Eng-land, though the textbooks do not mention him. Crawford Long, of Georgia, was the first in the world to use anaesthetics in surgical operations, though the textbooks continue to give the honor of it to Morton and Wells, of Massachusetts. Marion Sims, of South Carolina, and Ephriam McDowell and Walter Reed, of Virginia, were among the greatest physicians and surgeons of their time. Coleridge called Washington Allston, poet and painter of Carolina, "the first genius produced by the Western world. " Cooper, of South Carolina, was called the "Father of Political Economy in America." Ram-sey's "History of South Carolina in the Revolution" was the first book copy- SKY-LAND MAGAZINE 201 righted in the United States. Debow, of Louisiana, was a famous statistician and economist. W. C. Wells, of Caro-lina, preceded Darwin in formulating the theory of natural selection and was the first to announce the present accepted theory of dew. Joseph Winlock, of Kentucky, was among our greatest astronomers. Thomas Godfrey, of North Carolina, was our first dramatist; while Stephen Elliott, Joel Poinsett, and H. W. Ravenal were great botanists; Shaler, of Kentucky, was our greatest geologist; and J. E. Holbrook, of South Carolina, was considered by Agassiz and other scientists of Europe our greatest biologist. Robert Mills, of South Carolina, was the architect of the Bunker Hill and Washington monuments as well as many of the nation's finest buildings. Thomas R. Dew, of Vir-ginia, was an able sociologist. Edwin Ruffiin, of Virginia, was a pioneer in scientific agriculture; and Ettienne de Bore, of Louisana, was the first in America to manufacture sugar from cane. America has not produced a greater family of scientists than the LeConte family, of Georgia; no natura-list has equaled Audubon, of Louisiana; while Paul Du Chaillu, of the same State, was one of our greatest explorers and scientists. Basil Gildersleeve and Milton W. Humphrey, of the South, have not been surpassed at the North as Greek and Latin scholars. Thomas Jefferson, W. A. Caruthers, A. D. Murphy, Calvin H. Wiley, Crafts, Le-gare. Meek, Dimitry, and others at the South were equaled only by Horace Mann, of Massachusetts, as educational reformers. Such preachers as Waddell, Madison, Meade, Dabney, Semple, Thornwell, Hoge, Palmer, Robert Henry, the Alexanders of Virginia, Manley, Pierce, Asbury, F. L. Hawks, Dagg, Broaddus, Jesse Mercer, Curry, William Hopper, and many others at the South were not surpassed by any at the North in piety, learning, or ability. Sequoyah, the greatest American Indian, was born in the South, and Booker T. Washington, the greatest man of his race, was born in slavery at the South and educated in Southern schools. For the benefit of the Northern text writers who have' claimed that the South has not made any contrubutions to the intellectual output of the country, it would be well for them to examine the birthplace and works of R. W. Gibbes, Brantz and A. M. Mayer, William Max-well, J. C. Nott, E. S. Holden, W. H. Holcombe, John Allen Wyeck, Robert Greenhow, F. P. Porcher, G. H. Miles, L. P. Canonge, W. A. Graham, William Mumford, Archibald Alexander, Alex-ander Means, J. R. and O. M. Mitchell, Peter Cartwright, Joseph and Joseph R. Buchanan, Henery Draper, Cyrus Thomas, J. L. Shecut, A. S. Taylor, Gideon Lincecum, Buckingham Smith, PhiHp Slaughter, T. P. Shaffner, J. L. Smith, J. H. B. Latrobe, J. B. Minor, Thomas R. Price, G. S. Bedford, S. W. Price, Mahlon Loomis, G. H. Calvert, J. G. McCullough, Thomas and Samuel MuUody, Francis L. Hawks, Lorenzo Waugh, Joseph Ray, Max Somerville, C. P. Cranch, M. D. Conway, Devereaux Jarratt, John H. Wheeler, Joseph Gales, Charles Eraser, and many others. The first American steamship to cross the ocean was projected at and sailed from Savannah, Ga. ; the first railroads of the country were built in Maryland and South Carolina. The South Carolina railroad was the first in the world built expressly for locomotives, the first in America to have locomotives built for its own use, also the first to order loco-motives built in the community by its own mechanics and citizens. During the first half of the last centurv the South 202 SKY-LAND MAGAZINE created an agricultural industry which represented more brain power, more business ability, and more capital than were required to develop the industrial interests of New England. It not only dominated the finance, politics, and commerce of this country, but also greatly influenced those of Europe. Other names and achievements might easily be added, but tliose given should be sufficient to show that the reproach of intellectual sterility urged against the Old South does not lie so heavily as is often thought and taught by the text-books and other works from the North on history and literature. The tenth edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, Volume A., page 719,, expresses the common Northern impression of the Old South. It says: "the few thinkers born south of the Mason and Dixon line, outnumbered by those belonging to the single State of Massachusetts, have commonly emigrated to New York and Boston in search of a university training. Nor is it too much to say that mainly by their connection with the North the Carolinas have been saved from sinking to the level of Mexico or the Antilles." Every well-informed American knows that that statement is false, and he further knows that the nearest any Southern State ever came to sinking to the level of Mexico or the Antilles was while the "college-bred men," "Chris-tians," and politicians from the North controlled the afl^airs of the South dur-ing Reconstruction. It is generally ad-mitted that the South now has its full portion of intelligence. Does any one suppose that Sherman's march to the sea, Sheridan's campaign in the Valley of Virginia, Butler's conduct in New Orleans and reconstruction suddenly brought about an intellectual, education-al, moral, and literary cataclysm at the South? We know that the war greatly retarded all lines of development and growth. The manufacturing progress of the Old South was slower than that of the Eastern States because it w^as a natural growth and not fostered by sectional laws. More than that, the negro kept a splendid immigration to this country away from the South. He kept them away then and keeps them away now, and the negro is unfit for manufacturing labor. Now let us see what the textbooks say of education and relation in the South before the War between the States. Abernathy, speaking of colonial times in his "American Literature," says, "Ed-ucation and religion were as thoroughly neglected in Virginia as they were thoroughly cultivated in Massachusetts" and Ashley's "American History" says: "Education was systematically neglect-ed at the South before the Civil War." These two will serve as good examples, and both are recent. Before Pilgrim or Puritan set foot on Massachusetts soil, the colonists at Jamestown, with the aid of English friends, had established Henrico College and were building a preparatory school at Charles City. Both schools were free to whites and Indians, and both were destroyed by the Indian massacre of 1622; but this alone shows that the colonists were interested in education. As to religion, "their first act on landing was to arrange a place to worship. They stretched a sail from the boughs of two adjacent trees, and here they had ser-vices morning and evening." Some of the Southern people later drank, played cards, and bet on races, just as they did and do in the other sections; but that was no more a sign of irreligion than it was for the Puritans to burn witches at the stake, cut ofif Quakers' tongues and ears, and drive out Baptists and others who thought differently about religion. SKY-LAND MAGAZINE 203 The Southerners probably thought more of the mercies of the Father than of the vengeance of the Judge. It is counted deep rehgious feeHng and a high grade of civiHzation in the early New Englanders when they cut off the head of King Philip and placed it upon a pole and sold his wife and son into slavery; but it is a sure sign of irreligion and a low order of civilization in the early Southerners to play cards, bet on races, or take a drink. Probably they did not drink New Eng-land rum. If not, of course it was wrong. A pamphlet published in London in 1649 and quoted at length by Fiske, of Massachusetts, in his "Old Virginia and Her Neighbors" says: " I may not forget to tell you that we have a free school, with two hundred acres of land, a fine house upon it, forty milch kine, and other accommodations; other petty schools also we have. " After naming a number of early free schools of note established in Virginia, Fiske again says: "Indeed, there was after 1649 a considerable amount of compulsory primary educa-tion in Virginia, much more than has generally been supposed, since the records of it have been buried in the parish vestry books." Philip A. Bruce, in his "Economic History of Virginia," says: "One of the duties to be performed on the part of the master was to teach his youthful servants so that they could read a chapter in the Bible, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Commandments," The early Virginians were indeed a peculiar people if they bound them-selves to do these things for their indentured servants and neglected their own children. Fiske admits that it is customary for "historical writers to make too much of the contrast between the New England schools and those of the South" and says the "country schools of New England rarely ever taught more than to read, write, and cipher. " ^ Schools at that time were almost en-tirely under the control of the Churches. Each community built its schoolhouse and hired its teacher much in the same manner that churches and preachers are now provided. The system was crude and the teachers often ignorant and incompetent. The old field school, the parish school, or the charity school was generally present in every neighbor-hood in the South. Washington, Jack-son, Grundy, Crockett, Sevier, and other early frontiersmen had some advantages even near the borders of civilization. But, except in a few of the larger towns of the country in New England, as well as in the other colonies, free public schools were looked upon as charitable institutions, maintained for those who were too poor to pay tuition, and wherever possible "rate bills," or coal taxes, were assessed on all families send-ing children to these schools. As late as 1865 rate bills were collected in New York, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, and other Northern States, and the practice did not wholly disappear until 1871. The textbooks try to leave the im-pression that great improvements in the South were brought about by the abolition of slavery and the influence of the North during Reconstruction. But in the ten years from 1850 to 1860 the number of persons at school increased forty-eight per cent in the South and fifty per cent in the rest of the country, and it may be of interest to those who do not write textbooks to know that in 1860 there were in the free public schools of the South 781,199 Southern children, to say nothing of the many children in home schools, representing one or more families, enjoying the benefits of one tutor or governess. This last was a 204 SKY-LAND MAGAZINE marked feature of education in the South from earliest times down to the War between the States. At the same time the South had one church building to every three hundred and thirty-three of her white population, or one to every five hundred and twenty-eight of her total population ; while the rest of the country had one church building to every six hundred and sixteen of her total population. These comparisons ought to silence ignorance and ignora-muses everywhere on these questions of education and religion. The statutes of the different Southern States show that they had in force long before the war provisions for free schools. Their greatest fault was that they were per-missive rather than compulsory. But effective compulsory education has grown up everywhere in this country since 1860. Of course it was just as impossible to have good free schools for all of the people in the rural districts at the South as it was to have them for Franklin, Whittier, and Garrison in Massachusetts, Webster in New Hamp-shire, old John Brown, in Conneticut, Brigham Young in Vermont, Garfield in Ohio, Lincoln in Illinois, or to have better conditions than faced the "Hoosier Schoolmaster" in Indiana, or to always have better teachers than the Ichabod Cranes of New England and New York. Just as many men rose to prominence from the frontier and from among the poor at the South as in any other section. Jefferson and Calhoun came from the democratic West of their day. Patrick Henry, Henry Clay, Boone, Sevier, Robertson, the Clarkes, Sam Houston, Jackson, Farragut, Lincoln, JeiTerson Davis, Stephens, Benjamin, Forrest, Stonewall Jackson, and Simms are the names of a few of the many Southerners who rose to prominence from among the poor people. The "aristocracy of the South" did not hinder their progress or rise. The charity-educated Alexander Stephens and the wealthy Toombs were the best of friends. Lee, the last of the Cavaliers, called the poor mountain-born Jackson his "right arm". It was character and brains that counted in the South and not wealth or a college degree. There certainly was not the ignorance in the Old South, that is generally believed to have existed. The South held her own right well against her Northern antagonists, and ignorance is no longer, if it ever was, considered an asset in war. Of the higher institutions of learning, W^illiam and- Mary College was the best and richest of all the Colonial schools. Later it was overshadowed by the University of Virginia, the first American university. Such scholarly and able men as Washington, Henry, Mason, Pendleton, Wythe, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Marshall, Taney, the Tuckers, Poe, Legare, Simms, Kennedy, the Haynes, Gildersleeve, Lanier, Minor, and many others are sufficient evidence that it was not "necessary to emigrate to New York or to Boston in search of a university training." Phillips Brooks, the great Boston preacher, was educated in Virginia. Is that evidence that there were no schools in New England? The large number of Southern teachers and students at Princeton caused it to be looked upon by many Presbyterians at the South as a Southern school, while Southern Federalists often went to Harvard College, the home of Federa-lism. The colleges and universities of this country are certainly better than they were prior to the war in the sixties, yet more people go to Europe to school than ever before. Is that evidence that we have no place to get a university training in this country? Transylvania College, in Kentucky, was the first school of higher learning SKY-LAND MAGAZINE 205 west of the mountains; the Wesleyan Female College, founded by Bishop Pierce in Georgia, was the first institu-tion in the world for the higher education of women giving a degree. Waddell's Willington Academy, in South Carolina, was a sort of American Eton or Rugby. There Calhoun was so well prepared that he entered the junior class at Yale College and finished the course with the highest honors. Hugh S. Legare, W. H. Crawford, Judge Longstreet, McDuffie, Petigru, W. J. Grayson, Wardlaw, and many others were prepared for higher courses at this famous institution. While the scattered population at the South retarded efficient district schools in many places where needed, it was a land of famous academies and was the forerunner of the present theory of centralization of schools. Virgil A. Lewis, in his "History of Education in West Virginia," names more than sixty academies which had been established in that part of Virginia before the war. %_ Prince Murat, of France, said that he found the "best and most cultured society in Charleston, S. C, that he had ever met on either side of the Atlantic. " The Toronto Mail and Express, of Canada, recently said that the South I "was regaining some of the lost dignity and fame of the Southern States, where, sixty years ago, education and culture were in a state much in advance of any-thing that any other part of America had to offer." There is no reason to believe that these outside views came f from partial judges. r If the schools of New England have always been perfect, why give Horace Mann a reputation as an educational reformer? Brander Matthews, of New York, speaks of the defective educational advantages of Irving, Cooper, Bryant, Hawthorne, Emerson, and other leading literary men and scholars at the North, and says: "Harvard College was no more than a high school when Emerson left it in 1820." Matthew Page An-drews, in writing of Colonial New Eng-land, says: "People sat in church according to their rank and social position, beginning with the upper classes in the front pews to the humbler folk in the rear. The same rule applied to students at college, and for more than one hundred years the Harvard cata-logue listed its students, not in alpha-betical order, but according to their recognized social position." W'as this democracy in New England? It would be called rank aristocracy at the South by the textbooks. Josh Billings must have had the Northern text writers in mind when he said: "It is better to know less than to know so much that ain't so. " The Northern textbooks on history and literature and the Times writer tell us that the Southern intellect was turned away from art, science, and literature and into law and politics as a result of defending slavery. We know that the South before 1860 did take the lead in the political affairs of the country as well as in the extension of its territory and in fighting its battles. We admit that such lawyers as Rutledge, Wythe, Henry, Marshall, Wirt, Pinkney, Grun-dy, Legare, Petigru, the Tuckers, Ben-jamin, Toombs, Cobb, Stephens, and others at the South were among the very leaders of the profession in this country. We are aware of the fact that Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, Scott, Farragut, Thomas, Fremont, Captain Winslow, and others were furnished to the North by the South in the War between the States. But there must have been virtue and intelligence in this Southern leadership somewhere. The North, with her greater population, would not have accepted nor permitted it had it 206 SKY-LAND MAGAZINE been inferior either mentally or morally But we deny that slavery hindered art, science, or literature at the South. Was not the Northern mind as much occupied in trying to destroy slavery, the Constitution, and the Union as the Southern mind was in defending them? Did slavery hinder art, science, educa-tion, or literature in Greece or Rome? Were not the morals better and the masters less severe in the Old South than they were in any of the older countries during their golden ages? Were not the morals better and the masters less severe in the Old South than they now are in the great industrial centers of this or any other country? Has there not been more suffering, sorrow, and cruelty, more brutality, bloodshed, and barbarism within the past three years in the industrial strikes in Michigan, West Virginia, Colorado, California, and Lawrence, Mass., than during the entire existence of slavery at the South? If it was slavery that hindered literature in the South, what is it that hinders literature now in New England? Where are the Emersons, Hawthornes, Longfellows, and Lowells of the present New England? Has the intellect of the present New Englander become like that of his native soil, exhausted by overcultivation ? The Times writer denies the South the right to claim John Smith as a Southern writer, because he was English-born and because he is no longer read. We admit this if Ann Bradstreet, Wiggles-worth, Bradford, Winthrop, Sewell, and other early New Englanders are eliminat-ed from the textbooks for the same rea-sons. If they are not, equal space ought to be given to Strachey, Sandys, Alsop, R. Rich, Stith, Blair, Percy, Law-son, and other early Southerners. The first piece of literature of merit produced in America was a partial translation of Ovid's "Metamorphoses" by George Sandys at Jamestown, Va. The best and most original poem produced in the colonies before the Revolution was Bacon's "Epitaph by a Virginian."' The works of James Blair, Beverly, and Byrd compare favorably with those of Mather, Prince, and Franklin. These Southerners are rarely if ever mentioned in the Northern textbooks. Aber-nathy gives more space in his "Ameri-can Literature" to Franklin, though he admits that he was not a literary man, than to Washington, Mason Jefferson,. Madison, Marhsall, Bland, the Lees, Randolph, Henry, Laurens, Middleton,. the Draytons, Rutledge, the Pickneys^ Moultrie, Gadsden, Maurice Moore, Ephriam Brevard, and other contem-porary Southerners, all combined. In fact, most of them are not mentioned. All were great patriots, all wrote in-teresting things, and several of them deserve as much space in a work on American literature as Franklin. American literature proper begins with Irving and includes at the North Cooper, Bryant, Emerson, Whittier,. Longfellow, Holmes, Lowell, and possi-bly Whitman as leaders. At the South equals and as contemporaries were Kennedy, Simms, Poe, Timrod, Hayne,. Cooke, Ryan, and Lanier. All of these Southern writers except Lanier had made distinct contributions to literature before the war, as also had Drayton, Ram-sey, Claiborne, Bishop Meade, Marshall, Pickett, the Tuckers, Gayarre, Goudling, F. O. Ticknor, Meek, Leagre, J. J. Hooper, Weems, Rives, Garland, Audu-bon, Poinsette, Elliott, Canonge, Mer-cier, Howison, W. H. Trescott, Maury, Judge Longstreet, Babgy, Hope, Caru-thers, Strother, Benton, Wirt, J. R.. Thompson, Burke, and many others. Most of the Northern group greatly increased their fame and productions SKY-LAND MAGAZINE 207 after 1860; while Longfellow, Emerson, Whittier, Lowell, Holmes, and Whitman all outlived Lanier, the youngest of the Southern group, and all these, except Longfellow and Emerson, outlived Hayne, Cooke, and Ryan, the last of the Southern group. Lanier, the young-est of the Southern group, received his inspiration, training, and culture under the Old South and fought to maintain her institutions. A careful examination of the literature of the Old South will show that nowhere outside of Massachusetts at the North was there deeper interest or greater activity in literature than in Virginia and South Carolina. Louisiana was not far behind, but a large part of her literature was in the French language. There was as much literary activity in North Carolina as was to be found in Rhode Island, as much in Georgia as was to be found in Connecticut, as much in Alabama as was to be found in Ohio, and as much in Tennessee or Texas as was to be found in Illinois or Michigan. No higher standards of criticism were offered in the North American Review or Atlantic Monthly than were to be found in the Southern Literary Mes-senger and the Charleston Magazines. Poe, Simms, Legare, Thompson, G. H. Miles, Hayne, Lanier, and others at the South equaled the very leaders at the North in sound literary criticism. Ham-ilton W. Mabie, of New York, admits that "the love of letters for their own sake was probably stronger in the Old South than in New England, where ethical and religious questions made literature as literature a matter of secondary importance". But the Northern textbooks on history and literature, as well as the publishers generally, have seemingly conspired together to suppress the truth about the South's contributions to art, science, and literature. They tried to do the same thing with Poe and filled their halls of fame with many less worthy from the North until the outside world rescued him from the conspiracy. The text-books always speak of the intemperance of Poe, but they do not take this into account when Webster is compared to Calhoun and Hayne. Regardless of Webster's intemperance, loose morals, and inconsistencies, he is given more space in the textbooks and selections of orations than all of the Southern orators and statesmen, from Washington to Grady, combined. The very fact that most of the leading literary men of the South led more strictly literary lives than their Northern contemporaries ought to give them a distinguished if not a unique place in American literature. Few men up to that time in this country had tried to live by pure literature alone; but Poe, Simms, Hayne, Timrod, Cooke, and we might almost say, Lanier hardly ever earned a dollar except by their literary products and at times under the most trying circumstances. Irving, Emerson Longfellow, Bryant, Hawthorne, Lowell, and other leaders at the North had other professions, were antislavery agitators, editors, or held political posts under the government. There existed at that time in the North, as well as at the South, a sentiment against authorship as a profession, and Irving, Bryant, Lowell, and others at the North began their careers as lawyers. When we remember that America has no very great literature, that we have not produced a real national poet unless it be Poe, that New England has not produced an author of the first or second rank of world writers, and that we have overlooked much that is weak in the leading writers of the North and have written and spoken of their works with 208 SKY-LAND MAGAZINE much charity, we will be much better able to arrive at a fair estimate of the South's literature. The charge that the Southern writers are, when compared to the writers of the North, "suprisingly imitative" is an unjust charge and without foundation. Tennyson well said: "Your Bryant, Whittier, and others are pigmies com-pared with Poe. He is the literary glory of America." A careful comparative study will show that there is more imitation in Longfellow's works than in the works of Paul Hayne, as much imi-tation in the works of Bryant and Holmes as there is in the works of Timrod and Ryan, and there is as much imitation in the works of Emerson or Lowell as there is in Lanier's works. Of the three real original American poets—Poe, Whitman, and Lanier—the South has furnished two. And the influence of Poe on American as well as European literature is greater than that of all other American writers combined. Kennedy, Simms, and Cooke were no worse, in their imitation than Irving and Cooper. These prose writers, North and South, were influenced by English writers, but each had his original qualities. Though Kenedy wrote less, he wrote as well as Irving; while Simms rarely fell below Cooper and often surpassed him. Simms certainly surpassed Cooper in range, versatility and productiveness, as he often did in \'ivid description and in the faithful portrayal of Indian char-acter. Both wrote too much to write with great care. Trent, the biographer of Simms, has been to him what Gris-wold was to Poe. He condemms the South, and especially Carolina, for her neglect of Simms and all along says that Simms was not worth noticing. He makes light of the poetry of Simms and proceeds to give us much worse poetry of his own. He forgets that Irving, Cooper Hawthorne, and other Northern writers complained of the North's neglect of their efforts. The South, with its small white population, could hardly be ex-pected to support an extensive litera-ture. Besides, the South's wider knowl-edge of the best of European literature made her more critical than the North. The Southern critic never compared our literary men to the leaders of Europe, because her literary tastes were better; while New England compares Whittier to Burns, Longfellow to Tennyson Emerson to Plato, and Lowell to Carlyle. Of course these are childish comparisons. The time has come when there ought to be an honest comparative study of the literature of the Old South, not with that of England, but with that of the North. Compare Paul H. Hayne with Longfellow and Bryant, Timrod with Bryant and Whittier, and Lanier with Emerson and Lowell. The poetry of the South is generally aesthetic or poli-tical in motive, while that of the North is more often ethical or religious. Both love nature, but the South touches its brighter side ; while the North, influenced by Puritianism, swelld on its gloomier aspects. Theology, transcendenatlism, and slavery in turn dominated the literature of the North, while the leading Southern writers stand out in strong isolated individuality. The Southern poets did not aspire to the role of social or religious reformers. Their only ties were a common love for their country and a devotion to art. For this reason we may well call them more cosmopo-politan than the Northern group. "Profound meditativeness " often men-tioned by the text writers in connection with the leaders at the North, is not a quality belonging to any of our poets. None of them have drunk ever "deep," Hayne is at times pensive, but so are both Longfellow and Bryant. He is at I SKY-LAND MAGAZINE 209 times diffuse, probably his greatest fault, but both Longfellow and Bryant are diffuse. Hanye is rarely oratory, while both Bryant and Longfellow often preach. Hayne certainly surpasses either Longfellow or Bryant as a sonnet writer, and he used the sonnet to splen-did effect in restraint of his diffuseness. Hayne has other faults, but, excluding Poe, they were common to the best of the times in this country. No other contemporary American poet, however, touched nature so often and so well as Hayne. It was this phase of his work that caused Onderdonk to call him the "Woodland Minstrel of America." Ludwig Lewisohn calls Hayne's "Dap-hels" the "finest narrative poem ever written in this country." So does Jerome Stockard. Hubner, in his "Rep-resentative Southern Poets," says: "Tennyson spoke of him as the finest sonnet writer in America, Grimm of Germany praised him enthusiastically, and Victor Hugo placed him in the front rank of American poets." Painter, in his "Poets of the South," places Tim-rod, Hanye, and Lanier with the best in this country; while Wauchope, in his "Writers of South Carolina," considers Hayne and Timrod in the front rank of American poets. Maurice Thompson, in speaking of Copse Hill, the home of Hayne after the war, says: "You cannot realize that here lives one of the most famous poets in the world, Paul H. Hayne, the friend and peer of Longfellow Holmes, and Whittier. " Whipple, of Boston, praised the poetry of Hayne enthusiastically and compared him to William Morris, of England. In in-dorsing what Whippel had said, Bryant wrote: "This is very high praise, but it is well merited, and Mr Hayne is even more happy in his lyrical than in his narrative poems. Grace, tenderness, and truth are characteristic of them all. " Abernathy, of New York, in his "Southern Poets," says: "No list of American poets can be complete without the names of Timrod, Hayne, and Lanier and no school serves the interest of its pupils properly that fails to introduce them to these poets with the other accepted poets of our land." He also gives them a place in his recent "Ameri-can Literature," and, while fair, he is entirely too brief. Longfellow said: "The time will surely come when Tim-rod's poems will have a place in every home of culture in our country. " Ham-ilton W. Mabie, in an editorial in the Outlook for December 2, 1899, approved what Professor Thornton, of the Uni-versity of Virginia, had said in claiming for Poe, Timrod, and Lanier a place in "American Literature" equal to that given to Longfellow, Bryant, and Whit-tier. In Volume LXVIII. of the Out-look Mr. Mabie again says: "The provincialism of thought in Timrod disappears, the thinness of temper-ment in Emerson, the rigidity of Bryant, the lack of variety in Whittier, the didacticism of Lowell—all these elements of weakness in American poetry disappear in the large elemental move-ment of imagination in the 'Marshes of Glynn' by Lanier." He also calls Timrod's "Cotton Boll" and Lanier's "Sunrise" "among the most original achievements in American poetry." Many leading critics in this country and in Europe consider Lanier, after Poe, America's greatest poet. The poetry of Ryan has been less frequently touched by the critics. He is, like Longfellow, a household poet and is more generally read than any other poet from the South except Poe. His poetry was generally simple, clear, spontaneous, and full of melody. The fact that his poems have passed into 210 SKY-LAND MAGAZINE numerous editions is evidence of their popularity. Now let us see how the Northern textbooks on American literature have treated these leading Southern writers. Mrs. Leigh was. certainly justified in condemning the textbook of Brander Matthews on American literature as being unfair to the South. He treats Lanier and Timrod together and gives them three lines, but does not even men-tion Paul Hayne or Ryan. On the other hand, he gives the author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin" one whole page. Mrs Stowe certainly does not deserve any more space in a textbook on Ameri-can literature than the author of "Leopard's Spots." Matthews gives Halleck, Drake, and Thoreau ten pages each and Cooper thirteen pages, while he gives Simms only four lines. He gives Irving sixteen pages and only three lines to Kennedy. Matthews is a good example, and his book is complete evidence that some of the Northern schools are yet in a bad way for. lack of efficient, unselfish, and broad-minded teachers. Stedman, from whom most of the others have copied, Wendell, Richardson, Pancoast, Patee, Noble, Irish, Painter, Beers, Hawthorne, Newcomer, Smiley, Trent and Abernathy are the names of a few text writers who show this same spirit. Most of these text writers follow some old out-of-date anthology, en-cyclopedia, or textbook written when sectional hate at the North was too strong to brook anything like fairness. I seriously doubt if ten per cent of them ever read a dozen pages each from the works of Kennedy, Simms, Hayne, Timrod, or Cooke, and but few have studied Lanier. Abernathy, one of the fairest and one of the most recent, gives all Southern writers about forty pages in a textbook of five hundred pages. He gives Franklin as much space as he gives Poe. He gives Simms two pages, while he gives Thoreau five and Cooper eleven. He gives Webster eleven pages and Clay and Calhoun together about three lines. He gives Everett, Choate, Phillips, and Sumner about one page each and does not even mention Lowndes, Cheeves, Randolph, Legare, W. C. Preston, Ben-ton, R. Y. Hayne, Petigru, McDuffie, Davis, Toombs, Stephens, Benjamin Hill, Benjamin, Yancey, Lamar, Curry, Gordon, or Grady. Though he speaks of the present writers of the South as "representing the finest story-telling of our times," he gives Howells, of New York, more space than all of them com-bined. Even if Cooke did say that Howells and the realists had superseded him in public favor as a novelist, I still prefer his "Virginia Comedians" to any-thing Howells ever wrote. There has been a reaction against the realists as well as the idealists. Stedman gives Timrod and Hayne about five lines each, while he gives Whitman fifty pages. Wendell gives Hayne one page, Homles seventeen, and Whittier eleven; he gives Simms two pages and Brocden Brown eleven pages. Richardson gives Simms four pages and Cooper forty. "Masterpieces of Ameri-can Literature," a book used as a text, has no place for even Poe, but includes O'Reilly's poem on the "angelic" Puri-tans. Newcomer, from the West, while he warns us in his preface against the lo-cal and personal influences of the Eastern authors on the Eastern text writers, is equally unfair to the South. He gives Bayard Taylor as much space as he gives Hayne, Timrod, and Lanier combined; while he gives Brocden Brown six pages. Thoreau eleven and only ten lines to Simms. This sectionalism and ignor-ance does not stop with the textbooks; it is found in nearlv all the works on his- SKY-LAND MAGAZINE 211 tory and literature which emanate from -the North. The New International Encyclopedia gives as much space to John Brown, the traitor and murderer, as it gives to Toombs, Yancey, or Alex-ander Stephens ; it gives as much space to John L. Sullivan, the Boston prize fighter as it gives to Zeb Vance or Henry W. Grady, and has no place for such authors as William J. Grayson and James Bar-ron Hope. This work is a living monu-ment to the literary tastes and scholar-ship of its editors. The Columbia En-cyclopedia gives as much space to old John Brown as it gives to Jefferson Davis. These are but a few instances that might be mentioned and are good examples of the scholarship, patriotism, and broad-mindedness of people who claim to be the only true lovers of the Union. It will appear from the few estimates of the many that might be given that there is at least a difference of opinion as to the place the leading Southern writers ought to have in our literature. The same difference of opinion exists as to Whitman, but he is laways treated at length, even by his enemies. This slighting Southern literature comes, I believe, chiefly from pure ignorance. I will venture to say that at least ninety per cent of the teachers and students at the North, all the way from the public schools to the universities, have never even heard the names of a majority of these leading Southern writers. Yet the Northern text writers, teachers, and college men, like the old darky's politi-cian, "give themselves pow'ful reputa-tions" as scholars. A textbook which finds a place to dis-cuss such poets as Freneau, Halleck, Drake, Story, Woodworth, Willis, Read Stedman, Aldrich, Gilder, Holland, Hay, Carleton, and others at the North should give equal space to Richard Dabney. William Mumford, Pickney, Shaw, Key, W. J. Grayson, Wilde, F. O. Ticknor, Meek, O'Hara, L. P. Canonge, A. Mer-cier, Hope, J. R. and Maurice Thomp-son, G. H. Miles, T. A. S. Adams, Ran-dall, Chivers, Reuqier, Flash, the Tou-quettes, Irwin Russell, T. H. Hill, Bonner, and others from the South. There is no more imitation in the works of the minor Southern writers than in the works of the minor writers of the North. Grayson's "Chicora" and Meek's "Red Eagle" are the second and third best poems on the American Indian, though both are nearly unknown. The works of St. George Tucker, George H. Tucker, William Elliott, Wirt, Caruthers, F. R. Goulding, Weems, Strother (Porte Cra-yon), and others at the South are as good and as interesting as the works of Broc-den Brown, Thoreau, Dana Hale, Boker Mitchell, and others at the North. I can name a dozen women writers of the Old South equal to Mrs. Stowe, but not one of them is ever mentioned in the textbooks. The South furnished several prominent historians of that period and her humorists certainly surpass those that any other section produced during the same time. It is very rare that the names of any of the Southern historians or humorists are mentioned in the text-books. According to population, the Old South needed only two leading writers to equal the North. I feel sure they can be found in Poe, Kennedy, Simms, Hayne, Timrod, and Lanier. "In the future some historian shall come forth, brave and wise. With the love of the republic and the truth before his eyes. He will hold the scales of justice, he will measure' praise with blame; And the South shall stand his verdict, and stand it without shame." 212 SKY-LAND MAGAZINE THE NEW NORTH STATE By Archibald Henderson IN HIS notorious "History of the Dividing line betwixt Virginia and North Carolina," which was run in the year 1728, the witty William Byrd of Westover hazarded the ironical query: "Considering how fortune delights in bringing great things out of small, who knows but Carolina may, one time or another, come to be the seat of some great empire?" As I glance back over the two tumultuous centuries which have elapsed since Byrd ventured that ironi-cal query, and think of the long, long way we have traveled since that primi-tive, barren time, I cannot but conclude that William Byrd, all unwittingly, was something more than the "idle singer of an empty day. " That "great empire, " of which he so ironically spoke—has in-deed found its seat in this ancient com-monwealth of Carolina. It is in the new time that Carolina has come to be the seat of a great empire of democracy — a democracy of culture and of the human spirit. In the strange, sad epic of the silent south. North Carolina can justly claim the authority that springs from the motherhood of American liberty. At the very moment when Byrd was run-ning that dividing line betwixt North Carolina and Virginia, the borderers were eager to be included within the bounds of North Carolina, "as there they paid no tribute to God or Ceasar. Those epic ships of Raleigh, sailing west-ward over unknown seas and beaching at last their keels upon the golden sands of Roanoke, bore in their bosoms a breed of men fired with the divine spark which in that England of the spaicous days of Elizabeth flamed up in rugged prose and in soaring, immortal verse. The breed of men who settled here bore in their right hand a genius for civilization and an indomitable pride of race, and in their left hand an inflexible steadfastness and a common sense as firm as adamant. In the struggle for existence which they were compelled to wage, the taming of nature, the conquest of a savage foe, there was bred in them a mighty re-sourcefulness and the grim hardihood of self-reliance. Our legacy from a century of pioneers is a passion for successful self-expression, for efficiency, and for creative conquest. How shorn of a grea tmeasure of distinction and great-ness would be this American nation, in its pioneer days and crude beginnings, if bereft of the pioneering genius of Daniel Boone, the love of liberty of the eloquent William Hooper, the prophetic insight of that herald of culture, William R. Davie, the legal wisdom of James Iredell, the granite conservatism of Nathaniel Macon, the flaming patriotism of Andrew Jackson, the new Ameri-canism of Thomas Hart Benton. How improverished would be the early annals of our country if there were blotted out the memory of Moore's Creek bridge, of Guilford courthouse, of King's mountain, of the resistance to the stamp act at Wil-mington, the patriotism of Mecklen-burg, the statesmanship at Halifax, the definite salvation of the Trans-Alle-hgany region by the pioneers of Transyl-vania. Out of North Carolina, the fountain source of American liberty, welled up the streams of creative con-tribution which have helped to make SKY-LAND MAGAZINE 213 this nation great—the inflexible spirit which knows no compromise, the pas-sionate belief in liberty and democracy, and the unchanging faith in the worth and dignity of average humanity. Midway in her career—a career memor-able for national statesmanship, con-tinental thinking, and purity of thought in public service—a dark disaster fell upon the south. Following that tragic national crisis, when the south in the dimness of anguish beheld the loss of wealth, the abolition of property, the violation of the very sanctities of her civilization, this people sternly set them-selves to the task of repairing those fallen fortunes and rebuilding that civilization upon broader and more universal outlines. In the era since the war between the states, the south has achieved a prosperity distinguished by its universal diffusion, and devoted its energies to the education of the common man to the tasks of leadership in all the avenues of an advancing civi-lization. It was in the earlier grim stages of that era of civilization rebuilding—the era of the slow emergence of the average man from the pressure of economic necessity and the blight of arrested cultural development—that the south temporarily relaxed her hold upon the reins of national government. * * * Transit of An Era. The election of Woodrow Wilson and the quindecennial anniversary of Gettys-burg marked the transit of an era. * * * Surely it is a fact of almost miraculous fitness that, in this dramatic resumption by the south of the control of our national destinies. North Carolina should play a predominant role. It is with a sense of conscious elation, no less profound that it is subdued, that we, the citizens of this ancient common-wealth, reflect that American history can furnish no authentic parallel to the present epochal contribution of North Carolina to the life of the nation. In this great era of national responsi-bility and national peril the country breathes in safety with Josephus Daniels maintaining North Carolina's great traditions in the navy established by Branch, Badger, Graham and Dobbin; with Houston setting new standards of business efficiency and practical states-manship for national agriculture; with Simmons tha leader of a senate, Kitchin the destined floor leader of the house; and native and adopted sons like Claxton and Holmes and Osborn effectively ministering to the educationa,! indus-trial, and financial needs of a nation. In this. North Carolina's hour—the reward of traditional fidelity to principle in public life, of enlarging social sym-pathy, and of invincible faith in demo-cracy^— there seems to operate a noble piecies of compensatory justice. The nation once more turns for guidance to the venerable commonwealth of North Carolina, and to the south—the ancient mother of national leadership. Do you then realize that this, the age in which we live—today—heralds the golden age of North Carolina and the south? As we stand upon the thres-hold of this new era, there must come to all^ of us a sense of joyous elation, a leaping of the blood, that it is given to us to live at such a t'me and in such a country. While our sister Republic of Mexico is racked with the dire dis-sensions of civil strife, which the un-selfish devotions of this nation have watchfully and patiently sought to ally; while Europe is a cosmic holo-caust of flame and blcod and steel; while the commerce of belligerent nations is suffering from partial paralysis and the voice of famine utters to our heeding 214 SKY-LAND MAGAZINE ears its grim and tragic petition—Amer-ica stands firm for peace, for progress, for humanity, for civilization. The whole country responds today to the impetus of our enlarging commerce and advancing trade. The south daily, hourly grows in wealth, in buoyant power in the will to meet the manifest obliga-tion of her destiny. Supreme engineer-ing genius has cleft in twain Culebra and recalcitrant Panama; and today the lock gates at Gatun, Pedro Miguel and Miraflores hospitably fling wide the giant portals of the isthmus to the argosies of commerce, to the trade of the south, the nation, and the world. * * The south is America's present land of promise. Here upon our own soil will be undertaken the next supreme experiment in the life of the nation. This will be the scene of the next great act in the American drama of industrial expansion. The thought which gives me comfort, when I reflect upon the future of the south, is the consciousness that in this era of expanding wealth and a pervasive industrialism, the southern people still tenaciously hold to those high yet simple realities which, through-out our history, have won the confi-dence and the faith of a nation. In the hearts of all of us, I daresay, there is a deep, abiding affection and reverence for the virtues of a people who, throughout an historic past, have given to North Carolina the rich, mellow name of the Old North State. I sense those ancient virutes as a fragrant breath from some distant garden of old-fashioned flowers—a full blooded parochialism redeemed by the abiding love of Chris-tian faith, of family, of fireside; an in-flexible integrity which put love of the truth and passion for the making of men above love of place and passion for the making of money; a rugged provincia-lism which had its roots firmly fixed in a love of naturalness and a scorn for all pretense; a granite conservatism which cherished tradition and ever look-ed with stern disfavor upon the new and the empiric. This is the Old North State—always fighting for her right while neglecting her interests; generous-reckless, romantic improvident, unpre, tentious chivalrous, and brave. * * In our hearts is enshrined the figure of the most venerable, this most Amer-ican commonwealths—the unpreten-tious, homespun, yet infinitely lovable Rip Van Winkle of the States. The New North State. Tonight, my friends, I give you the new North State. From out our past have come the old Roman virtues; into our future shall go the new American virutes of the new age—an enlarged communal consciousness; a deeper sense of local pride which expresses itself, not in voicing a glorification of the past, but in putting the shoulder hard to the wheel of civic progress; a strenuous common effort for the attainment of a new free-dom, individual, political, and social — for women as well as for men: and a passionate, a relentless egarness for the building of a new and higher civili-zation. We are meeting within the very week—simply eloquent in its title; Community Service week—a type of the seven labors of the new Hercules of an aroused civic consciousness—the prophetic vision of that splendid type of the new social publicist, Edward K. Graham; aided by the practical wisdom of an agriculturist sociologist, the popu-lar leader, Clarence Poe; and happily legislated into permanence through the fiat of a progressive, forward-looking governor, Locke Craig. Only a few weeks ago, patriotic, liberty-loving wo-men of North Carolina appropriately met in the precincts of Mecklenburg to SKY-LAND MAGAZINE 215 write the political charter of a new declaration of independence. But of the fullness of our new life here have gone to other nations the heralds of American culture. The first southern scholar se-lected to go as Roosevelt professor, as academic ambassador of culture, to the German nation, is the distinguished or-ator of tomorrow night, a native of Greensboro, Charles Alphonso Smith; and when President Wilson needed a man big enough for the largest diplomatic post in the country's gift, he called upon a great publisher and editor of our most distinctively national magazine, Walter H. Page, who is now enjoying the con-fidence and winning the plaudits of all in his dexterous management of the innumerable complex issues evoked by the problems of a titanic European war. I would not have you think that, in this chorus of praise, there is no room in my mind for reservations or for the acknowledgement of grave deficiencies in our artistic and literary culture. In-deed, the latest researches of science compel the belief that genious is not the result of the evolution of the masses of the people, but is a giant variation from the common level of our species. I Whether or not we acknowledge that genius is a spontaneous giant variation, a sporadic birth of energy not built up from the simple to the complex, cer-tainly it must be recognized that art, as a factor of civilization, is an incom: parable means of widening intellectual and spiritual horizons and promoting the cause of culture. It cannot be denied that the measure of a people's advance in the fine arts is the measure of their distance from the brutes. Art is not merely an auxiliary to civilization, ^ art is almost synonymous with civiliza-tion itself. "Life without art," as Ruskin says, "is mere brutality." And no matter how remarkable have been the "spontaneous, giant variations from the common level of our species," it behooves us to take account of that pre-cious "common level" which, in a true sense, is the measure of civilization in a democracy. "To live and to Work." "What is the problem of culture?" asks that remarkable artist and astute philosopher so maligned by the English people today, Friedrich Nietzsche. His answer is unimpeachable: "To live and to work in the noblest strivings of one's nation and of humanity. Not only, therefore, to receive and to learn but to live. To free one's age and people from wrong tendencies, to have one's ideal before one's eyes. " Much as I re-gret to admit it, long and patient obser-vation compels me to acknowledge that here in the south of the past, here in North Carolina, so far as art and litera-ture are concerned, we have not lived and worked in the noblest strivings of one's nation and of humanity. In litera-ture and art, for more than a century, we have received; even in a sense we have learned; but we have not lived. There may be much truth in the witty definition that penury is the wages of the pen. And at the annual banquet in London of the Royal L^teray fund for the Relief of Necessitous authors, Wal-ter Page recently evoked a chorus of dessent to his statement; "From the viewpoint of mere barnyard gumption it is absurd for anybody to start to spend his life writing. Gambling is more like-ly to yield a steady income. It is an absurd career and a foolish foolhardy business. No man has a right to take it up who can avoid doing so. " In mak-ing these observations, which must be taken with a liberal pinch of salt, Mr. Page was undoubtedly making a hu-morous personal confession. I may go 216 SKY-LAND MAGAZINE even further and hazard the guess that he was thinking of North Carolina. It is a remarkable commentary upon our civilization that, so far as my knowledge goes, no man or woman in North Caro-lina, with the omission of journalists, has ever succeeded in earning, or even attempted to earn a livelihood solely through the medium of the pen of the literary artist. * * * I never think of the literature of my native state that I do not recall the mournful threnody of that famous bard of our sister Carolina, J. Gordon Coogler : Alas for the south! Her books have grown fewer ; She never was much given to Hterature. * * * Many of you have seen upon Univer-sity Heights in New York city a noble structure of gleaming white marble, an enduring monument to American genius, the Hall of Fame. Of the 51 tablets thus far placed upon its walls, only one bears the name of a native of North Carolina, the soldier-statesman, Andrew Jackson; and through the patronage of Willie and Allen Jones, and the guar-dianship of Joseph Hewes, North Caro-lina can lay a secondary claim to but one other name, among those of foreign birth the man whom Benjjmin Franklin dub-bed the "North Carolina midshipman," the greatest naval hero in our annals, John Paul Jones. A soldier-statesman and a sailor—but no man or woman of literary genius. In the hall of fame, the south is represented by soldiers, sail-ors, statesmen, jurists, scientists, but by only one distinctively literary genius — a man of English parentage who hap-pened to be born in Boston, Massachus-etts— Edgar Allan Poe. For many years I have searched deep-ly into the causes for the comparative dearth of literary and artistic produc-tivity in the south and for that genial southern indifference to publication—the rock upon which literary fame is found-ed. Tonight, I shall dispense with all explanation, apology or excuse. The thrill of the new time tempts one less to pathetic retrospection than to buoy-ant prophecy. Neverless I must voice my solemn conclusion that we can-not build up here a great civilization— a civilization as great in art and letters, in culture and taste as it is great in mate-rial resources, statesmanlike ideals, and an aroused social consciousness—un-less we do live and work in the noblest strivings of our nation and of humanity. Investigation has convinced me that North Carolina is lamentably backward, woefully deficient, in her activity and representation in the great national or-ganizations making for the development of art, literature, drama and all the multifarious activities which make for artistic culture in a democracy. I have studied the records of these national or-ganizations for the present year in the effort to record, faithfully and justly, the part actually played by North Caro-lina in the life and work of national cutlure. I find that North Carolina is not represented at all in the National Academy of Arts and Letters, or in the much larger body of the National In-stitute of Arts and Letters; nor has she any official representation, in the form of elected officers, president or vice pres-idents, in the American Historical asso-ciation, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Pageant as-sociation, the Drama League of Ameri-ca, the American Folk Lore society, the Poetry Society of America and the American Academy of Political and So-cial Science. Little if any attention need be paid to those of sectional bias who point out that no scholar or man of letters, so long as he remains in the SKY-LAND MAGAZINE 217 south, ever wins large recognition in the national societies. Such a narrow charge, even though resting upon indis-putable facts, might arise from a com-plete misinterpretation of those facts, and in any case cannot serve as a valid excuse for our supineness and indiffer-ence. In science, pure and applied. North Carolina is nationally and inter-nationally recognized. In this great branch of knowledge and research no southern state is her equal. But in the arts—literature, painting, sculpture, drama���North Carolina is not living and working today in the noblest strivings of the nation and humanity. Immediate Needs. As I have studied the cultural prob-lems of our life here and sought to make of this association a more construc-tive instrument for ministering to our cultural wants, I have come to the conclusion that we have three vital and immediate needs. The program of the meetings of the association for this year have been especially designed to meet these needs. No people can form a just estimate of their history, or feel legitimate pride in it, until they know what that history really is. No comprehensive and com-plete history of North Carolina will ever be written until the contrubution of the invididual units, whose integrated life have constituted that history, are studied and bodied forth with complete-ness and detail. The county is the unit of the state; the history of the county must furnish the nucleus of the history of the state. North Carolina has ex-actly one hundred counties; it is a regrettable fact that histories, of reason-able adequacy, have been written of only a dozen out of these hundred counties. I earnestly desire to identify this association with the duty and the task of stimulating, inspiring and di-recting the writings of the industrial, social, economic, institutional histories of every single county in North Carolina The accomplishment of this great work will prepare the way for the writing of the true and definite history of North Carolina—the moving story of the life of a great people. In like manner, I desire to see our people acquire a decent and adequate knowledge of the literary contributions of North Carolina for the past one hundred and twenty-five years. Nie-tzsche defines man as a something to be surpassed. And surely we can never rise above ourselves to ourselves until we really feel and know what North Caro-lina has contributed in letters to the thought and the consciousness of the American people. As the county is the unit of the state, so the state is the unit of the nation. * * * It has been my great ambition to have this association take account in an orderly way of the manifold sides of our native literature—history, poetry, fic-tion, oratory and folk-lore. * * * Suggestions For Counties Lastly, I have one recommendation to make to this association and to the peo-ple of North Carolina. It is to no Brahmin caste of scholars, to no occu-pants of the ivory tower of literary se-clusion, that I would make this recom-mendation. I appeal to the communal consciousness of a people—a people who, individually and collectively, need to be inspired with a deep sense of historic tradition and the passion of a great faith in the destiny of our common-wealth. I desire to see spread before our people the entire pageant of our his-toric creativeness—as I have seen great pageants of the history of Oxford uni-versity and of the development of that 218 SKY-LAND MAGAZINE martial power of the British empire, now so terribly taxed upon the battle-fields of Europe. Pageantry has been defined as poetry for the masses. We deeply need to see created in North Carolina, through the common efforts of our leading citizens, a fine art for the people. The elemental instinct for dem-ocratic art in our midst needs to be educated, developed, refined, by means of popular pageantry, into a mighty agency for civilization. I recommend that, during the coming year, historic episodes of state and national interest be presented by common effort in com-munities throughout the state. May I suggest, among other, s for Wilmington the revolt against the stamp act; for Edenton, the ladies tea party; for New Bern, the settlement of the Palatines; for Winston-Salem, the founding of the academy; for Charlotte, the Mecklen-burg declaration of independence; for Salisbury, incidents from the careers of Daniel Boone and the pioneers; for Greensboro, the battle of Guilford Courthouse. Next year, during com-munity- service week, all of these episodes which have been locally presented and perhaps others should then be linked together in a great state his-torical pageant here in Raleigh, the capital of the commonwaelth—arranged in chronological order and designed to give a poetic and romantic picture of the historic evolution of the life of a people. Through this happy wedding of art and history may be brought home to our consciousness a pro oundly mov-ing realization of a glorious past and a quickening of all our desires and hopes and labors for an even more glorious future. —Presidential address before the State Lit-erary and Historical Association of North Carolina. SKY-LAND MAGAZINE 219 LOOKING IN ON THOMAS DIXON By O. Bargamin Crocker A T HIS home on Riverside Drive, ^ ^ in the library at the top of the house, which by the way, is shut off with a trap door over the stairs, sits Thomas Dixon, working, while the out-side world with its glorious sunshine and budding flowers of Spring call to him in vain. He is up to his ears in manuscript. With a master hand he is weaving ro-mances that thrill in their daring and quicken the pulse of the reader by tender, tense love scenes. He is doing three novels. "My! You are certainly busy! Of course you are doing them one at a time?" "Rest assured I am!" was his prompt rejoinder. "But I have them all out-lined. " "And you have no secretary? I thought all big writers had secretaries. " He threw back his head and laughed . in that whole-souled way of his. I "I never indulge in such luxuries!" he declared. "In fact I'm a bear when at work. I can't endure any human being near me. If I had a secretary I should commit murder sooner or later." "I was quite surprised to see your latest novel running serially in the Green Book. I never heard of you writing for a magazine before. In fact, if you remember, you told me about a year ago that you had no time for magazine stories. You were busy get-ting out novels. " "That's true. The Foolish Virgin is a novel. Not a short story. But I broke into the magazine game to avoid sacrificing a book during the depressing time of this war. " " I like the story very much. How long will it run? It seems to be quite different from any you've ever written before. New York sort of gets into the blood; doesn't it?" "Yes, of course. It's the only really great city we have where the individual can live life in freedom. My new novels are all remote from the South. The Foolish Virgin will run until next September. " "Well, I must admit," I said in con-clusion "I'm somewhat surprised about the 'secretary' ; I was so sure all writers had them. I'd thought to some day become one myself, to some famous writer, hoping that with the inspiration of such surroundings to at least realize my own ambitions to become a novelist." "Believe me," Dixon emphatically confided, "the road to a writer's corner does not lie through the library of any established author. Avoid them as a pestilence. The Kingdom is within you?" * H= =!: The Foolish Virgin, meritoriously il-lustrated by Walter Title, and now running serially in the Green Book, is a novel of love at first sight which an-swers the question: "Does a Girl Ever Know When the Right Man Comes Along?" THOMAS DIXON Author of "The Leopard's Spots," "The Clansman," "The FooHsh Virgin," Etc. SKY-LAND MAGAZINE 221 MRS. WILLIAM N. REYNOLDS /^NE of North Carolina's best known ^^ and most influential women is the retiring State Regent of the Daughters of the American Revolution, Mrs. William N. Reynolds of Winston-Salem. Atypical Southern woman of the new type, she is possessed of a strong personal magne-tism and accomplishments that readily place her among the leaders of any group of women in which she may hap-pen to be. Mrs. Reynolds has rare gifts as an organizer and posesses splendid execu-tive ability. These things, together with her graciousness and charm of manner, have placed her among the leaders of the numerous organizations through which she has worked for her State. She is a woman of broad sym-pathies and a vision of great things. She is versatile, tactful, unobtrusive and cheerful, helping and brightening the lives of all she touches. These qualities have made her life one of service. For ten years she has been vice-president of the Salem College Alumnae Association and in this capacity has rendered great service to her alma mater. Since its organization, Mrs. Reynolds has been a mem.ber of the board of directors of the Stonewall Jackson Training School, to the work of which institution she has given much earnest thought. Mrs. Reynolds is a club woman of unwaning enthusiasm and through the organizations of which she is a member contributes largely to the social and literary life of her city. A devoted, and conscientious church mem-ber, she rounds out her life to a rich full-ness with religious activities. It is as a member and officer of the Daughters of the American Revolution that Mrs. Reynolds has rendered the State her greatest service. A charter member of the Winston-Salem Chapter of the D. A. R., she has remained an enthusiastic worker of the organization, contributing much to the life and work of the Chapter. A^ Regent of the Chapter she displayed such remarkable powers of organization and executive ability that she was called to the ofhce of State Vice-Regent, which office she held for three terms. Mrs Reynolds was then elected State Regent, which honorable position she filled most accept-ably for four years. At the last State meeting of the D. A. R. held in Durham, so great was Mrs. Reynolds' popularity with the members of the organization that she was unanimously endorsed for Vice-President General for North Caro-lina, of the National D. A. R. This honor Mrs. Reynolds declined, much to the regret of her numerous friends. Her term as State Regent expired last April During the Regency of Mrs. Reynolds, sixteen Chapters were organized and the membership of the organization in North Carolina was increased to almost one thousand, an unparalleled period of growth. And throughout the entire four years remarkable activity has been shown in the three great objects of the organization—the perpetuation of the memory of the spirit of the men and women who achieved American Inde-pendence, the acquisition and protec-tion of historical spots, and the erection of monuments. Two tablets,marking historical events, have been placed in Winston-Salem — one on the court house for Col. Benjamin Forsyth, for whom the county is named; the other on the door of a room in the old tavern in Salem at which George Washington spent the night. 222 SKY-LAND MAGAZINE The grave of the Indian Chief Junalu-ski, whose bravery helped Gen. Jackson to turn the tide of battle at Horse Shoe Bend, has been marked. There has been placed in the campus at Chapel Hill a stone seat under the General Davie poplar, the poplar under which Davie, the "Father of the Uni-versity", and his party rested while locating the site for the University. A sun-dial has been placed in Char-lotte on the site of the old Liberty Hall. But the greatest achievement of the D. A. R's has been the marking of the Daniel Boone Trail from his home on the Yadkin River to the Tennesee line, a distance of 150 miles. This may well be termed the greatest historical enter-prise ever started in North Carolina. Tablets have been placed on boulders, with this inscription: "Daniel Boone's Trail, From North Carolina to Kentucky, 1769 Erected by the North Carolina Daughters of the American Revolu-tion." The places marked are his home near Yadkin River, Shallowford, Huntsville, Yadkinville, Wilkesboro, Holman's Ford Elkville, Three Fork Church, Boone, Hodges Gap, Grave yard Gap, and Zionville. These trails show the part played by North Carolina in opening up the great North West. Mrs. Reynolds as Regent, with Mrs. Lindsay Patterson as Chairman of the Boone Trail, was indefatigable in meet-ing promptly all engagements for these unveilings. In order to encourage historical re-search, in reference to the Revolution, prizes have been offered at the State Normal and in many of the public schools for the best essay on a Revolu-tionary subject. In Winston-Salem, a silver loving cup was given for the best eassy on General Joseph Winston, writ-ten by a pupil of the High School. At Washington, D. C, North Caro-lina's column, as one of the original 13 Colonies, stands in the center of the elegant D. A. R. building. During the Regency of Mrs. Reynold's,, the flag of North Carolina was presented to the D. A. R. building in Washington. A valuable addition to the history of our State, is the accurately gotten up history of Western North Caro-lina. At present, the Daughters are engaged in two most interesting undertakings: The restoration of the old Wiley Jones house, in Halifax, N. C, where John Paul added the name of Jones to his own name, in recognition of the kindness received from this family; as "John Paul Jones" he has gone down in history. The National D. A. R. are considering establishing an industrial school for the descendants of Revolutionary patri-ots. This historical place, with 100 acres of land will be donated to • the National D. A. R. by the North Caro-lina D. A. R. if their offer is accepted to place this school in North Carolina. Also plans are on foot for the restora-tion of old Fort Dobbs at Statesville. Although no longer interested in the work of the D. A. R.'s as State Regent, Mrs. Renyolds' interest in the work of the organization has not in the least diminished. The same enthusiasm that prompted her to keep all engagements concerning her duties as State Regent and to labor untiringly for the accom-plishing of the work undertaken will continue to exert a great influence in the organization. Her service to North Carolina has been great and she is just now entering upon the full tide of her popularity and usefuUness. EDWARD KIDDER GRAHAM President of the University of North CaroHna 224 SKY-LAND MAGAZINE EDWARD KIDDER GRAHAM By R. E. P., '98 COINCIDENT with the inaugura-tion of Edward Kidder Graham as president of the University of North Carolina, the head of the State's edu-cational system becomes, as it were, actually full fledged. However well intrenched the University may have been throughout its more than one hundred years of power and usefulness to North Carolina, it is nevertheless to be proudly admitted that its scope, equipment, and ideals now assume pro-portions which its most adrent alumnus, even a few years ago, would never have dreamed possible at this time. Under the leadership of President Graham, even before his formal induc-tion into office, and while he was as acting president of the institution, there was crystalizing in University alTairs a broader, better aim and a surer elTort to put Chapel Hill in the very forefront of the Nation's educational centers. Not that the University has ever been a laggard in the march, but within the last three years there has been verily a quickening of every fibre in the Uni-versity's body both corporate and spiri-tual. Service to the State, far beyond the inculcation of mere book learning, is the gage Oi educational battle which Presi-dent Graham and his conferes have taken up. The Battle lines are far flung in-deed. It might be said that, instead of a sentinel surveying the. State from a lonely mountain top, the University has become rather as the Good Samari-tan, going about through the highways and into even the bypaths to lift the weak and to minister with all her might unto even the least opportunities of her sons and daughters. In the days to come history will write large this work, this realization of broadened ideals for service which Gra-ham and his unselfish associates are doing for North Carolina. But even now, while the work is just crystalizing, the great heart of the people of North Carolina has been touched by the nobil-ity of the conception; and the Uni-versity's name is on every man's lips. No longer are the activities of the University circumscribed, as it were, by the campus at Chapel Hill. Her long arm has shaken free from the dull robe of mere scholasticism and is stretched forth to the fartherest corner of the State, bared to the kindly sun or the fierce tempests—stretched forth for a hardier, more uplifting work-a-day ser-vice among the sons and daughters of men. President Graham's inauguration drew together easily one of the most distinguished bodies of men which has been gathered in this country. North, South, East and West proudly took place in that great company; and it was as if a coronation ceremony was being peformed in a staunch educational re-public, where none was too humble to do his homage. A conspicuous feature was the large and representative atten-dance of alumni, nurtured in the bosom of Chapel Hill, and who had come back to pay tribute to the new University. Not a new University in the sense of changed ideals, but new in the accom-plishment of ideals long struggling for expression in University life. SKY-LAND MAGAZINE 225 And a young man has done this thing. There has been no accident about it whatever. Graham, the man, is the perfectly logical development of Graham the boy. Born and bred of staunch forbears, he has somehow always stress-ed the things worth while; and he has not fought for mere power or pelf. Young Graham entered Chapel Hill with the class of 1898, equipped solely with his public school education, am-bition and the God-give qualities which have made him what he is. As a student he at once exhibited a thoroughness in every task. Yet there was nothing pedantic about him. He never strove for brilliancy. Playing for effect was utterly foreign to him. Breadth of mind, almost uncanny clearness of vis-sion and a passion for fair play to every man characterized him sharply. Real humor, fate blessed him with. He won a place in the critical young democracy of undergraduate life without any ap-parent efifort. His strength with his fellows appeared to be a sort of cumula-tive strength. First, his immediate friends discovered that he had a way of being "right" on questions ever so often. Next, his class began to remark upon this quality. Soon, members of the faculty (and be it remarked right here that Graham never "played to the faculty") would refer matters to him frequently. In the Dialectic Society, where the students from the West de-bated in a more or less parliamentray way, Graham did not by any means assume to take the floor on every sub-ject that came up. But now and then one would hear on the campus a chuckle over some shaft of truth frequently barbed with wit that young Graham had unloosed among the embryonic parlia-mentarians. He played baseball and tennis and loafted around the post office and drug store about on an average with his associates. Always he took a real interest in every legitimate acti-vity around Chapel Hill. "A strong man—a coming big law-yer," was the verdict about Graham in his junior year. Then in a debate, in which Graham and his colleague representing Carolina obtained an unan-imous decision over the University of Georgia, the future young president of the University of North Carolina siezed, clinched, tripple-riveted and for all time achieved first place in the heart of the University. And it wasn't his regularly prepared debate which did this thing. It was his rejoinder, his extemporaneous reply to his Georgia opponent. It was electrical, surcharged with sense, over-poweringly reasonable and Satanically crushing. One or two of the strongest members of the faculty then and there, it is reported, marked Graham for a longer stay at the University than even he himself had dreamed of. Probably the bar of North Carolina and the Supreme Court were literally robbed of a bright ornament just at this time. Graham at first thought he was going to study law, but they showed him the error of his way. Of course they did not tell him that he was to be some day president of the University of North Carolina, for they couldn't promise that. But they must have hoped it. If Graham himself had any idea along that line, he probably com-municated it to no one. But after he graduated, taught school and attended Columbia University, where he ob-tained his doctor's degree, he returned to Chapel Hill as an instructor in the department of English. Within a few years he became dean. By unanimous demand, he was looked to as the man who best understood what the faculty was trying to do for the student and simultaneously what the student was 226 SKY LAND MAGAZINE trying to do for himself. When the frequently heard question. Well, no cares of administration and long service olifer yet has swerved Graham from his had grown so heavy upon President Fran- allegiance to Chapel Hill; and there cis P. Venable that he wished to lay aside have been many calls from other great the administrative office, only one name institutions which might have tempted was suggested as his successor. This, the strongest. Those who know him of course, was Graham. And so this best believe that Carolina will keep young man, now only in this thirty- this distinguished son of hers for her eighth year, has buckled on the harness, own work as long as he himself believes "Can Carolina Keep him?" is the she needs him. THE WOMAN I LOVE M. B. Andrews There are women and women, but this is the one I love: Without conscious effort, she stands composed and erect: her form was fashion-ed from flawless material by the master hand of God. Her large, frank eyes, like the ether above, are perfectly clear; not a blemish in them is portrayed. Her tongue cannot utter an unkind word, nor can her lips give expression to deceit. She has never committed an act, pondered a thought, or cherished a wish that, for one moment, she has attempted or even disired maliciously to withold from me. She sees and knows the world as it is : the sinful, the wounded, the disappointed, the broken-hearted—her own sisters and brothers,—all make their appeal, and to each she graciously responds. As fragrance is to the rose, so music is to her soul : yet she can listen to the wild-est outbursts of passion or to the tenderest strains of pathos without a quiver of a muscle in her obdy or a sign of inward emotion. God is just as real to her as the thunder in the could or as the tender little violet by the door, and she hears his voice even more often than mine. Though keenly conscious of the awful pain involved, she never fails to blush and to smile when she thinks of becoming a warm-hearted mother. She admires the man in all, but only to me has she promised and given her life; the mellow colors of the rainbow can hardly be more harmoniously blended than are her soul and mine. There are women and women, but this is the one I love. SKY-LAND MAGAZINE 227 THE DIAMOND CROP AND THE WEDDING BELLS By Chas. Anderson TN a rail pen built on a little sand -*- island in Sandy Run branch, a dozen or more lean shoats were squeal-ing and fighting over some ears of corn which a buxom, rosy-cheeked country girl was tossing to them from a splint basket. Leaning on the top rail of the pen she was so absorbed in feeding the pigs that she did not hear from the opposite side of the pen the approach of a tall, pleasant looking man, who held a slop bucket in his hand. "Mornin', Susan; fine mornin'," he called cheerily. Susan Allen looked up with a start and a frown formed on her comely face. "What you doin' here. Hank Smith? You know this is our mornin' to feed them pesky ol' hogs," she hurled at the boy. Hank's even white teeth showed in a pleasant smile. " I'clare fo goodness, Susan, that's so. An' here I comes a-trapsin' down this hill a quarter mile with these slops. I'm sho' gettin' fergetful these days," he replied. "Well, you'd better be a-trapsin' back up to that shanty with your slops; if my daddy ketches you a messin' roun' this pen today he'll fill yo' hide with buckshot," the spirited Susan retorted. "Hoi' on, Susan, 'taint no use a-gettin' mad. You know I ain't hed nothin' to do 'ith the rumpuses of them two ol' growlin' ba'rs," Hank continued, good humoredly. "Well, I have, ef you hain't. Hank Smith; an' don't you call my dad no ol' ba'r neither," retorted the girl. "I ax yer pardon, Susan; but it do 'peer to me like a plagued shame the way our paps is a-carryin' on. Here it is, winter, spring, and summer, 'ith your folks and my folks ez thick ez cold 'lasses. An' jest as soon as fall comes along a stink raises. Daggon! I tol 'pap they aughter be some fence law to keep hogs frum runnin' every-where. So you see, Susan, I ain't to fault," Hank conciliated. "Jest the same you're a big oV coward not to stick by your dad; an' anyhow whyn't ol' Bill Smith change his mark fru
|Other Title||Sky-land magazine|
|Contributor||Smith, Mae Lucile.|
|Date||1913; 1914; 1915|
|Place||North Carolina, United States|
|Time Period||(1900-1929) North Carolina's industrial revolution and World War One|
|Description||Title from cover?; No more published?; "Stories of picturesque North Carolina. The people's magazine"--Caption, v. 1, no. 1.; Latest issue consulted: Vol. 2, no. 3 (June 1915).|
|Rights||Public Domain see http://digital.ncdcr.gov/u?/p249901coll22,63753;|
|Physical Characteristics||v. : ill., ports. ; 26 cm.|
|Collection||State Library of North Carolina|
|Digital Characteristics-A||4972 KB|
|Digital Collection||General Collection|
|Pres File Name-M||gen_bm_serial_skyland061913.pdf-gen_bm_serial_skyland061915.pdf|
|Other Title||Sky-land magazine.|
|Contributor||Smith, Mae Lucile.|
|Place||North Carolina, United States|
|Time Period||(1900-1929) North Carolina's industrial revolution and World War One|
|Description||Title from cover?; No more published?|
|Publisher||[Hendersonville? N.C. :s.n.,1913-|
|Rights||Public Domain see http://digital.ncdcr.gov/u?/p249901coll22,63753|
|Physical Characteristics||v. :ill., ports. ;26 cm.|
|Collection||State Library of North Carolina|
|Digital Characteristics-A||8830 KB|
|Digital Collection||General Collection|
|Pres File Name-M||gen_bm_serial_skyland061915.pdf|
S K Y- L AN D
STORIES OF PICTURESQUE NORTH CAROLINA
The People's Magazine
Volume 2 JUNE, 1915 Number 3
Entered as Second-Class Matter at the postoffice at
Act of March 3, 1879
Winston-Salem, N. C, Under the
MAE LUCILE SMITH Editor and Owner
Published Every Month
Sent by Mail, One Year — One Dollar
Single Copies Fifteen Cents
Locke Craig Governor of North Carolina
Josephus Daniels —
....Secretary of the Navy
Lee S. Overman United States Senator
F. M. Simmons United States Senator
Joseph Hyde Pratt.. State Geologist.
W. A. Erwin, President Durham Cotton Manufacturing Company Durham, N. C.
Julian S. Carr, Manufacturer and Banker ..Durham, N. C.
J. Harper Erwin, Secretary and Treasurer Pearl Cotton Mills Durham, N. C.
J. C. Pritchard Judge United States Circuit Court of Appeals
S. B. Tanner, President Henrietta and Carolene Mills Charlotte, N. C.
John E. Ennis, M. D St. Petersburg, Fla.
R. M. WiLLCOX.. President Greater Hendersonville Club, Hendersonville, N. C.
R. R. Haynes President The Cliffside Mills, Cliffside, N. C.
W. A. Smith President Laurel Park Electric Railway, Hendersonville, N. C.
L. L. Jenkins President American National Bank, Asheville, N. C.
F. E. Durfee President Citizens Bank, Hendersonville, N. C.
B. Jackson ...President The People's National Bank, Hendersonville, N. C.
The cover pageJand^'entire contents of this Magazine are protected by copyright, and
must not be reprinted without the publisher's permission.