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context Ferrel Guillory Director guillory@ unc. edu Thad Beyle Associate Director beyle@ email. unc. edu H odding carter, IIIIIIIII Leadership Fellow hoddingcarter@ unc. edu Kendra Davenport Cotttton Assistant Director for Programs kendradc@ unc. edu A ndrew holton Assistant Director for Research holton@ unc. edu D . Leroy Towns Research Fellow dltowns@ email. unc. edu The Program on Public Life is a non partisan organization dev oted to serving the people of North Carolina and the South by informing the public agenda and nurturing leadership. To receive an electronic version or to subscribe to the printed version, send your name and email address to southnow@ unc. edu. The Program on Public Life is part of the Center for the Study of the American South at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Carolina Context was printed with the use of state funds. 1000 copies of this public document were printed at a cost of $ 1,283, or $ 1.28 a copy. www. southnow. org march2007 Number3 carolina t he program on public life D irector’s Note Over the past year, the Program on Public Life and the UNC CH School of Education have hosted an ongoing seminar on school improvement. Math and science preparedness was the topic of one session, and several participants raised concerns about North Carolina’s supply of math and science teachers. Even more worrisome to some participants was the lack of accessible information about the state’s capacity to train math and science teachers and about where trained teachers go after graduation. In response to these concerns, the Program on Public Life compiled a data based study of both the supply and demand sides of math and science teacher preparation and placement. We enlisted the help of Trip Stallings, who is pursuing his Ph. D. in Education at UNC CH. In addition to teaching middle and high school for seven years, Trip spent four years serving as Duke University’s teacher licensure coordinator and service learning facilitator. He has a B. A. in English and a M. P. P. from Duke University. Data for the full report, which can be found at www. southnow. org, were compiled from three primary sources: the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction’s Licensure and Payroll Databases and survey responses from every university or college in the state with at least one secondary math or science licensure program. With the exception of some projections about teacher turnover in math and science, none of the results in this report are the product of complex statistical analyses. More often than not, they are simply head counts, from which tentative conclusions have been drawn. Therefore, we report provisional findings and not definitive assertions; in many cases, our findings raise more questions than answers and may be important starting points for further investigation. — Ferrel Guillory Director, Program on Public Life Findings Almost half of all active licensed math and science teachers in North Carolina middle and high schools were either trained out of state or in an alternate license program, ( e. g., lateral entry). Most math and science teachers are hired to replace teachers who leave— not to meet the demand of increasing student enrollment. Many school districts employ a high proportion of math and science teachers who are in the early stages of their careers. School systems of similar size sometimes employ widely different numbers of licensed math and science teachers. • • • • 2 Carolina context O verview There are four main factors to consider when analyzing the math and science teacher pipeline: teacher production, retention, quality, and presence. The first component of the full study is an estimation of the production of math and science teachers at all of the North Carolina based institutions of higher education that house middle and high school math and/ or science licensure programs. Rather than simply examining the number of candidates who pursued state licensure, the full study also estimates the number of candidates who met the requirements for licensure, regardless of whether they chose to apply for a North Carolina license. By doing so, we can draw conclusions about the potential size of the math and science corps and estimate how many potential licensees either chose not to pursue licensure in state or chose not to enter the profession at all. The next part of this study attempts to estimate patterns in math and science teacher retention across the state. The section examines the relationship between years of experience and decisions to leave the math or science classroom, as well as estimates of teacher positions created due to student population growth versus positions created due to turnover. The third component is an examination of the relative quality of the state’s math and science teachers, statewide and per school district. There is disconcerting evidence that without high quality math and science instruction, particularly at the secondary level, many young people will choose not to pursue careers in science and math related fields. In 2003 2004, around 8% of all North Carolina secondary math and science teachers taught without full credentials— well above the national average of 3.6%. The numbers of such teachers may be higher than that if we were to include credentialed teachers who are teaching out of field. For example, across the nation in 2002, 45% of biology and life science high school students and 30% of high school math students were taught by teachers who did not hold a degree in the field being taught. The study’s final element considers differences in the presence of licensed math and science teachers across districts. In addition, this section models the degree to which the largest The Status of North Carolina’s Math/ Science Teacher Pipeline Less than 45% licensed in state 45 59% licensed in state60 74% licensed in state75% or greater licensed in stateCity School Districts M ap 1 Percentage of North Carolina Middle and High School Math and Science Teachers Licensed in “ Traditional” In State Programs Note: Statewide proportion of middle and high school math and science teachers trained in traditional in state programs is 55.8%; all other licensed teachers either trained out of state or via in state alternate licensure programs. Source: N. C. Department of Public Instruction uNote: In some sections of this report, we consider two subsets of teachers: those trained at in state, traditional licensure programs ( programs that train teachers before they take teaching jobs), and those who either earned licensure out of state or through in state alternate licensure programs ( e. g., lateral entry.) C arolina context t 3 licensure programs serve each area of the state by estimating where their graduates currently hold teaching positions. Teachers, like many other professionals, tend to migrate toward certain geographic locations ( predominantly suburban districts), and away from others ( such as inner city and rural districts and high needs schools), and they do so for a variety of reasons. They also tend toward certain licensure areas, such as elementary education, and away from other high need licensure areas, such as mathematics and science. The end result is an imbalance in teacher distribution across disciplines and across regions that is often masked by aggregated state licensure numbers. Highlights from the full report: P roduction n Only about one half of all active licensed math and science teachers were trained in “ traditional” in state programs. Traditional licensure programs at North Carolina colleges and universities— public and private combined— have provided around 56% ( about 7,400 out of 13,200) of the state’s licensed math and science classroom teachers; at least 44% of the state’s math and science teachers either received all of their training out of state or entered the teaching profession through an alternative licensure program ( 34%), or are currently enrolled in a lateral entry program ( 10%), indicating a far greater need for math and science teachers than is currently being met by traditional in state teacher education programs. Of those trained in traditional state programs, a large majority also earned degrees from public universities. About 8,600 school employees ( teachers and administrators) statewide with traditional math or science licensure earned at least one degree in state. At least 7,500 of their degrees came from public universities; just under 2,000 of their degrees came from private colleges. n In state colleges produce enough teachers to meet demand due to student population growth, but not due to teacher turnover. Most math and science teachers are hired to replace Table 1 Total College and University “ Touches,” All Active Teachers Trained In State in Traditional Licensure Programs t t t otal P rivate “ TOuches” Barton College 172 Bennett College 21 Campbell University 258 Catawba College 63 Duke University 57 Elon University 169 Gardner Webb University 265 Greensboro College 40 High Point University 99 Johnson C. Smith University 9 Lenoir Rhyne College 143 Livingstone College 17 Mars Hill College 130 Meredith College 150 Methodist College 46 North Carolina Wesleyan College 38 Pfeiffer University 71 Queens College 20 Salem College 13 Shaw University 18 Wake Forest University 110 Warren Wilson College 14 Wingate University 54 Total Private “ Touches” 1977 t total public “ TOuches” Appalachian State University 1457 East Carolina University 1184 Elizabeth City State University 118 Fayetteville State University 295 N. C. A& T State University 168 N. C. Central University 159 N. C. State University 814 University of North Carolina  Asheville 90 University of North Carolina  Chapel Hill 597 University of North Carolina  Charlotte 605 University of North Carolina  Greensboro 531 University of North Carolina  Pembroke 389 University of North Carolina  Wilmington 424 Western Carolina University 620 Winston Salem State University 60 Total Public “ Touches” 7511 N orth Carolina Colleges and Universities with active licensure programs A Note About Touches: The state currently tracks information about institutions from which license holders have degrees, but it does not track information about institutions at which license holders completed their licensure work. Thus, a teacher may have graduated from Fayetteville State University with a bachelor’s degree in math and from Duke University with a master’s degree in statistics but have earned his high school math licensure at the University of North Carolina Greensboro. In the licensure database, only his degrees from FSU and Duke would be listed; there would be no indication of his work at UNC G. The data in this table and in some sections of the full report were generated by counting “ touches.” That is, every time a college with a math or science licensure program is mentioned in a teacher’s record, that school is given credit for “ touching” or potentially influencing a teacher and her or his decision to teach math or science. The resulting number is therefore not a true count of college and university production but instead only an approximation ( and an over estimate in almost all cases). Thus, when we report that 1,457 of the math and science teachers teaching in 2005 2006 were “ touched” by Appalachian State University, we are saying that 1,457 math and science teachers have at least one degree from ASU. The actual proportion of those teachers who earned their licensure at ASU is smaller but unknown. While this solution to the problem is acceptable for the back of the envelope estimates presented in this report, more accurate and meaningful assessments of college and university teacher production will require more accurate records. Total “ Touches” Total Public 7511 Total Private 1977 In state trained teachers whose college and university connection is unknown 393 Total 9881 Findings: 1 The majority of in state trained math and science teachers who completed traditional programs ( c. 75– 80%) also earned degrees in public universities. 2 The impact of Regional Alternative Licensing Centers ( RALC) licensure on math and science teacher totals is limited ( 21 RALC only; another 41 in conjunction with an NC college or university). 4 Carolina context R etention n Math and science teachers leave the classroom at a very high rate during their first two years of teaching, and they continue to leave at a lower but steady rate in succeeding years. Based on 2004– 2005 and 2005– 2006 figures, math and science teachers leave the classroom rapidly after the first two years of teaching. A steady but lesser share of each cohort of teachers continues to leave the classroom over the next 12 years of their careers. In 2005– 06, 7.4% of the secondary school teaching workforce had no experience, and 6.4% had only one year of experience. n For every 10 math and science teachers hired, more than 7 are hired to fill vacancies and slightly more than 2 are hired to meet growth in the student population. It is difficult to estimate the total annual number of math and science teachers newly hired by the state. We can, however, make approximations. Conservatively, we estimate that North Carolina districts made about 1,200 new hires in 2005– 2006. The secondary student population has grown by about 2.5% per year over the past 10 years. At the current teacher student ratio, this rate of enrollment growth suggests that fewer than 300 of the state’s estimated 1,200 vacancies last year were new positions. As a result, the majority of the more than 900 zero experience teachers hired for the 2005– 2006 school year were hired to replace departing experienced teachers, not to meet demand created by growth in the student population. There always will— and should— be vacancies due to turnover; the question for the state is whether the current rate of turnover is acceptable, especially given the current production rate of in state math and science teacher preparation programs. teachers who leave the profession, the classroom, or the state— not to meet the demand of increasing student enrollment. In 2005, just over 500 math and science licensure candidates completed in state licensure programs. Our estimate for the demand for N. C. math and science teachers is around 1,200 new teachers a year. Therefore, the state’s colleges and universities are not producing as many teachers as are needed to meet the annual demand. It is inaccurate to conclude, however, that the only reason for the shortage is that the state is not producing “ enough” teachers. A high teacher turnover rate and decisions to teach in other states contribute to the shortage. For example, not all of the over 500 candidates who completed licensure programs in state in 2005 chose to teach in North Carolina. Also, several colleges support many active teachers still enrolled in lateral entry programs. % of N. C. Math and Science Teachers in the Workforce ( Middle/ High) Years of Experience8% 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 0% 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 4013.8% of math and science teachers have less than two years of experience22% of math and science teachers have less than four years of experience Graph 1 Distribution of Teachers by Experience, 2005 – 2006 C arolina context t 5 n Some of the retention problem is a result of teachers moving among districts in the state, not just of the state losing teachers due to retirement and career changes. Estimates for this report suggest that the statewide annual leaving rate for math and science teachers is probably around 7%. However, in a 2005 study, the Department of Public Instruction reported an average annual teacher leaving rate for all disciplines of about 12% per district. One reason why our statewide estimate is lower than the average reported leaving rate is because our statewide rate does not include teachers who stay in state and in profession but who move between districts. In 2004– 2005, nearly 20% of all teachers who left their positions did so to take jobs in another district in the state. Quality n Most of the state’s licensed math and science teachers are designated as highly qualified; however, middle school science license holders lag behind other math and science teachers in earning the highly qualified designation. More than 88% of the licenses held by licensed math and science classroom teachers also were held by teachers who were designated “ highly qualified” for those areas of licensure under the stipulations of the federal No Child Left Behind Act. The rate was highest for high school math and science teachers ( about 94%). However, in 2005– 2006, more than 1,000 ( nearly 22%) of the 4,750 middle school science license holders were not designated “ highly qualified.” n In 40 school districts, one fourth of the math and/ or science teachers are teachers with 0 to 3 years of experience (“ early career teachers”); in 11 of these districts, early career teachers make up one third or more of the licensed math and science teacher corps. Though a definite pattern is not discernable, it is interesting to note that of the 16 largest districts ( districts with more than 10,000 students), 10 employed a higher than average number of early career math and science teachers ( led by Guilford County at above 33%). By contrast, of the 14 smallest districts ( districts with fewer than 1,000 students), only 4 employed a higher than average number of early career math and science teachers ( in fact, Camden and Gates Counties employed no math and science teachers with fewer than 4 years of experience). On the other hand, the teaching workforces of three small districts— Hoke, Jones, and Vance Counties— were composed of at least 40% early career teachers. P resence n School systems of similar size sometimes employ widely different numbers of licensed math and science teachers. On average, North Carolina school districts employed about 21 teachers per 1,000 secondary students. Actual district employment ratios ranged from as few as 11 licensed teachers per 1,000 secondary Less than 15% are early career teacher s15 19% are early career teachers20 24% are early career teachers25 29% are early career teachers30% or greater are early career teachersCity School Districts M ap 2 Percentage of Early Career Licensed Math and Science Teachers Working in Each District Note: Average Statewide early career license state for math and science teachers is 23.2% Source: N. C. Department of Public Instruction 6 Carolina context Fewer than 20 teachers per 1,000 students 20 24 teachers per 1,000 students25 or more teachers per 1,000 studentsCity School Districts students ( Yadkin County) to as high as 35 licensed teachers per 1,000 secondary students ( Hyde County). n Many of our active and licensed math and science teachers ( more than 2,000, or roughly 13%) are not working in middle or high school classrooms. More than 1,600 ( about 11% of all) active teachers with middle or high school math and/ or science licenses were teaching in elementary schools during the 2005– 2006 school year. Nearly 400 more ( about 2.5% of all licensed and active) were working in central administration offices. Therefore, one possible reason for a math and science teacher shortage is because thousands of eligible teachers are working in some other capacity within school systems. To be sure, many of the elementary teachers likely hold elementary licenses as well as math and/ or science licenses, but according to NC DPI research ( 2005), math and science positions have been consistently much harder to fill than have been elementary positions. L imitations of the Data This issue of Carolina Context is pulled from a larger report, Examining the Pipeline: An Analysis of Math and Science Teacher Preparation in North Carolina, that can be found on the Program web site, www. southnow. org. This analysis presents as many questions as it does answers. The state currently tracks information about institutions from which license holders have degrees, but it does not contain information about institutions at which license holders completed their licensure work. This is an important distinction. A teacher may have graduated from Fayetteville State University with a bachelor’s degree in math and from Duke University with a master’s degree in statistics but earned his high school math licensure at the University of North Carolina Greensboro. In the licensure database, only his degrees from FSU and Duke would be listed; there would be no indication of his work at UNC G. The effects of these missing data are twofold: first, it is difficult to assess accurately how many North Carolina based teachers an institution has produced; and second, it reduces the state’s ability to draw connections between teacher quality and teacher training. In addition, available data do not allow us to compare the demand for math and science teachers for the past several years across local education agencies ( LEAs), nor do they allow us to compare accurately the number of math and/ or science teachers who leave the profession to the number of new math and/ or science hires. Finally, our data did not indicate how many unlicensed teachers are teaching math and/ or science in North Carolina. We realize that the UNC General Administration, the Department of Public Instruction, and others are actively considering these data shortcomings. Our goal in this report is to offer an initial analysis of what is available and to inform the policy discussions over improving math and science teacher education. n M ap 3 Number of licensed math and science teachers per 1,000 students Note: Not every school district in North Carolina has 1,000 middle and high school students. In the case of those districts, the number is an estimate based on the existing ration of math and science teachers to students. The average number of licensed math and science teachers per 1,000 students within the 115 school districts is 22. Source: N. C. Department of Public Instruction C arolina context t 7 Work in Progress The UNC Program on Public Life remains in the process of building a website ( www. southnow. org) that serves to provide policy makers, faculty, students and citizens with data and analysis on electoral trends and issues in North Carolina and the South. This issue of Carolina Context summarizes the research conducted by Trip Stallings, a PhD student at UNC Chapel Hill. You can find a link to the full report, as well as a pdf version of this white paper, on the southnow. org home page. If you would like to receive a paper copy, please let us know by emailing our colleague Kendra Cotton at kendradc@ unc. edu. In addition to Carolina Context, the website contains archives of our other publications, NC DataNet and SouthNow. We have in process the following projects: NC DataNet  1) a data profile of the 2007 08 General Assembly; 2) an analysis of the 2006 judicial elections; and 3) an analysis of trends in the 2006 Congressional elections S outhNow  A report on the state of entrepreneurship in the Southern states. C arolina Context  1) a white paper on workforce training in bio manufacturing and “ sector based economic development strategies; and 2) the results of two working roundtables on issues affecting coastal communities. Note: Totals reflect all math and science licenses held by people currently employed by NC public schools; a teacher can hold more than one license. Table 3 Where Active Math and Science Teachers Were Working in North Carolina, 2005– 06 1,340 school employees held a math or science license for middle or high school of these employees were licensed through traditional in state licensure programs of these employees were enrolled in lateral entry programs of these employees were licensed through other licensure programs licensees were teaching in middle or high schools ( 86.7%) licensees were teaching in elementary schools ( 10.8%) licensees were working in central offices ( 2.5%) 8,609 15,304 13,276 1,646 382 Finding: There are a sizeable number of public school employees who are licensed to teach math or science but who are currently working in other capacities ( e. g., elementary education or central office work). 5,355 Table 2 Total Math and Science Licenses Held, by License Level, 2005– 2006 Total # of Math and Science Licenses Held by NC Teachers 20875 Teachers Who Received At Least One License, of Any Level, from a Traditional In State Program 57.3% 11958 Teachers Who Received Their Licenses from Out of State Institutions or Through Alternate Programs 42.7% 8917 Total # of Bachelor’s Level Licenses in Math and Science 17837 Teachers Who Received At Least One License, of Any Level, from a Traditional In State Program 55.8% 9952 Teachers Who Received Their Licenses from Out of State Institutions or Through Alternate Programs 44.2% 7885 Total # of Master’s Level Licenses in Math and Science 2944 Teachers Who Received At Least One License, of Any Level, from a Traditional In State Program 66.4% 1955 Teachers Who Received Their Licenses from Out of State Institutions or Through Alternate Programs 33.6% 989 Total # of 6th Year Level Licenses in Math and Science 59 Teachers Who Received At Least One License, of Any Level, from a Traditional In State Program 67.8% 40 Teachers Who Received Their Licenses from Out of State Institutions or Through Alternate Programs 32.2% 19 Total # of Doctoral Level Licenses in Math and Science 35 Teachers Who Received At Least One License, of Any Level, from a Traditional In State Program 31.4% 11 Teachers Who Received Their Licenses from Out of State Institutions or Through Alternate Programs 68.6% 24
Object Description
Description
Title  Carolina context. 
Other Title  Context 
Contributor 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Center for the Study of the American South. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Program on Public Life. 
Date  200703 
Subjects 
Labor supplyNorth Carolina North CarolinaPopulation North CarolinaEconomic conditions North CarolinaSocial conditions 
Description  March 2007 (Number 3) 
Abstract  Carolina Context is a report focusing on research findings by UNC faculty and graduate students on demographic, economic, education and environmental issues. 
Publisher  Program on Public Life, Center for the Study of the American South, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 
Type  Text 
Language  English 
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Digital Format  application/pdf 
Related Items  Also available via the World Wide Web.; http://www.southnow.org/southnowpublications/carolinacontext1; http://worldcat.org/oclc/214279514/viewonline 
Pres Local File PathM  \Preservation_content\StatePubs\pubs_borndigital\images_master\ 
Full Text  context Ferrel Guillory Director guillory@ unc. edu Thad Beyle Associate Director beyle@ email. unc. edu H odding carter, IIIIIIIII Leadership Fellow hoddingcarter@ unc. edu Kendra Davenport Cotttton Assistant Director for Programs kendradc@ unc. edu A ndrew holton Assistant Director for Research holton@ unc. edu D . Leroy Towns Research Fellow dltowns@ email. unc. edu The Program on Public Life is a non partisan organization dev oted to serving the people of North Carolina and the South by informing the public agenda and nurturing leadership. To receive an electronic version or to subscribe to the printed version, send your name and email address to southnow@ unc. edu. The Program on Public Life is part of the Center for the Study of the American South at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Carolina Context was printed with the use of state funds. 1000 copies of this public document were printed at a cost of $ 1,283, or $ 1.28 a copy. www. southnow. org march2007 Number3 carolina t he program on public life D irector’s Note Over the past year, the Program on Public Life and the UNC CH School of Education have hosted an ongoing seminar on school improvement. Math and science preparedness was the topic of one session, and several participants raised concerns about North Carolina’s supply of math and science teachers. Even more worrisome to some participants was the lack of accessible information about the state’s capacity to train math and science teachers and about where trained teachers go after graduation. In response to these concerns, the Program on Public Life compiled a data based study of both the supply and demand sides of math and science teacher preparation and placement. We enlisted the help of Trip Stallings, who is pursuing his Ph. D. in Education at UNC CH. In addition to teaching middle and high school for seven years, Trip spent four years serving as Duke University’s teacher licensure coordinator and service learning facilitator. He has a B. A. in English and a M. P. P. from Duke University. Data for the full report, which can be found at www. southnow. org, were compiled from three primary sources: the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction’s Licensure and Payroll Databases and survey responses from every university or college in the state with at least one secondary math or science licensure program. With the exception of some projections about teacher turnover in math and science, none of the results in this report are the product of complex statistical analyses. More often than not, they are simply head counts, from which tentative conclusions have been drawn. Therefore, we report provisional findings and not definitive assertions; in many cases, our findings raise more questions than answers and may be important starting points for further investigation. — Ferrel Guillory Director, Program on Public Life Findings Almost half of all active licensed math and science teachers in North Carolina middle and high schools were either trained out of state or in an alternate license program, ( e. g., lateral entry). Most math and science teachers are hired to replace teachers who leave— not to meet the demand of increasing student enrollment. Many school districts employ a high proportion of math and science teachers who are in the early stages of their careers. School systems of similar size sometimes employ widely different numbers of licensed math and science teachers. • • • • 2 Carolina context O verview There are four main factors to consider when analyzing the math and science teacher pipeline: teacher production, retention, quality, and presence. The first component of the full study is an estimation of the production of math and science teachers at all of the North Carolina based institutions of higher education that house middle and high school math and/ or science licensure programs. Rather than simply examining the number of candidates who pursued state licensure, the full study also estimates the number of candidates who met the requirements for licensure, regardless of whether they chose to apply for a North Carolina license. By doing so, we can draw conclusions about the potential size of the math and science corps and estimate how many potential licensees either chose not to pursue licensure in state or chose not to enter the profession at all. The next part of this study attempts to estimate patterns in math and science teacher retention across the state. The section examines the relationship between years of experience and decisions to leave the math or science classroom, as well as estimates of teacher positions created due to student population growth versus positions created due to turnover. The third component is an examination of the relative quality of the state’s math and science teachers, statewide and per school district. There is disconcerting evidence that without high quality math and science instruction, particularly at the secondary level, many young people will choose not to pursue careers in science and math related fields. In 2003 2004, around 8% of all North Carolina secondary math and science teachers taught without full credentials— well above the national average of 3.6%. The numbers of such teachers may be higher than that if we were to include credentialed teachers who are teaching out of field. For example, across the nation in 2002, 45% of biology and life science high school students and 30% of high school math students were taught by teachers who did not hold a degree in the field being taught. The study’s final element considers differences in the presence of licensed math and science teachers across districts. In addition, this section models the degree to which the largest The Status of North Carolina’s Math/ Science Teacher Pipeline Less than 45% licensed in state 45 59% licensed in state60 74% licensed in state75% or greater licensed in stateCity School Districts M ap 1 Percentage of North Carolina Middle and High School Math and Science Teachers Licensed in “ Traditional” In State Programs Note: Statewide proportion of middle and high school math and science teachers trained in traditional in state programs is 55.8%; all other licensed teachers either trained out of state or via in state alternate licensure programs. Source: N. C. Department of Public Instruction uNote: In some sections of this report, we consider two subsets of teachers: those trained at in state, traditional licensure programs ( programs that train teachers before they take teaching jobs), and those who either earned licensure out of state or through in state alternate licensure programs ( e. g., lateral entry.) C arolina context t 3 licensure programs serve each area of the state by estimating where their graduates currently hold teaching positions. Teachers, like many other professionals, tend to migrate toward certain geographic locations ( predominantly suburban districts), and away from others ( such as inner city and rural districts and high needs schools), and they do so for a variety of reasons. They also tend toward certain licensure areas, such as elementary education, and away from other high need licensure areas, such as mathematics and science. The end result is an imbalance in teacher distribution across disciplines and across regions that is often masked by aggregated state licensure numbers. Highlights from the full report: P roduction n Only about one half of all active licensed math and science teachers were trained in “ traditional” in state programs. Traditional licensure programs at North Carolina colleges and universities— public and private combined— have provided around 56% ( about 7,400 out of 13,200) of the state’s licensed math and science classroom teachers; at least 44% of the state’s math and science teachers either received all of their training out of state or entered the teaching profession through an alternative licensure program ( 34%), or are currently enrolled in a lateral entry program ( 10%), indicating a far greater need for math and science teachers than is currently being met by traditional in state teacher education programs. Of those trained in traditional state programs, a large majority also earned degrees from public universities. About 8,600 school employees ( teachers and administrators) statewide with traditional math or science licensure earned at least one degree in state. At least 7,500 of their degrees came from public universities; just under 2,000 of their degrees came from private colleges. n In state colleges produce enough teachers to meet demand due to student population growth, but not due to teacher turnover. Most math and science teachers are hired to replace Table 1 Total College and University “ Touches,” All Active Teachers Trained In State in Traditional Licensure Programs t t t otal P rivate “ TOuches” Barton College 172 Bennett College 21 Campbell University 258 Catawba College 63 Duke University 57 Elon University 169 Gardner Webb University 265 Greensboro College 40 High Point University 99 Johnson C. Smith University 9 Lenoir Rhyne College 143 Livingstone College 17 Mars Hill College 130 Meredith College 150 Methodist College 46 North Carolina Wesleyan College 38 Pfeiffer University 71 Queens College 20 Salem College 13 Shaw University 18 Wake Forest University 110 Warren Wilson College 14 Wingate University 54 Total Private “ Touches” 1977 t total public “ TOuches” Appalachian State University 1457 East Carolina University 1184 Elizabeth City State University 118 Fayetteville State University 295 N. C. A& T State University 168 N. C. Central University 159 N. C. State University 814 University of North Carolina  Asheville 90 University of North Carolina  Chapel Hill 597 University of North Carolina  Charlotte 605 University of North Carolina  Greensboro 531 University of North Carolina  Pembroke 389 University of North Carolina  Wilmington 424 Western Carolina University 620 Winston Salem State University 60 Total Public “ Touches” 7511 N orth Carolina Colleges and Universities with active licensure programs A Note About Touches: The state currently tracks information about institutions from which license holders have degrees, but it does not track information about institutions at which license holders completed their licensure work. Thus, a teacher may have graduated from Fayetteville State University with a bachelor’s degree in math and from Duke University with a master’s degree in statistics but have earned his high school math licensure at the University of North Carolina Greensboro. In the licensure database, only his degrees from FSU and Duke would be listed; there would be no indication of his work at UNC G. The data in this table and in some sections of the full report were generated by counting “ touches.” That is, every time a college with a math or science licensure program is mentioned in a teacher’s record, that school is given credit for “ touching” or potentially influencing a teacher and her or his decision to teach math or science. The resulting number is therefore not a true count of college and university production but instead only an approximation ( and an over estimate in almost all cases). Thus, when we report that 1,457 of the math and science teachers teaching in 2005 2006 were “ touched” by Appalachian State University, we are saying that 1,457 math and science teachers have at least one degree from ASU. The actual proportion of those teachers who earned their licensure at ASU is smaller but unknown. While this solution to the problem is acceptable for the back of the envelope estimates presented in this report, more accurate and meaningful assessments of college and university teacher production will require more accurate records. Total “ Touches” Total Public 7511 Total Private 1977 In state trained teachers whose college and university connection is unknown 393 Total 9881 Findings: 1 The majority of in state trained math and science teachers who completed traditional programs ( c. 75– 80%) also earned degrees in public universities. 2 The impact of Regional Alternative Licensing Centers ( RALC) licensure on math and science teacher totals is limited ( 21 RALC only; another 41 in conjunction with an NC college or university). 4 Carolina context R etention n Math and science teachers leave the classroom at a very high rate during their first two years of teaching, and they continue to leave at a lower but steady rate in succeeding years. Based on 2004– 2005 and 2005– 2006 figures, math and science teachers leave the classroom rapidly after the first two years of teaching. A steady but lesser share of each cohort of teachers continues to leave the classroom over the next 12 years of their careers. In 2005– 06, 7.4% of the secondary school teaching workforce had no experience, and 6.4% had only one year of experience. n For every 10 math and science teachers hired, more than 7 are hired to fill vacancies and slightly more than 2 are hired to meet growth in the student population. It is difficult to estimate the total annual number of math and science teachers newly hired by the state. We can, however, make approximations. Conservatively, we estimate that North Carolina districts made about 1,200 new hires in 2005– 2006. The secondary student population has grown by about 2.5% per year over the past 10 years. At the current teacher student ratio, this rate of enrollment growth suggests that fewer than 300 of the state’s estimated 1,200 vacancies last year were new positions. As a result, the majority of the more than 900 zero experience teachers hired for the 2005– 2006 school year were hired to replace departing experienced teachers, not to meet demand created by growth in the student population. There always will— and should— be vacancies due to turnover; the question for the state is whether the current rate of turnover is acceptable, especially given the current production rate of in state math and science teacher preparation programs. teachers who leave the profession, the classroom, or the state— not to meet the demand of increasing student enrollment. In 2005, just over 500 math and science licensure candidates completed in state licensure programs. Our estimate for the demand for N. C. math and science teachers is around 1,200 new teachers a year. Therefore, the state’s colleges and universities are not producing as many teachers as are needed to meet the annual demand. It is inaccurate to conclude, however, that the only reason for the shortage is that the state is not producing “ enough” teachers. A high teacher turnover rate and decisions to teach in other states contribute to the shortage. For example, not all of the over 500 candidates who completed licensure programs in state in 2005 chose to teach in North Carolina. Also, several colleges support many active teachers still enrolled in lateral entry programs. % of N. C. Math and Science Teachers in the Workforce ( Middle/ High) Years of Experience8% 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 0% 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 4013.8% of math and science teachers have less than two years of experience22% of math and science teachers have less than four years of experience Graph 1 Distribution of Teachers by Experience, 2005 – 2006 C arolina context t 5 n Some of the retention problem is a result of teachers moving among districts in the state, not just of the state losing teachers due to retirement and career changes. Estimates for this report suggest that the statewide annual leaving rate for math and science teachers is probably around 7%. However, in a 2005 study, the Department of Public Instruction reported an average annual teacher leaving rate for all disciplines of about 12% per district. One reason why our statewide estimate is lower than the average reported leaving rate is because our statewide rate does not include teachers who stay in state and in profession but who move between districts. In 2004– 2005, nearly 20% of all teachers who left their positions did so to take jobs in another district in the state. Quality n Most of the state’s licensed math and science teachers are designated as highly qualified; however, middle school science license holders lag behind other math and science teachers in earning the highly qualified designation. More than 88% of the licenses held by licensed math and science classroom teachers also were held by teachers who were designated “ highly qualified” for those areas of licensure under the stipulations of the federal No Child Left Behind Act. The rate was highest for high school math and science teachers ( about 94%). However, in 2005– 2006, more than 1,000 ( nearly 22%) of the 4,750 middle school science license holders were not designated “ highly qualified.” n In 40 school districts, one fourth of the math and/ or science teachers are teachers with 0 to 3 years of experience (“ early career teachers”); in 11 of these districts, early career teachers make up one third or more of the licensed math and science teacher corps. Though a definite pattern is not discernable, it is interesting to note that of the 16 largest districts ( districts with more than 10,000 students), 10 employed a higher than average number of early career math and science teachers ( led by Guilford County at above 33%). By contrast, of the 14 smallest districts ( districts with fewer than 1,000 students), only 4 employed a higher than average number of early career math and science teachers ( in fact, Camden and Gates Counties employed no math and science teachers with fewer than 4 years of experience). On the other hand, the teaching workforces of three small districts— Hoke, Jones, and Vance Counties— were composed of at least 40% early career teachers. P resence n School systems of similar size sometimes employ widely different numbers of licensed math and science teachers. On average, North Carolina school districts employed about 21 teachers per 1,000 secondary students. Actual district employment ratios ranged from as few as 11 licensed teachers per 1,000 secondary Less than 15% are early career teacher s15 19% are early career teachers20 24% are early career teachers25 29% are early career teachers30% or greater are early career teachersCity School Districts M ap 2 Percentage of Early Career Licensed Math and Science Teachers Working in Each District Note: Average Statewide early career license state for math and science teachers is 23.2% Source: N. C. Department of Public Instruction 6 Carolina context Fewer than 20 teachers per 1,000 students 20 24 teachers per 1,000 students25 or more teachers per 1,000 studentsCity School Districts students ( Yadkin County) to as high as 35 licensed teachers per 1,000 secondary students ( Hyde County). n Many of our active and licensed math and science teachers ( more than 2,000, or roughly 13%) are not working in middle or high school classrooms. More than 1,600 ( about 11% of all) active teachers with middle or high school math and/ or science licenses were teaching in elementary schools during the 2005– 2006 school year. Nearly 400 more ( about 2.5% of all licensed and active) were working in central administration offices. Therefore, one possible reason for a math and science teacher shortage is because thousands of eligible teachers are working in some other capacity within school systems. To be sure, many of the elementary teachers likely hold elementary licenses as well as math and/ or science licenses, but according to NC DPI research ( 2005), math and science positions have been consistently much harder to fill than have been elementary positions. L imitations of the Data This issue of Carolina Context is pulled from a larger report, Examining the Pipeline: An Analysis of Math and Science Teacher Preparation in North Carolina, that can be found on the Program web site, www. southnow. org. This analysis presents as many questions as it does answers. The state currently tracks information about institutions from which license holders have degrees, but it does not contain information about institutions at which license holders completed their licensure work. This is an important distinction. A teacher may have graduated from Fayetteville State University with a bachelor’s degree in math and from Duke University with a master’s degree in statistics but earned his high school math licensure at the University of North Carolina Greensboro. In the licensure database, only his degrees from FSU and Duke would be listed; there would be no indication of his work at UNC G. The effects of these missing data are twofold: first, it is difficult to assess accurately how many North Carolina based teachers an institution has produced; and second, it reduces the state’s ability to draw connections between teacher quality and teacher training. In addition, available data do not allow us to compare the demand for math and science teachers for the past several years across local education agencies ( LEAs), nor do they allow us to compare accurately the number of math and/ or science teachers who leave the profession to the number of new math and/ or science hires. Finally, our data did not indicate how many unlicensed teachers are teaching math and/ or science in North Carolina. We realize that the UNC General Administration, the Department of Public Instruction, and others are actively considering these data shortcomings. Our goal in this report is to offer an initial analysis of what is available and to inform the policy discussions over improving math and science teacher education. n M ap 3 Number of licensed math and science teachers per 1,000 students Note: Not every school district in North Carolina has 1,000 middle and high school students. In the case of those districts, the number is an estimate based on the existing ration of math and science teachers to students. The average number of licensed math and science teachers per 1,000 students within the 115 school districts is 22. Source: N. C. Department of Public Instruction C arolina context t 7 Work in Progress The UNC Program on Public Life remains in the process of building a website ( www. southnow. org) that serves to provide policy makers, faculty, students and citizens with data and analysis on electoral trends and issues in North Carolina and the South. This issue of Carolina Context summarizes the research conducted by Trip Stallings, a PhD student at UNC Chapel Hill. You can find a link to the full report, as well as a pdf version of this white paper, on the southnow. org home page. If you would like to receive a paper copy, please let us know by emailing our colleague Kendra Cotton at kendradc@ unc. edu. In addition to Carolina Context, the website contains archives of our other publications, NC DataNet and SouthNow. We have in process the following projects: NC DataNet  1) a data profile of the 2007 08 General Assembly; 2) an analysis of the 2006 judicial elections; and 3) an analysis of trends in the 2006 Congressional elections S outhNow  A report on the state of entrepreneurship in the Southern states. C arolina Context  1) a white paper on workforce training in bio manufacturing and “ sector based economic development strategies; and 2) the results of two working roundtables on issues affecting coastal communities. Note: Totals reflect all math and science licenses held by people currently employed by NC public schools; a teacher can hold more than one license. Table 3 Where Active Math and Science Teachers Were Working in North Carolina, 2005– 06 1,340 school employees held a math or science license for middle or high school of these employees were licensed through traditional in state licensure programs of these employees were enrolled in lateral entry programs of these employees were licensed through other licensure programs licensees were teaching in middle or high schools ( 86.7%) licensees were teaching in elementary schools ( 10.8%) licensees were working in central offices ( 2.5%) 8,609 15,304 13,276 1,646 382 Finding: There are a sizeable number of public school employees who are licensed to teach math or science but who are currently working in other capacities ( e. g., elementary education or central office work). 5,355 Table 2 Total Math and Science Licenses Held, by License Level, 2005– 2006 Total # of Math and Science Licenses Held by NC Teachers 20875 Teachers Who Received At Least One License, of Any Level, from a Traditional In State Program 57.3% 11958 Teachers Who Received Their Licenses from Out of State Institutions or Through Alternate Programs 42.7% 8917 Total # of Bachelor’s Level Licenses in Math and Science 17837 Teachers Who Received At Least One License, of Any Level, from a Traditional In State Program 55.8% 9952 Teachers Who Received Their Licenses from Out of State Institutions or Through Alternate Programs 44.2% 7885 Total # of Master’s Level Licenses in Math and Science 2944 Teachers Who Received At Least One License, of Any Level, from a Traditional In State Program 66.4% 1955 Teachers Who Received Their Licenses from Out of State Institutions or Through Alternate Programs 33.6% 989 Total # of 6th Year Level Licenses in Math and Science 59 Teachers Who Received At Least One License, of Any Level, from a Traditional In State Program 67.8% 40 Teachers Who Received Their Licenses from Out of State Institutions or Through Alternate Programs 32.2% 19 Total # of Doctoral Level Licenses in Math and Science 35 Teachers Who Received At Least One License, of Any Level, from a Traditional In State Program 31.4% 11 Teachers Who Received Their Licenses from Out of State Institutions or Through Alternate Programs 68.6% 24 
OCLC number  214279514 