Annual report of the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station
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apF' Horih Carolina State Librwy Raleigh £q ANNUAL REPORT ^ OF THE N0R>FH GARBL'INA gricultural Experiment Station For 1883. Mold to tlie Facts. RALEIGH : Ashe & Gatling, State Printers and Binders. Presses of Edwards, Broughton & Co. 1884. Office of the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, Raleigh, N. G* April 15th, 1884. To Governor Thomas J. Jarvis, Chairman of the Board of Agriculture ; Sir:—I have the honor to submit herewith the Annual Report of the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station for the year 1883. I trust it will prove satisfactory to your Excellency and the Board of Agriculture. Respectfully yours, CHAS. W. DABNEY, Jr, Director. N. G. State Beard ef Agriculture Governor Thomas J. JARVIS, (Ex officio), Chairman. Col. Thomas M. Holt, President of the State Agric. Society. Kemp P. Battle, LL. D., President of the State University. W. R. Williams, Esq., Master af the State Grange, Patrons of Husbandry. Col. R. W. Wharton, ist Congressional District. Dr. A. G. Brooks, 2d Congressional District. John A. Gates, Esq., 3d Congressional District. Col. W. Forney Green, 4th Congressional District. Capt. J. D. Glenn, 5th Congressional District. John Robinson, Esq., 6th Congressional District. A. Leazar, Esq., 7th Congressional District. Burwell Blanton, Esq., 8th Congressional District. Dr. C. D. Smith, gth Congressional District. EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Gov. THOMAS J. JARVIS, Col. THOMAS M. HOLT, Col. W. F. GREEN. OFFICERS: MONTFORD McGEHEE, Commissioner. PETER M. WILSON, Secretary. STEPHEN G. WORTH, Sup't of Fish and Fisheries. CHARLES W. DABNEY, Jr., Chemist. THE NORTH CAROLINA Agricultural Experiment Station. ANNOUNCEMENT, This institution was established by Act of the General Assembly of 1877, for the advancement of North Carolina agriculture. The Station now occupies the large and hand-some apartments assigned it in the Agricultural Depart-ment Building in Raleigh. The Laboratory is a complete one in every respect. Every North Carolina farmer, and every person interested in developing our agriculture or other industries, has a right to call upon the Station for any information or assistance which it is within the province of the Station to render; and the Station will do all that lies in its power to meet these requests. The work of the Station will include, as heretofore; The analysis of all Fertilizers legally on sale in the State ; The analysis of Agricultural Chemicals, of Composts and Home-made Fertilizers, and of all materials from which they can be made ; The analysis of Soils, Marls and Mucks; The analysis of Feeding-Stuffs ; The examination of Seeds with reference to their purity, and capacity to germinate; The examination of Grasses and Weeds; The study of Insects injurious to vegetation ; The analysis of Minerals, Ores and Mineral Waters; The analysis of Drinking Waters, and Articles of Food ; Practical Experiments upon different crops, with different manures, &c. Numerous publications upon these and kindred subjects are mailed free of charge. Correspondence is invited upon subjects pertaining to scientific agriculture. Address, Dr. CHAS. W. DABNEY, Jr., Director, Raleigh, N C. OFFICERS OF THE IsTortli Oarclrnei ricultural Experiment Station, DIRECTOR: CHARLES W. DABNEY, Jr., Ph. D., (Goettingen.) ASSISTANTS : Balduin von Herff, Ph. D, Frank B. Dancy, A. B. Herbert B. Battle. B. S. W. Alphonso Withers, A.B. Office and Laboratory in the Agricultural Department Building, RALEIGH. Visitors are always welcome. publications: OF THE Rerth Carolina Experiment Statist (878 to (884. This list includes reports, special publications and con-tributions to the Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture, but excludes all circulars, directions, and forms. Unless marked otherwise, they are unbound. The following were issued under the Directorship of Dr. Albert R. Ledoux: — Directions for making Vinegar, 1878, 4 pages; Analyses and Valuation of Fertilizers, 1877-78, 30 pages; Ville's formulae for Composting and others furnished by Dr Ledoux, 1878, 16 pages; The Sugar Beet in North Carolina, 1878, 50 pages; Silica vs Ammonia, results of comparative soil-tests of Poppleins Silicated Phosphate, with a number of ammo-niated guanos, 1878, 24 pages ; Analyses and Valuations of Fertilizers for 1877 and 1878, republished, 1879, 16 pages; Report of the Director to the Legislature, January, 1879, Document No. 8, 16 pages; Analyses and Valuations of Fertilizers for 1879, 8 pages ; Formulas for Composting, 1879, 16 pages ; Report of the Station for 1879, (bound) 198 pages ; Report of the Station for 1880, including Analyses of Fer-tilizers for that year, (bound) 148 pages. The following were issued by Dr. Charles W. Dabney, Jr., Report to the, Legislature, January, 1881, 16 pages; Analyses of Drinking Waters, Bulletin for January, 1881 ; Value of active ingredients of Fertilizers, Bulletin for February, 1881 ; The use of Agricultural Chemicals, Bulletin for March, 1881; Analyses and Valuations of Fertilizers and Chemicals, 1881,16 pages; Adulterated Chemicals, Bulletin for July, 1881; Analyses and Valuations of Fertilizers, 2d edition, 1881, 12 pages; Publications. 7 Report of the Station for 1881. (bound) 172 pages; Trade in Fertilizers—Extension in Cotton Culture, Bul-letin for January 1882; Home-made Manures—High-manuring on Cotton, Bulle-tin for February, 1882 ; Does Cotton exhaust? Cotton seed and its uses, Bulletin for March, 1882; Stable Manure, saved and composted—Rice products as a feeding-stuff, Bulletin for April, 1882; Analyses of Fertilizers, 1882, 8 pages; Analyses of Fertilizers, 2d edition, 1882, 12 pages; Experience with Home-made Manures, Bulletin for June, 1882; Report of work done for the State Board of Health, 1881, 8 pages; Treatment of Cotton Lands—Station at State Fair, Bul-letin for October, 1882; ' Report of the Station 1882, (bound) 152 pages; Horn, Leather and Wool-waste, and the Fertilizers made from them, 1882, 10 pages ; Finely-ground Phosphates or " Floats," 1882, 10 pages ; On Kainite, 1882, 28 pages ; Rice and its products—Food and Fodder plants, Bulletin May, 1882; The Soja Bean—Waste products of Tobacco Factories, Bulletin, May, 1883; Analyses of Fertilizers, 1883, 16 pages; Analyses of Fertilizers, 2d Edition, 1883, 16 pages ; Cotton seed and its products, Bulletin June, 1883 ; N. C. Resources for Commercial Fertilizer?, I. Ammoniates; II. Potash sources, Bulletin Dec, 1883; III. Phosphates, Bulletin January, 1884 ; The trade in Fertilizers during 1883, 12 pages; ; Cost of the ingredients of Fertilizers, Bulletin Feb., 1884 The Phosphate investigation, Bulletin March, 1884; Analyses of Fertilizers, season of 1884, 16 pages ; Composition of N, C. Phosphates, Bulletin April, 1884. N. C. Phosphates, report on, 26 pages. fciorth .Carolina State Library Raleigh CONTENTS. PAGE. Board of Agriculture and Officers, 3 Announcement of the Station, 4 Officers of the Station, 5 Publications of the Station 1878 to 1884, 6 Work of the Station during the year, 9 Laws establishing the Station, 18 The Fertilizer Control, 24 The Fertilizer Trade during 1883, 26 Analyses of licensed fertilizers, _. 30 Agricultural Chemicals and Home-made Fertilizers, 43 Bone manures, 44 Chemicals yielding Nitrogen, 46 Chemicals yielding Potash, 52 Mixtures and Composts, . 55 North Carolina resources for commercial fertilizers, -. _ 56 Phosphates, 57 Phosphatic conglomerate and lime, : . 62 Sources of Nitrogen, 83 Sources of Potash, 91 Analyses of Feeding-stuffs—Hays, . . — 96 Okra products, _ _ 96 Analyses of marls, _ - - 97 Appendix A—Cysticerus cellulosa, 98 Appendix B—N. C. Fisheries Statistics, 100 N. C. REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE Igrtealtaral Experiment Station F0R 1653. WORK OF THE STATION DURING THE YEAR. The requirements of the law regarding the work of the Station may be classified as follows : The analysis of all fertilizers legally on sale in the State. The analysis of agricultural chemicals, of composts and home-made fertilizers and all materials from which they can be made. The analysis of soils, marls. and mucks. The analysis of feeding-stuffs. The examination of seeds with reference to their purity and capacity to germinate. The examination of grasses and weeds. The study of insects injurious to vegetation. The analysis of minerals, ores and mineral waters for the State Geologist. The analysis of drinking water, articles of food, &.c, for the State Board of Health. Practical experiments upon different crops, with different manures, upon new crops which it may be desirable to in-troduce, and upon such other subjects as the Department may direct. Some work has been done in all of these directions as will be seen. Our work continues to be chiefly that of the fertilizer control and that connected with the home produc-tion of manures. This is, after all, the subject of the great-est interest and importance to our farming community. 2 10 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. Marls and phosphates have taken the second place in our work the past year. The public has taken the liveliest interest and has vouchsafed the heartiest support to the work of the Station upon the marls and phosphatic rocks of the eastern portion of the State. Less interest is taken in feeding stuffs, grasses and insects. The public does little to avail itself of the opportunities for testing seed offered here. Routine work has occupied nearly all of our time, and less opportunity than usual was afforded last year for sys-tematic investigation. This was owing chiefly to a large part of our force having been called away from the regular Station work, to assist in the collection and preparation of the exhibit of North Carolina ores, minerals, building- -stones, woods, &c., which the Board of Agriculture sent to the American Exposition at Boston last September. We ifind little time at the Station for original, systematic work, • except during the summer. Fall, winter and spring the fertilizer and connected work demands all of our attention. En i883 three out of our five workers were occupied nearly the whole time from June 1st, to November 1st, with the exhibition referred to. Though out of our line, much of this wTork was profitable for us. We gained an intimate knowledge of the forestry resources of the State, and laid the foundations, in information and specimens, for an extension of the work of the Department in that direction. The collection of specimens of soils, marls, phosphates and of agricultural products, has furthered our regular work, and a better gen-eral knowledge of the agricultural resources of the State has been gained, so that the interruption, while it denied us our time for special work and thus shortened the matter of this report, is not without its good results in preparing us for future greater usefulness. Though the work of the Station was thus somewhat cut short in 1883, in kind we believe it will prove as valuable <to the State as has ever been done. The experience of the Work of Station During the Year. 11 year has well established the wisdom of our policy of exam-ining every sample or specimen whatsoever sent us from North Carolina soil free of charge, at least so far as ascertain-ing its genera] character and value. This policy has resulted in the bringing to light of a great many interesting things, but nothing of so much importance to the agricultural community and the State at large as the phosphates and phosphatic marls which were first discovered in workable quantities this year. The specimens which led to the discovery of these beds, were brought to the Station by a public spirited gentleman in February, 1883. Upon determining by analysis that the specimens were phosphates, the Director visited the locality and laid bare the first regular beds of phosphatic material which were known to exist in the State, and the publication of the facts about this bed caused a general ex-amination of all of the southeastern corner of the State, resulting in the discovery of extensive deposits of phos-phatic rock. At the same time we have had a revival of interest in marls, much to the benefit of our eastern farmers. The whole eastern fourth of the State is full of marl beds, which might be worked. This whole work is educating the public to a proper appreciation of the value of these vast natural advantages, and it will result in lasting benefit to the State. Another illustration, though not connected with agricul-ture, of the wisdom of this policy of free analyses at a State office, is found in the discovery of Cassiterite or tinstone, a mineral unknown in North Carolina hitherto, and found only rarely and sparingly anywhere in America, which came to light at King's Mountain in connection with the collections for the Boston exhibit. We could scarcely conceive of two more important or interesting additions to the State's mineral wealth than phosphates and tin-stone. 12 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. We have continued our investigations as far as time allowed, upon the following subjects : The chemistry of the cotton plant, of cotton seed and the products of the oil mills, Fodder plants adapted to our climate and soils, Finely ground insoluble phosphates, Methods of preparing manures for the farm, The uses of kainite, The methods of improving sand barrens, of reclaiming swamp lands, &c. RESUME OF WORK DONE. The following is a resume of the work of the Station during 1883:— Articles Analyzed, Number. Commercial fertilizers, all superphosphates, official 130, private 75,, total. _ 205 Composts, of farm material 5, of agricultural chemicals 7 12 Marls, chiefly carbonate of lime, 24 ' * phosphatic, _ _ _ 15 Phosphates, _ r._ _ 20 Limestones, _ _- _ 2 Soils, _ 1-J. ._.. 8 Kainite, ._ , 8 Cotton seed and cotton seed meal, m _ 3 Dissolved bone and bone meal, 3 Fish scrap 2, ammonite 2, dried blood I, 5 Nitrate of soda, 1, nitrate of potash 1, sulphate of ammonia 1, 3 Mucks, _ _ 3 Hay—Clover 1, vetch 1, ensilage 2, _ _ _ 4 Grasses 2, insects 1, seeds 1, identified, 4 Rice flour 1, "polish" I, okra meal and hulls 2, peanuts 1 5 Sugar 1, butter 1, drugs 3, whiskey 2, preservative 1, licorice 2, 10 Minerals 53, sand 2, alum mass 1, white lead 1, _ _ 57 Waters, drinking, __ 32 " • mineral, __ 27 " Pine oil " 1, cotton seed oil 1, _ 2 Gas liquor 1 . 1 45 S OFFICE AND LABORATORY METHODS. A few words about the workings of this office are in place Work of Station During the Year. 13 here. Every citizen of North Carolina has a right to call upon the Station for assistance, and the Station will do the best it can for all. Correspondence is invited. Let each one write and state what he wants. The Director gives his personal attention to every request and specimen or sample which comes here. As a matter of course, it is impossible for us to comply with all the requests made of us, or to analyze all the specimens sent here. It is impossible for us to do all that is asked of us, and it is unnecessary for us to analyze all of the specimens. But write and send your sample and we will do what we can or think is best to be done. Every letter is acknowledged and filed and every specimen entered on a preliminary list. The Director ex-amines the specimens on this preliminary list, decides which it is necessary to analyze and notifies the sender. These are put upon the Laboratory register and are analyzed in turn. Both lists of samples are filed in our sample room, which is 16 x 18 feet, and filled with shelves from floor to ceiling. The reader will form some conception of the num-ber of specimens received here when we say that this room is packed full once a year. After the official samples of fertilizers, which have precedence under the law, we take up the samples in the order in which they are entered upon the Register, as nearly as is consistent with a proper classi-fication of the work on hand. When a specimen or sample is entered for analysis, the sender receives the number on postal card, as below : N. C. EXPERIMENT STATION, Raleigh, N. C, Jan. ist, 1884. To Mr. John Smith, Brownsville, Dear Sir :—I have received from you to-day by Exprecs, two samples of manures. The samples are entered in order for analysis on our Register as below. Please refer to them by these numbers. Your mark compost A. P. & K., is Station No. 2501. Your mark dis. bone and C. S. M., is Station No. 2502. Yours respectfully, Chas. W. Dabney, Jr., Director. 14 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. The analysis, accompanied by a written report when necessary, is sent as soon as completed. For the encourage-ment of our friends, we will say that our records show that we have made some quantitative chemical determinations in three-fourths of all of the samples received here. A complete record of all analyses, of all letters and analytical reports, and of every transaction of the Station is kept here. As a rule, we endeavor to select the work of the most public interest, and all Station work is public property, to be con-sulted by any one who wishes and published whenever necessary. PUBLICATIONS OF THE STATION. The Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture is pub-lished monthly, and is sent to those of our citizens who apply for it free. This is the organ for the publication of reports of progress from the Station as well as for the other sub-departments. The Station sends frequent brief reports during the season when farmers read most, to all of the newspapers of the State. The Station issued the following special publications during the year 1883 : — Horn, leather and wool waste, ._. 2,000 Finely ground Phosphates or "Floats," 2,000 Ivainite or German Potash Salts, ._ _ 2,000 Analyses and valuations of Fertilizers to March 1st, 10,000 Analyses and valuations of Fertilizers to May 1st, 15,000 Report of the Station for 1882, _ 10,000 41,000 Besides circulars, formulas, &c, not counted. These pub-lications are eagerly sought for, and our mailing lists are continually growing. LIBRARY AND COLLECTIONS. It is impossible for us to work without books. They are both our material and our tools. Our Station library has » »' Work of Station During the Year. 15 been gradually increased during the last three years to 173 bound and 206 unbound volumes, not including files of journals and papers. Still our greatest need is a working library. We have been gradually getting together some collections illustrative of scientific agriculture and the related sciences. These collections are growing steadily, partly from our sample lists, but chiefly from our own collecting. The collections include specimens representing: the chemical elements and compounds occurring in agricultu-ral chemistry, the constituents of soils, the rocks forming soils and the chief varieties of soils; illustrating the com-position of the atmosphere, the mineral and organic con-stituents of plants, the ashes of various plants, &o. Another group illustrates the composition of chemical manures and contains specimens of the chemical compounds entering into fertilizers, first in their pure forms, then in their crude forms as found in commerce, the various phosphatic mate-rials, "aminoniates," potash salts, &c. Another group con-tains specimens of nearly all the important natural guanos. Another, still, shows a large variety of artificial fertilizers with their analyses, as made at the Station. Another collec-tion illustrates the methods of manufacturing fertilizers, and of mixing and compounding manures at home. We have a collection, also, of adulterated and other fraudulent chemicals and fertilizers. A collection of the feeding- stuffs peculiar to our section, accompanied by analyses, is interesting. Prominent among these are the byproducts of the rice-mills, the cotton seed oil mills, and ensilage products. We have quite a complete list of the most important seeds of grasses, weeds, &c, for comparison in our seed work. A collection of mineral specimens, for comparison in mineral analysis. Out friends can help us in completing our collections. V*; ,* 16 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. THE LABORATORY AND EQUIPMENT. Our laboratory has been still further improved as the exigencies of the work required it. It is now as complete an industrial laboratory as can be found anywhere. The accompanying cut gives the ground plan of the main floor of the Experiment Station, offices and laboratory; The Station has, as will be seen, ten rooms, with furnace room and store rooms in the cellar un-derneath, in the Agricul-tural Building on the N. W. corner of Halifax St. and Capitol Square, Ral-eigh. Its offices are well furnished with substantial furniture and book cases. The sample room and store rooms are conveni-ently arranged for storing specimens, chemicals and apparatus. The laborato-ries, one large and one small, are models of con-venience, well lit and ven-tilated and supplied with every kind of apparatus and machinery which can save time and work and promote accuracy. The working desks of oiled red-oak are on the most approved plan, and each one is supplied with water, gas, steam, exhaust-air for Capitol Square, °TXr^ Work of Station During the Year. 17 the filters and^ compressed air for the blast lamps. The laboratory contains a number of pieces of fixed apparatus of our own designing. Such are the steam baths, hot air chambers, distilled water apparatus and hot water apparatus, all connected with one boiler, the pot and muffle furnace, &c. The laboratory is also supplied with a complete equip-ment of apparatus* such as: three of Becker's balances, a spectroscope, polariscope, microscope, Sprengel's pumps, modified after our own plan, set of volumetric apparatus, moveable gas and^blast furnaces, &c. 18 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. LAWS ESTABLISHING THE STATION AND CON-TROLLING THE TRADE IN FERTILIZERS. The following extracts contain the sections pertaining to this subject now in force : • Section 7 of " An act to establish a Department of Agricul-ture, Immigration and Statistics and for the Encouragement of Sheep Husbandry" viz.: " The Board of Agriculture is en-trusted with the enforcement and supervision of the laws and regulations which are, or may be, enacted in this State for the sale of commercial fertilizers and seeds." "Sec. 8. That no manipulated guano, superphosphate, or other commercial fertilizer, shall be sold, or offered for sale in this State, until the manufacturer, or person importing the same, shall first obtain a license therefor from the Treas-urer of the State, for which they shall pay a privilege tax of five hundred dollars per annum for each separate brand or quality, (and he shall also pay a tax of fifty cents per ton for every ton sold.*) Any person, corporation or company, who shall violate the provisions of this act, or who shall sell, or offer for sale, any such fertilizer, contrary to the pro-visions above set forth, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall be fined or imprisoned at the discretion of the court." " Sec. 9. And every bag, barrel, or other package of such fertilizer as above designated, offered for sale in this State, shall have thereon a plainly printed label or stamp,f which shall truly set forth the name, location and trade mark of the manufacturer, also the chemical composition of the con-tents of such package, and the real percentage of any of the following ingredients asserted to be present, to- wit: soluble *This tax of 50 cents repealed by a Supplemental Act ratified March 7th, 1877. f See page 22. Laws Establishing the Station. 19 and precipitated phosphoric acid, soluble potassa, ammonia, or its equivalent in nitrogen, together with the date of its analyzation, and that the privilege tax provided for in sec-tion eight has been paid ; and any such fertilizer as shall be ascertained by analysis not to contain the ingredients and percentage set forth as above provided, shall be liable to seizure and condemnation, and when condemned shall be sold by the Board of Agriculture for the exclusive use and benefit of the Department of Agriculture.* Any mer-chant, trader, manufacturer, or agent, who shall sell, or offer for sale, any commercial fertilizer without having such labels and stamps, as hereinbefore provided, attached thereto shall be liable to a fine of ten dollars for each separate bag or barrel or package sold or offered for sale, to be sued for before any justice of the peace, and to be collected by the sheriff by distress or otherwise, one-half, less the cost, to go to the party suing, and the remaining half to the Department, and if any such fertilizer shall be condemned, as herein provided, it shall be the duty of the Department to have an analysis made of the same, and cause printed tags or labels expressing the true chemical ingredients of the same to be put upon each bag or barrel or package, and shall fix the com-mercial value thereof at which it may be sold. And any person who shall sell, or offer for sale, any such fertilizer, in violation of the provisions of this section, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor." "Sec. 10. The Department of Agriculture shall have power and authority at all times to have collected samples of any commercial fertilizers offered for sale in this State, and have the same analyzed; and such samples shall be taken from at least ten per cent, of the lot from which they may be selected." "Sec. 11. It shall be lawful for the Department of Agri-culture to require the officers, agents or managers of any railroad or steamboat company, transporting fertilizers in this State, to furnish monthly statements of the quantity of 20 Annual Eepoet N. C. Experiment Station. fertilizers, with the name of the consignor or consignee, de-livered on their respective lines, at any and all points within this State. And said Department is hereby empowered to compel said officers, agents or managers, to submit their books for examination, if found expedient so to do ; and any such agents, officers or managers failing or refusing to com-ply shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor." "Sec. 12. The Department of Agriculture shall establish, in connection with the Chemical Laboratory of the Univer-sity at Chapel Hill,* an Agricultural Experiment and Fer-tilizer Control Station ; and (the Board of Trustees of the University, with the approval of) the Department of Agri-culture shall employ an analyst skilled in agricultural chemistry.f " It shall be the duty of said chemist to analyze such fertil-izers and products as may be required by the Department of Agriculture, and to aid so far as practicable in suppressing fraud in the sale of commercial fertilizers. " He shall also, under the direction of said Department, carry on experiments on the nutrition and growth of plants, with a view to ascertain what fertilizers are best suited to the various crops of this State; and whether other crops may not be advantageously grown on its soils, and shall carry on such other investigations as the said Department may direct. " He shall make regular reports to the said Department of all analyses and experiments made, which shall be fur-nished when deemed useful, to such newspapers as will pub-lish the same. " Said chemist shall be subject to the rules and regulations of the University Laboratory, and the other rules and regu-lations of the Universit}', and his salary shall be paid out of the funds of the Department of Agriculture." * By act of Assembly, 18S1, the Board was instructed to remove the Station as soon as the new building was ready for it. This was done in August, 1881. fWords " Department of Agriculture " and " Board of Trustees of the Uni-versity " interchanged by a later act. Laws Establishing the Station. 21 " Sec. 21. It is hereby made the duty of the said Depart-ment of Agriculture to receive from any manufacturer or dealer in fertilizers any specimen quantities, not less than a fourth of a ton, contributed by such party, and have the same sent to different sections of the State for actual experi-ment by practical farmers ; and the person so experiment-ing shall be required to make a careful report of the results, which shall be registered in the office of said Department, and a certified copy of the same shall be transmitted to the contributor." " Sec. 22. That all money arising from the tax or licenses, from fines and forfeitures, fees for registration and sale of lands, not herein otherwise provided for, shall be paid into the State Treasury and shall be kept on a separate account by the Treasurer, as a fund for the exclusive use and ben-efit of the Department of Agriculture; and until such fund can be made available, as aforesaid, the Treasurer shall loan to said Department, out of any moneys not otherwise appropriated, upon the warrant of the Governor, the sum of five thousand dollars per annum, for two years from this date, which sum shall be refunded to the Treasury by the first day of March, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-nine." " Sec. 23. This act shall be in force from and after its rati-fication," &c. Ratified in General Assembly 12th of March, 1877. An Act to amend an Act to Establish a Department of Agriculture, Immigration and Statistics, and for the Encouragement of Sheep Husbandry. The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact : That the act to establish a Department of Agriculture, Immigration and Statistics, and for the Encouragement of 22 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. Sheep Husbandry, be and the same is hereby amended by inserting the following clause between the word " condem-nation " and the word "and," in the fourteenth line of sec-tion nine, to-wit : as hereinafter prescribed. That the said act be and the same is hereby further amended by inserting at the end of the first sentence of said section, which concludes with the words "Department of Agriculture," the following clause, to-wit : Section 1. The proceeding to condemn the same shall be by civil action in the Superior Court of the county where the fertilizer is on sale, and in the name of the Board of Agriculture, who shall not be required to give bond for the prosecution of said action. And at or before the summons is issued, the said Board shall, by its agent, make affidavit before the clerk of said court of these facts. 1st. That a license has been obtained for the sale of a fer-tilizer of a particular brand. 2nd. That samples of the same have been analyzed under authority of the Board, and found to correspond with the label attached to the same. 3rd. That the defendant in the summons has in his pos-session, and on sale, fertilizers of the name and brand, and bearing a label or stamp representing the analysis made. 4th. That the fertilizers on hand and on sale are spurious, and do not in fact contain the ingredients or in the propor-tion represented by the stamp or label on them. Where-upon the clerk shall issue his order to the sheriff of the county to seize and hold all the fertilizers in possession of the defendant, labeled or stamped as the affidavit described. And the sheriff shall seize and hold the fertilizers so seized until ordered to be surrendered by the judge in term time; unless the defendant shall give bond with justified surety, in double the value of the fertilizers seized, to answer the judgment of the court, in which case he shall surrender the fertilizer to the defendant and file this bond in the office of Laws Establishing the Station. 23 the clerk of the superior court, and thereafter the action shall be prosecuted according to the course of the court. And if it shall be established in the trial that the fertilizers seized are deficient or inferior to the analysis represented on the stamp or brand, then the plaintiff in said action shall recover judgment on the defendant's bond for the value of the fertilizers seized. Sec. 2. That section eight of chapter two hundred and seventy-four, laws of one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six and one thousand eight hundred and seventy-seven, be amended by striking out the word "and" between the words " fine and imprisonment " in the last line of said section, and insert the word "or," so that it shall reed "fine or imprisonment;" and by adding to the end of said section the following : " And all fertilizers so sold, or offered for sale, shall be subject to seizure and condemnation in the same manner as is provided in section one of this act for the seizure and condemnation of spurious fertilizers, subject, however, to the discretion of the Board of Agriculture to release the fertilizers so seized and condemned, upon the payment of the license tax, and all costs and expenses in-curred by the Department in such proceeding." Sec# 3. That section nine of said act be amended by in-serting after the word "stamp," in the third line of said section, the following clause: "A copy of which shall be filed with the Commissioner of Agriculture at or before the shipment of such fertilizer into this State, and which shall be uniformly used, and shall not be changed during the year for which such license is issued ;" and by striking out in the third line of said section the word "which," and inserting the following words : " and the said label or stamp." Sec. 4. This act shall be in force from and after its ratifi-cation. In General Assembly read three times, and ratified this the 4th day of March, A. D. 1881. 24 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. THE FERTILIZER CONTROL AND THE STATE OF THE TRADE DURING 1883. The regulations under which the trade in commercial fertilizers is conducted in the State require explanation. The law is found in sections 2190 to 2196 of the Code. The principles upon which the Control is based are : 1st. The requirements of a guarantee of the composition and grade of the article, and 2d. The examination of all goods, to see that this guar-antee is sustained. For this purpose manufacturers are re-quired to take out annually a license, for which they pay $500, and file with the Commissioner of Agriculture their stamp or. brand, which the law requires shall include the guaranteed analysis of the article and must be uniform upon all packages, and which cannot be changed during the year for which the license is taken. The license is required upon each different "brand or quality." Every such brand has then the freedom of the whole State. Ex-perience has proved that this plan is the fairest and best for all concerned. It is simple, can be easily carried out and causes the manufacturer, the dealer and the farmer alike the least trouble. The following ruling of the Board of Agriculture further defines the classes of articles which are taxable : " At a meeting of the Board of Agriculture, October 15th, 1879, & was re" solved that the following articles shall be admitted free of tax, with such addi-tions or changes as may afterwards be made by the Executive Committee, upon consultation with the chemist, viz : Ground Bone, Bone Ash, Ground Bone Black, Ground Phosphate Rock, or other mineral Phosphate, Nitrogenous or-ganic matter commercially free from Phosphoric Acid and Potash, Nitrate of Soda, Nitrate of Potash (Saltpetre^ Sulphate of Ammonia, Muriate of Ammo-nia, Kainite, Sulphate of Magnesia, Sulphate of Potash, Sulphate of Soda, Muriate of Potash, Lime, Plaster, Ground Cracklings, Ground Tankage, Salt and Oil of Vitriol." The Fertilizer Control. 25 Upon the following articles the license tax will be exacted : " Any of the above articles, or others, sold for fertilizing material under any trade-mark orproprietary brand; upon Dissolved Bone, Dissolved Bone Black, Dissolved Mineral Phosphates—(all Acid Phosphates or Superphosphates) and upon any two or more of the articles mentioned in the first list, if combined either chemically or mechanically." To make plain the requirements of the law in the matter and to secure uniformity, the following scheme is recom-mended for the brand : (Weight of bag) * ....... „_ (Name of Brand) _ (Trade mark) . ._ (Manufacturer's Address) _ Analysis „ (date) Available Phosphoric Acid - pr. ct. Nitrogen (or Ammonia, if claimed) " " Potash, (if claimed) " '<• North Carolina privilege tax paid. The phosphoric acid should not be expressed as bone phos-phate alone. By available phosphoric acid is meant both the soluble and the so-called "reverted.'' In the determi-nation of the reverted, what is known to Chemists as the " Washington method," or citrate of ammonia method, is used. Total nitrogen will be determined and credit given for all available forms. Owing to the difficulty in discrim-inating between the different sources whence nitrogen is obtained in compound superphosphates, it is not attempted to give a different valuation to each different nitrogenous-material in these articles. But leather scrap, horn scrap, wool-waste and similar materials are considered as fraudu-lently present in such goods, unless special mention is made on the bags. Special steps will always be taken to detect their presence, and when found in any sufficient amount to affect the value of the goods, mention will be made of the fact. Nitrogen may be expressed as such or as ammonia. The potash referred to is that soluble in water. It should be expressed simply as potash (K_, 0). The percentages 3 26 Annual Keport N. C. Experiment Station. may be given within reasonable limits. These limits should not be greater than two per cent, on the available phos-phoric acid, J per cent, on the nitrogen, and J per cent, on the potash. Samples of fertilizers are drawn under the supervision and immediate direction of the Commissioner of Agricul-ture. Great care is taken to get the fairest possible sample of the brand offered for sale. Every possible precaution, fairly within the powers of an inspector, is taken to attain this end. The analyses of official samples only are pub-lished. The Chemist of the Agricultural Experiment Station re-ceives the sample with a number only. He does not know the name of the brand until his report of analysis is put on file in the Commissioner's office. When this has been done, the actual returns of the analysis are compared with the composition guaranteed or branded on the bag. The man-ufacturer and the dealer or agent selling the same then re-ceive a copies of the analysis. If the article is shown by the analysis to be deficient at any point, the manufacturer or agent has an opportunity to correct the mistake. The mat-ter having been fully decided, the analysis is published in the papers of the State. In all cases where the law is not satisfied promptly, its penalties are exacted. The Fertilizer Trade During 1883. The history of the fertilizer trade has been one of steady progress in this State ever since the establishment of this Control. Forty-two different brands of fertilizers were sold in 1879, forty-eight in '80, fifty-nine in '81, eighty-six in '82, and ninety-two in '83. Sixty thousand tons of fertilizers were sold in 1879, the year after the establishment of the station, eighty thousand in 1880, eighty-five thousand in 1881, and ninety-two thousand in 1882. The reports for the year 1883 are not all in as we write, but the amount will not fall short of the last figure, which is an average of one thousand tons for each brand sold in the State. The Fertilizer Control. 27 The trade has extended itself over a larger area at the same time that it has increased in volume. This extension is intimately connected with the extension of cotton and tobacco culture in North Carolina and the general improve-ment of our agriculture. Ninety-two different brands were licensed to be sold during the year 1883. These fertilizers can be classified as follows : "' Acid phosphates " or simple superphosphates, n Superphosphates with potash, _ - 15 Ammoniated superphosphates, - 6 Ammoniated superphosphates with potash, _ 55 Natural guanos, 2 Prepared agricultural lime, _ 1 * ' Ash Element, ".'.... _ , .._ r * ' Fertilizer and Insecticide, " 1 V — 92 Acid phosphates were cheaper than they were in 1882, but good ammoniated superphosphates commanded the usual .price (retail cash) of $35 to $40 per ton. The figures used in estimating the relative values of am-moniated superphosphates and similar manures were Available phosphoric acid, 10 cts per lb. Ammonia, _ _ 22^ " " Potash, ._ _. 6 " These relative valuations merely furnish a convenient method of summing up the results of the analysis and of comparing them. They are not designed to fix the price at which the article shall be sold. It is impossible to give any one set of figures which shall represent the commercial value of these ingredients over our extended territory and through-out the entire year. As regards the consumption of the different classes of fertilizers, an inspection of the returns as far as complete, shows that the ammoniated superphosphates with potash, or artificial guanos, still predominate largely over all other kinds. The consumption of acid phosphate has increased somewhat, that of Kainite largely, with the growth of the 28 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. practice of composting or mixing manures on the farm. This is especially true of the cotton country. The better class of ammoniated superphosphates and Peruvian guano continue to be the manures preferred in the tobacco and wheat counties. analyses of fertilizers licensed to be sold during 1883. The Station made 130 analyses of official samples of com-mercial fertilizers during 1883, and 75 additional (unpub-lished) analyses especially for consumers on their samples. This does not include the analyses of phosphates, agricul-tural chemicals or other ingredients of fertilizers, which will be discussed further on. The following table gives the average percentages of available phosphoric acid, ammonia and potash in the dif-ferent classes of fertilizers analyzed during 1883. The figures for 1882 are given for comparison : — AVERAGES OF ANALYSES OF FERTILIZERS, 1882 AND 1883. In plain super* phosphates (without potash) In superphos-phates with potash, Iri ammoniated superphosph'tes (without potash) In ammoniated superphosph'tes with potash. 1882 1883 1 1882 1883 1882 1883 1882 1883 Average per cent, of-} available phosphoric > acid, _. f Average per cent, of am- ) monia, ) 11.49 n.68| 10.30 1.78 ic.54 1.36 10.36 2.23 9.67 2.46 8.91 2.60 1.82 3-59 2.33 2.18 Average per cent, of pot- ) ash, _ \ The analyses in the following tables were all made on samples drawn according to law by the special agents of the Department of Agriculture from new lots of goods received in the State after the beginning of the new year. On the even pages will be found a list of fertilizers licensed to be sold in the State during the year, with the addresses of the The Fertilizer Control. 29 manufacturers or general agents. On the page opposite the name is the analysis and relative valuation of the fertilizer. Where the analysis is not given,no sample of the fertil-izer was found by the inspector. Very few cases of serious deviation from the standard adopted were discovered by the Station during the year. These were nearly all satisfactorily explained and adjusted, when they were looked into. The cases of dispute as to the integrity of the fertilizers were very few, and were always easily decided. Some negligence, in exposing the goods to the weather, was usually the source of the trouble in these cases. The water given is that lost by continual heating at the temperature of boiling water. The insoluble phosphoric acid is that contained in phosphates which fail to dissolve in neutral ammonium citrate solution (sp. qr, 1.09). (Wash-ington method.) The soluble phosphoric acid is that free or in form of phosphates, (generally the one—lime phos-phate or acid phosphate of lime), soluble in pure cold water. The '" reverted " is that insoluble in water, but dissolving in standard ammonium citrate solution. This is all that the term reverted signifies here, and it is used simply to stand for the phrase, " insoluble in pure water, but soluble in standard ammonium citrate solution under the standard conditions." It is generally agreed that it is within the power of plants to take up directly the phosphates so dis-solving, or in other words, that these phosphates are " available." The total available phosphoric is the sum of the soluble and " reverted." The nitrogen is given as such, and calcu-lated to its equivalent ammonia. The potash is given as simple, uncombined potash (K s 0). The number of the analysis on the Station books is given in the first column at the left, and the place where this par-ticular sample was drawn, in the column at the right of the first page. 30 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. o c .2 c/5 1924 2066 1914 1997 1886 1931 1945 1905 1923 2001 2031 204.6 1890 2009 2056 NAME. Acid Phosphate, m i. Acid Phosphate, ._. Acid Phosphate, High Grade, Acid Phosphate, High Grade, Acid Phosphate, L. & R.,.. Acidulated Phosphate,.. ADDRESS OF MANUFACTURER OR GENERAL AGENT. Alkaline Superphosphate,.. Ammoniated Dissolved Bone Ammoniated Bone Super-phosphate and Dissolved Bones, Coe's, Ammoniated Bone Super-phosphate, Ammoniated Guano, L.&R., Ammoniated Phosphate for Fine Tobacco, Ammoniated Soluble Na-vassa Guano, Anchor Brand, Anchor Brand Tobacco Fer-tilizer, Atlantic Phosphate Co., Char-leston,- S. C, Maryland Fertilizing Co., 4 S. Holliday St., Baltimore, Maryland, John Merryman & Co., 24 Sec-ond St., Baltimore, Md., Hymans & Dancy, Norfolk, Virginia, Lorentz & Rittler, 10 South St., Baltimore, Md., New Jersey Chemical Co., 129 S. Front St., Philadel-phia, Pa., Southern Fertilizing Co., 1321 Cary St., Richmond, Va., John Merryman & Co., 24 Second Street, Baltimore, Maryland, E. Frank Coe, 16 Burling Slip, New York, N. Y., Seal, Lawson, Kessler & Co., 101 South St., Baltimore, Maryland, Lorentz & Rittler, 10 South St., Baltimore, Md., J. G. Miller & Co., Danville, Virginia, Navassa Guano Co. , Wilming-ton, N. C, Southern Fertilizing Co. ,1321 Cary St., Richmond, Va., Southern Fertilizing Co., 132 1 Cary St., Richmond, Va., SAMPLED AT Laurinburg Concord. Shelby. Franklin-ton. Wilming-ton. Shoe Heel. Fremont. Shelby., Laurinburg Tarboro. Wilming-ton. Reidsville. Wilming-ton. Cameron. Oxford. 10 11 12 13 14 15 Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers. 31 15.21 15-oS II.76 15.00 14.63 13.92 IQ.8I o 7=1 ^ ' 3 O rs SpH<3 G 3-29 2.53 2.42 0.32 3.6l 5-20 1-55 8 14.64 2.56 11-59 2.99 o ph<; 6.84 6.09 10.51 12.19 7.75 5.26 8.68 9-37 7-93 I— o +-• X T! 3-7i 3.62 1.29 0.95 2.19 5.11 1.69 0.44 o Omh Pi o g3 >h 10.55 9.7i 11.80 13.14 9.94 10.37 10.37 9.81 g O -tj .i-t g a 4) O I -64 9-57 2.03 2.15 2.46 2.61 o 1.23 2.21 I.83 1-55 o.55 u°'> _£ t > o r^ o '•5 " aj * - r- <U m $ 22.58 22.0': 23,60 26.28 22.08 20.74 22.60 31.35 30.88 10 18.05 1.85 6.15 3-91 10.06 0.70 0.85 0.65 24.72 11 13-93 2.86 7-55 2.01 9-56 i-3° 1.58 2.05 28.69 12 11.60 1.85 6.63 1.68 8.31 1.63 1.98 6.15 32.91 13 15.26 5-36 1.72 4.61 6-33 2.35 2.85 1.26 27.00 14 15 10.97 11-55 4.00 3.08 4.14 4.21 2.66 6.80 2.79 7.00 1.90 2.52 •3i 3.05 1.39 1.82 25.66 29.91 32 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. o S3 .2 **-• -4—1 CO 1925 2038 20I3 I9O8 1878 2037 1932 1920 1927 2059 1877 1973 2083 I970 2*AME. Arlington "B" Ammoniated Soluble Phosphate, Ash Element, Ashepoo Acid Phosphate, Ashepoo Fertilizer, Baker's Dissolved Bone Phosphate, Baker's Prepared Chemicals, Baker's Standard Guano, Baltimore Guano Co.'s Acid Phosphate, Bone and Peruvian Guano, . "Bos" Ammoniated Super-phosphate, Bradley's Patent Superphos-phate of Lime, British Mixture, _., Calvert Guano, Chesapeake Guano, ADDRESS OF MANUFACTURER SAMPLED OR GENERAL AGENT. AT Dambman Bros & Co., Box 327, Baltimore, Md., Stono Phosphate Co. , Charles-ton, S. C, Ashepoo Phosphate Co., Rob-ertson, Taylor & Co., Ag'ts, Charleston, S, C, Ashepoo Phosphate Co., Rob-ertson, Taylor & Co., Ag'ts, Charleston, S. C, Chemical Co. of Canton, 32 and 34 S. Charles St., Bal-timore, Md., Chemical Co. of Canton, 32 and 34 S. Charles St., Bal-timore, Md., Chemical Co. of Canton, 32 and 34 S. Charles St., Bal-timore, Md., Baltimore Guano Co., 32 and 34 S. Charles Street, Balti-more, Md., Upshur Guano Co., Norfolk, Virginia, Wm. Davison & Co., Box 126, Baltimore, Md., Bradley Fertilizing Co. .Lewis F. Detrick, Gen'l Ag't, 108 S. Charles St., Baltimore, Maryland, E. B. Whitman, 104 S. Charles St., Baltimore, Md., P. Zell & Sons, 30 South St., Baltimore, Md., Chesapeake Guano Co., 21 P. j O. Avenue, Baltimore, Md., Laurinburg Fayette-ville, Wadesboro Pineville. Wilming-ton. Monroe. Laurinburg Laurinburg Shoe Heel. Oxford. Wilming-ton. Durham. Franklin-ton. Salisbury. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers. 33 o 16 17 16.62 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 12.29 13.36 11.03 i* 7i 16.22 16.30 17.61 12.58 14.27 16.71 13.53 15.70 0.95 4-74 4.27 6.38 4.68 2.67 4.21 1-35 1.52 2.44 2.01 2.56 3.58 CO o Oh . ,£3 O 8.57 9-36 7.24 4.54 5.76 6.60 8. TO 7.38 6-93 7.21 6.29 7.60 5-3^ o >-! O . X ti m 1. 21 See 2.58 1.63 5.70 3.72 2.51 3-39 2.28 2.24 1-75 1.56 1.98 2-34 H 9.78 below. 11.84 8.87 10.24 9.48 9.11 11.49 9.66 9.17 8.96 7.85 9-58 7.70 c <u o 1.96 2.72 0.66 1.60 2.47 2.12 2.21 1.99 1.83 1.63 <D O ^ a S a 2.48 3.30 0.80 1.94 3-oo 2-57 2.68 2.41 2.24 1.98 o Ph 2-43 O.48 CD , s i— in > |-i O 1— > g H ~l-> ^, r< Cl) p a; U p- CI P< $ 33.63 2.92 3.83 2.32 2.35 1.77 2.53 1. 01 1. 91 28.68 33.16 20.48 26.06 31.54 22.98 35.60 32.72 32.10 29.58 30.45 26.60 34 Annual Report N, C. Experiment Station. o co a -4-> C/2 I966 l88l 2022 I968 1974 1922 I93O 2035 2021 2023 I904 2067 I94O 1889 193: NAME. Cotton Acid Ph'sphate, High Grade, Cotton Brand, High Grade Acid Phosphate, Cotton Food, Diamond Soluble Bone, Dissolved Bone Phosphate of Lime, Edisto Acid Phosphate, Edisto Ammoniated Fertil-izer, Empire Guano, Equitable Ammoniated Solu-ble Bone Phosphate of Lime. Esmeralda, (1) .. Etiwan Acid Phosphate, Etiwan Dissolved Bone,.. Etiwan Guano, Eureka Fertilizer, Excellenza Soluble Phos-phate, Farmer's Friend, ..*... Fish, Bone and Potash, ADDRESS OF MANUFACTURER OR GENERAL AGENT. Royster & Co., Norfolk, Va., E. J. Powers, Wilmington, North Carolina, Maryland Fertilizing Co., 4 S. Holliday St. , Baltimore, Md. , Walton, Whann & Co., Wil-mington, Delaware, John S. Reese & Co. , 10 South St., Baltimore, Md., Edisto Phosphate Co., Charleston, S. C, Edisto Phosphate Co., Charleston, S. C, Rasin Fertilizer Co., 20 & 22 South St., Baltimore, Md., Equitable Fertilizer Co., Box 666, Baltimore, Md., Equitable Fertilizer Co., Box 666, Baltimore, Md., Wm. C. Bee & Co., General Agents, Charleston, S. C, Wm. C. Bee & Co., General Agents, Charleston, S. C, Wm. C. Bee & Co., General Agents, Charleston, S. C, Atlantic & Virginia Fertilizing Co., Richmond, Va., Long & Dugdale, 37 S. Gay St., Baltimore, Md., Read & Co., Box 3121, N. Y., Quinnipiac Fertilizer Co., New London, Conn., SAMPLED AT Raleigh. Wilming-ton. Franklin-ton. Salisbury. Salisbury. Laurinburg Laurinburg Monroe. Franklin-ton. Franklin-ton. Concord. Concord. Wilson. Raleigh. Laurinburg 30 31 33 34 35 36 37 33 39 40 4i 42 43 44 45 46 Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers. 35 rt £ 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 4i 42 43 44 45 46 13-50 16.17 15.27 12.78 15-50 18.38 17-37 16.-E 16.32 21.07 14.05 o • 1—1 o a. . O .i-j "^ 4.99 O.65 2-35 3-47 5-55 i-39 0.81 3.38 1.87 9- 03 2.08 o 2 S.-2 C/2 8.93 IO.89 5-87 8.08 8.52 8.30 5.52 4.36 5-51 0.22 8-53 >a o3 2.76 1.88 3.24 3-7i 2-79 1.77 2.88 2.27 3-72 6.16 1.77 3 .a II <j »< . -Si? PS rC O H 11.69 12.77 9.11 11.79 11. 31 10.07 8.40 6.63 9-23 6.38 10.30 c 4) o -4— 8 1.40 1.62 1.65 1.50 1.50 05 <u o •5 s 1.70 I.97 2.00 I.82 1.82 o 0.22 2-37 1-54 2.26 1. 12 2. IS I.49 2-55 <D rt _ Q •S s § «s o 5 - $ 23.64 25-54 28.71 23-58 22.62 21. 9S 28.38 23.60 29.26 22.73 23.26 16.12 14.19 16.61 21.07 2.52 2.17 0.91 3-67 9.04 9.46 7.78 0.50 1.26 1.03 1-43 8.02 10.30 10.49 9.21 8.52 1.87 2.06 2.16 1.65 2.27 2.50 2.62 2\6o 2.40 2-54 30.81 32.23 33.09 29.O9 36 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. o o — » CO 1939 2033 2041 2057 1934 1941 2078 1944 2039 1912 1965 2043 1935 2069 1998 2032 NAME. Game Guano, Georgia Ammoniated Bone Superphosphate, Geo. W. Gramin's 1st Qual-ity, Ammoniated Guano, Giant Guano, Gifcbs & Co.'s High Grade, Ammoniated Phosphate, Good Luck Guano, Home Fertilizer, Slmgluff^ Pure Dissolved Bone, I. X. L. Ammoniated Bone Superphosphate, Lazaretto Chemical Fertil-izer Works' Acid Phos-phate, Lee's Prepared Agri. Lime, Lister's Ammoniated Dis-solved Bone Phosphate, Long's Prepared Chemicals, Navassa Acid Phosphate, Norfolk Fertilizer and In-secticide, Patapsco Soluble Ammonia-ted Guano, Perfected Guano, Owl Brand ADDRESS OF MANUFACTURER OR GENERAL AGENT. Baltimore Guano Co., 32 & 34 S. Charles St., Baltimore, Maryland. Kirchner & Calder, Wilming-ton, N. C, Lazaretto Chemical & Fertil-izer Works, G. W. Grafflin, Prop'r, Baltimore, Md., Rasin Fertilizer Co., 20 & 23 South St., Baltimore, Md., E. J. Powers, Wilmington, North Carolina, The Geo. W. Miles Co., Mil-ford, Conn., Boykin & Carmer, 3 N. Lib-x erty St., Baltimore, Md., The Geo. W. Miles Co., Mil-ford, Conn., Lazaretto Chemical & Fertil-izer Works, G. W. Grafflin, Prop'r, Baltimore, Md., A. S. Lee, Richmond, Va.,__ Lister Bros, Newark, N. J.,_ Long & Dugdale, 37 S. Gay St., Baltimore, Md., Navassa Guano Co., Wilming-ton, N. C, Styron, Whitehurst & Co., Norfolk, Va., - Patapsco Guano Co., 5 Sec-ond St., Baltimore, Md., Davie & Whittle, Petersburg, Virginia, SAMPLED AT Wilson. Whiteville. Monroe. Oxford. Laurinburg New Berne Selma. New Berne Monroe. Raleigh. Fayette-ville. Laurinburg Franklin-ton. Goldsboro. 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 59 60 61 62 Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers. 37 47 48 49 50 5i 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 6c 61 62 >4 Insoluble Phosphoric Acid. Soluble Phosphoric Acid. 15.56 2.12 6.60 14.15 1.88 5.69 16.IO 2.56 4-37 17.18 4-74 3-95 16.55 0.79 7.46 15.03 4.18 6.87 14.17 3-04 14.70 14.80 4.27 6.68 15.57 3.33 7.86 See 19.51 1.23 6.65 14.58 1.88 10.78 14.50 3.44 5.32 See 14.37 4.50 4.87 15.58 1.74 2.81 rH CL, . 8:2 >< It o 3:2 2.28 1.47 3-55 1. 91 1. 19 1.68 0.67 1.65 2.99 below. 3-95 1. 41 6.01 below. 1.94 5.76 8.88 7.16 7.92 5.86 8.65 8.55 15.37 8.33 10.85 10.60 12.19 11.33 6.81 8.57 ou I. 71 1-75 I.29 I.70 I. S 7 2.00 0.90 1. 91 2.22 1.72 1. 71 4-1 .r-l <D O 2.0S 2.12 1.56 2.06 2.27 2-43 1.09 2.32 2.70 2.09 2.08 o Ph 3-Ii 1-35 1-75 1.03 2.IO 0-93 1. 16 O.97 2.21 2.03 O.4I 2.4O 1.49 0) 1 J2 $ 30.93 25.48 24.96 22.22 3O.03 29.15 35.64 28.49 22.86 36.00 26.81 23.15 25.90 28.29 38 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. i83o! Peruvian Guano, Genuine, containing not less than 6 per cent, of Ammonia, 2004 Piedmont Special Fertilizer, 2124 1872 1971 1926 1929 1S85 1946 2010 1876 2049 1906 2125 2005 Piedmont Guano for To-bacco, Pine Island Ammoniated Phosphate, Planter's Favorite, Pocomoke Superphosphate, Powell's Prepared Chem-icals, Premium Guano, Preston's Ammoniated Bone Superphosphate, Pure Dissolved S. C. Bones, Sea Fowl Guano, Sea Gull Guano, ,. t , Soluble Pacific Guano, Soluble Pacific Guano for Tobacco, Soluble Sea Island Guano. . . ADDRESS OF MANUFACTURER OR GENERAL AGENT. Chas. E. Smith, Wilmington, North Carolina, Piedmont Guano & Manuf. Co., 383 Charles St., Balti-more, Md., Piedmont Guano & Manuf. Co., 383 Charles St., Balti-more, Md., Quinnipiac Fertilizer Co., New London, Conn., Long & Dugdale, 37 S. Gay St., Baltimore, Md., Freeman, Mason, Lloyd & Dryden, Norfolk, Va., Brown Chemical Co., 2gHan- , over St., Baltimore, Md., Hymans & Dancy, Norfolk, Virginia, H. Preston & Sons, Green-port, L. I., Equitable Fertilizer Co., Box 666, Baltimore, Md., Bradley Fertilizing Co., Lewis F. Detrick, Gen'l Ag't, 108 S. Charles St., Baltimore, Edward Snowden, Baltimore, Maryland, John S. Reese & Co. , 10 South St., Baltimore,. Md., John S Reese & Co., 10 South St., Baltimore, Md., Rasin Fertilizer Co., 20 & 22 South St., Baltimore, Md., SAMPLED AT Wilming-ton. Williams-ton. Mebane's. Wilming-ton. Statesville. Laurinburg Monroe. Wilming-ton. Raleigh. Cameron. Wilming-ton. Raleigh. Shelby. Mebane's. Williams-ton. 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 7i 72 73 74 75 76 77 Analysis of Commercial Fertilizers. 39 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 J-i *-< Insoluble Phosphoric Acid. Soluble Phosphoric Acid. | Reverted p Phosphoric g> Acid. Total Available Phosphoric Acid. d b/) p 2 ~ o5 4-> "-• a g CD O -a a S s Potash. 13.88 1.20 6.22 12.30 8.85 10.74 3-71 14.25 2-57 6-33 2.39 8.72 1.62 1.97 I.50 15. ss 1.32 7.21 2.64 9-85 2.25 2.73 4.01 21.22 3.00 0.51 , 9-05 9-56 2-37 2.87 2.04 15.42 3.36 6.40 1. 61 8.01 I.40 1.70 1-39 15.30 i-37 4.67 4-65 9-32 2.15 2.61 4.14 1 4-; 2 2 0-93 4.04 I.85 5.89 O.80 0.97 8.12 17.51 1.99 4.50 5-67 10.17 1. 91 2.32 16.53 3-76 6.18 1.64 7.82 2.13 2.59 13-79 2.50 9.44 3-49 1. 51 12.93 14.27 2.44 7-47 8.98 2.19 2.66 1-57 13-45 4.04 5-33 2.22 7-55 i-77 2.14 1.82 I5-65 3. 11 6.3S 1.86 8.24 2.46 2.99 3.66 12.15 2.97 6.68 2.19 8.87 2.67 3-24 3-23 18.42 3-47 4.67 2-43 7.10 1.68 2.04 1. 10 O > '-n "J2 *-" L. O $ 77.38 28.10 36.79 34.4S 25.43 35.36 25.! 30.78 27.29 25.86 31.82 26.91 34.32 36. CO 24.70 / 40 Annual Repobt N. C. Experiment Station. o c .2 -4— ' 5q 1969 2003 1909 1874 2085 1870 2040 2002 201 1 2012 2045 1947 1948 2044 NAME. Special Compound, . Standard Fertilizer, Star Brand Acid Phosphate, Star Brand Guano, Star Brand Special Tobacco Manure, Stono Acid Phosphate, Stono Soluble Guano, . Walker's Ammoniated Cot-ton Phosphate, Wando Acid Phosphate, Wando Fertilizer, Whann's Raw Bone Super-phosphate, Plow Brand, Wilcox, Gibbs & Co.'s Su-perphosphate, Zell's Ammoniated Bone Su-perphosphate, Zell's Cotton Acid Phos-phate, Zell's Tobacco Fertilizer, .. ADDRESS OF MANUFACTURER OR GENERAL AGENT. G. Ober & Sons, 85 Exchange place, Baltimore, Md., Standard Fertilizer Co., Bos-ton, D. S. Burwell, Agent, Norfolk, Va., Allison & Addison, Rich-mond, Va., Allison & Addison, Rich-mond, Va., Allison & Addison, Rich-mond, Va., Stono Phosphate Co., Charles-ton, S. C, Stono Phosphate Co., Charles-ton, S. C, Joshua Walker, 13 German St., Baltimore, Md., Wando Phosphate Company, Charleston, S. C, Wando Phosphate Company, Charleston, S. C, Walton, Whann & Co., Wil-mington, Delaware, Wilcox, Gibbs & Co., Charleston, S. C, P. Zell&Sons, 30 South St., Baltimore, Md., P. Zell & Sons, 30 South St., Baltimore, Md., P. Zell & Sons, 30 South St., Baltimore, Md., SAMPLED AT King's Mountain. Tarboro. Shelby. Wilming-ton. Henderson Raleigh. Fayette-ville. Williams-ton. Wadesboro Wadesboro Salisbury. Raleigh. Raleigh. Winston. 78 79 si 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 92 (1) This article contains some natural guano, the "Insoluble Phosphoric Acid" of which, though not dissolving in the Citrate Solution, is in a better condition to be taken up by plants than the " Insoluble" in mineral phosphates. Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers. 41 u isoluble Phosphoric Acid. )luble Phosphoric Acid. everted Phosphoric Acid. otal Available Phosphoric Acid. a to O S-i O <u O ^ S elative Com-mercial Value per Ton (2,000 lbs.) 1— ( en « H '^ W P< tf 18.2c 2.07 8.22 I.40 9.62 2.03 2.46 1.85 $ 32.53 19-33 I.84 7.03 1-95 8.98 1-55 1.88 1.29 28.17 21. OO O.69 10.43 1.36 11.79 1. 21 25.03 I9.O7 O.8O 5.6i 4.11 9.72 2.20 2.67 I.29 3.3.00 18.65 I- 51 7-75 0.88 8.63 2.l6 V 2.62 i-7 1 3,1, 10 2. II 11. 10 E > 1.60 24.12 15.68 2. II 6.46 2.03 8.43 2.15 2.61 i-79 30.75 19.45 2.28 5-04 2.17 7-21 1.74 2. 11 1.27 25.43 I3.89 3.85 10.10 2-33 12.52 o.53 25.67 IO.60 3.63 6.24 2.64 8.88 2.05 2.40 1.75 31.06 II.94 2-39 7.24 2.20 9.44 I.98 2.40 2.51 32.69 13.76 2.6l 6.97 2-37 9-34 2.20 2.67 1.20 32.13 14-75 I.97 9.04 2.40 11.44 1.22 . 24.34 13-12 2.20 6-43 3.36 9-79 2.II 2.62 3.02 34.99 42 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. Lee's Prepared Agricultural Lime cannot be classed with superphosphates. The following analysis, 1912, was made on a sample of this drawn at Concord, N. C, January 23d. Moisture @, 212 F., 13.67 per cent. Total lime 38.00 per cent, as sulphate of lime,_ 10.43 per cent. as oxide, hydrate and car-bonate,- 33-71 per cent. Magnesia, 2. 20 per cent. Potash, 3.07 per cent, as sulphate of potash, 5.68 per cent. Sulphuric acid, 13-79 per cent. Common salt, carbonic acid, combined water, insoluble matter, &c, 27.27 per cent. 100.00 per cent. Analysis 2,038, Stono Ash Element, sampled at Fayetteville, contained : Moisture @ 212 F 6.14 per cent. Total Phosphoric Acid__9.20, Equiv. to Bone Phosphate 20.08 per cent. Potash, 5:38. Note.—A mixture of Insoluble Phosphate and Potash Salt. Analysis 2069, Norfolk Fertilizer and Insecticide, sampled at Durham, con-tained : Moisture @, 212 F. 14.36 per cent. Dry substance contained : Lime, L 46. 77 per cent. Bone Phosphate, _ 3,25 Sulphate of Potash, 3.56 Chloride of Sodium, _ 10.94 Sulphate of Magnesia, _ ... _ 1.84 Magnesia, _ 0.56 Insoluble Matter,... _ 2.59 Volatile and Organic Matter, _ _ 12.24 .Carbonic Acid, Oxide of Iron, Alumina and Loss, 18.25 100.00 Home-Madk Fertilizers. 43 AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS AND HOME-MADE FERTILIZERS. As the practice of using fertilizers grows older, farmers are becoming more and more independent of the mixers of artificial manures. As they learn more about the composi-tion of the ingredients of fertilizers, they are learning to what to ascribe the effect^ seen in their crops, and to use manures more rationally. The time was when every farmer accepted what was sold him for his wheat, corn, cotton or to-bacco, and used it as he was told to do without knowing what was in it. What was a " special tobacco fertilizer " in the tobacco section, became a " special cotton manure " when it was carried into the cotton region, &c. But our correspond-ence shows that our farmers are rapidly leaving these old ways behind them and are fast finding out what soils and what crops require a plain and which an ammoniated su-perphosphate, when kainite is needed, and when lime, &c. Now they purchase just what they want and put it where it will produce the best effect. Many farmers think that they can mix even their com-plete manures, that is, those containing ammonia, phos-phoric acid and potash, all three, to better advantage at home than they can purchase them ready prepared. While we doubt the wisdom of this as a general thing, it may be true at times, that one man having special facilities, can sell phosphoric acid cheaper, while a second and a third may have an advantage in selling ammonia and potash, and that the farmer can buy from each his specialty and mix them at home cheaper than he could buy the mixture from a fourth party. Many of our tobacco farmers, engaged in that very refined business of producing the bright or " golden " tobacco, for which North Carolina is becoming more and more famous, have their own ideas, expressed in their own formulas, of what is best suited to produce the 44 Annual Eeport N. C. Experiment Station. crop upon their soils, and prefer to prepare them with their own hands in order to be sure that they are right. There is a great deal at stake in this crop, where an acre receives an expenditure of several hundred dollars and often brings a golden harvest worth a thousand dollars or more, and the farmer is right to use every precaution in preparing for it Several of the mixtures referred to below had this use. After congratulating the farming community upon the great progress which they are making in the intelligent use of manures, we wish to show our desire to render them every assistance in our power, and have made a number of analyses of the various ingredients on the market used for these purpo-ses, which we will take up in order next. Those more familiar with these subjects will pardon some repetition from our former reports, which seem necessary since the editions of them have been exhausted. We shall consider first the~ standard agricultural chemicals and ingredients of fertili-zers, then the special resources of our State for the produc-tion of artificial manures. BONE MANURES. Our sources of phosphoric acid are bones and phosphatic rocks. The superphosphates made from the latter, found upon our markets, are sufficiently described in the prece-ding chapter. The possibility of making similar super-phosphates from our own recently discovered phosphate rock and the other uses to which they may be put, will be considered in the next chapter. We wish to speak here of the manures made from animal bone. Ground bone is an old and favorite manure. The rapidity with which it acts, depends, for one thing, upon the degree of fineness to which it is ground. The finer the particles, the more surface they expose to the solvent action of the soil-water, and the more rapidly, therefore, they are decom-posed. The phosphate of bones is the three-lime-phosphate or " insoluble" phosphate. It is insoluble in water, but is Home-Made Fertilizers. 45 slowly dissolved by the carbonic acid of the soil, and the organic acid of plants. It has become customary to classify ground bone as fine, medium, or coarse, according to the degree of fineness. Fine bone has all of its particles less than ¥V inch, medium bone ¥V to TV inch, and coarse bone larger than J- inch. The intermediate grades are fine me-dium and coarse medium. Bone is exceedingly difficult to grind, and it is almost impossible to reduce all of the par-ticles to a uniform degree of fineness. There ought to be a bone mill in every community in North Carolina, just as we have grist mills and cotton gins. If all of the refuse bones were picked up and brought together, enough can be found in almost every neighbor-hood to supply a small bone mill. It is true that a consid-erable power is required, but there is an abundance of water power going to waste throughout the whole of middle and western North Carolina. Bone mills could be attached to the steam saw mills and cotton gins also, and when other work is not pressing, the power could be used to grind bones. Bones can generally be purchased in the country for J- cent to f cent the pound. Every wheat, grass and tobacco grower, especially, knows the agricultural value of well ground bone, and there is no trouble in selling all which can be made for from $32 to $35 per 2,000 lbs., which admits a hand-some profit to the mill, in spite of the difficulty of grinding. Finely ground animal bone, containing the usual amount of nitrogen, is comparatively cheap to the farmer at these figures. 2108, sample of bone meal received from Mr. R. S. Mitchell, Ruffin, N. C, said to be " Star Brand Flour of Raw-bone," manufactured by Allison & Ad-dison, Richmond, Va. Used in making the mixtures Nos. 1979 and 1980, analyzed below, and used by Mr. Mitchell upon tobacco. This is an excellent specimen of bone meal, though not quite so fine mechanically as it should be. It contains : — Total phosphoric acid 19.37 per cent., equivalent to bone phosphate, 42.29 per cent. Nitrogen 4.47 per cent., equivalent to ammonia, 5.43 per cent. 46 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. Dissolved bone is produced by treating ground bone with sulphuric acid. This is sometimes attempted upon the farm, but is difficult to accomplish there. If the farmer wishes to decompose the bones or bone meal, he had best do it with ashes, lime or lye, instead of with acid. Dis-solved bone is easily produced at the factories where they have the proper vessels for containing acid and the proper machinery for mixing. The following are specimens of such dissolved animal bone. A good deal of the dissolved South Carolina phos-phate rock is sold under the name " dissolved bone," but it can be easily distinguished from the true animal bone. It contains in its original state, of course, no nitrogen. 2105 was received from Mr. S. B. McKinney, Pelham, N. C, manufacturer not known. 2136 came from Mr. R. P. McAnally, Walnut Cove, N. C. This last contains about a maximum amount of phos-phoric acid. They both contain rather less nitrogen than usual. Total phosphoric acid, _ Equivalent to bone phosphate, Soluble and "reverted" phosphoric acid, Equivalent to bone phosphate, _ Insoluble phosphoric acid, _ Equivalent to bone phosphate, Nitrogen, ._ _ Equivalent to ammonia, Relative value compared with compound superphos-phates, __- 2105 $35.06 2136 Per Cent. Per Cent. J3.25 17.68 29.02 38.59 11. 12 17.08 24.37 37.28 2.13 0.60 4-65 1.31 2.35 2.24 2.85 . 2.72 $46.40 Chemicals Yielding Nitrogen Chiefly. The largest part of the sulphate of ammonia of commerce >^ Homb-Made Fertilizers. 47 is made from the water, which at all gas works using soft coal, settle* from the crude gas on the surface of the tar. This " gas liquor," as it is called, is treated with lime and heated in order to drive off the ammonia which it contains. This is caught in sulphuric acid, and thus converted into sulphate of ammonia. The production of this valuable salt in this way is growing rapidly, and it ought to be made at every place where gas is manufactured from coal. They have lately commenced the production of it in connection with the gas works at Richmond, Va., and there is no reason why we cannot manufacture it at Raleigh, at Charlotte, and at every place in North Carolina where coal gas is made. Dr. Gerlach* gives the average amount of ammonia in all forms found in gas liquor from a number of German gas works at 13.05 grains per litre, or 752.81 grains per gallon. In a waste liquor from the Raleigh gas works are found 19.23 grains per gallon. The latter is, however, a conside-rably diluted gas liquor which runs into the sewer there much to the disgust of those living near around. The samples of sulphate of ammonia analyzed have been excellent. I978, sent by Mr. R. S. Mitchell, Ruffin, N. C, was used in his mixtures 1974 and 1980. 2106, from Mr. S. B. McKinney, Pelham, N. C, used in his mixture 2107 below. 2134, from Mr. R. P. McAnally, Walnut Cove, N. C, used in his mixture 2138. Moisture, __ Sulphate of Ammonia, _ Mineral matter or Ash, 1978 per cent. 0.42 99-39 0.19 100.00 2106 per cent. 1-55 98.09 0.46 100.00 2134 per cent. 0.32 99.11 o.57 100.00 *Polyt. Centralbl., 1872. 48 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. Nitrate of soda is formed of nitric acid and soda, combined in these proportions : Nitric acid, _ 63. 53 Soda, _. 36. 47 Total, _ _ 100.00 It contains, when absolutely pure, 16.40 parts of nitrogen in the hundred. Commercial nitrate of soda is imported from Peru and Chili. We have no beds of it at home. Du-ring the war nitrate was obtained by leaching the earth from about old houses, from cellars and from all places where animal matter had been decomposed and transformed into nitrates, just as it is in all soils. It may be artificially prepared by rotting great heaps of animal refuse, mixed with broken wall plaster, ashes, &c, and then leaching with water as we leach ashes. Any nitrates so obtained may be converted into nitrate of soda. But nitrate made by such methods cost too much for agricultural purposes, especially since Chili and Peru afford so much from their natural beds at such cheap rates. The imported nitrate of soda should not be mixed with anything if it is to be sold by this name. It is very liable to be adulterated with white sand or broken quartz, and with salt or the cheap potash salts. The pur-chaser should see that it dissolves entirely in water and does not taste distinctly of salt. We have made the following analyses of nitrate of soda recently : — 1628, sent by Mr. J. S. Joyner, Franklinton, N. C. 1977, sent by Mr. R. S. Mitchell, Ruffin, N. C. This last was used by Mr. Mitchell in his mixtures i979-*8o, used upon to-bacco. Moisture, Common salt, . Potash, Sulphuric acid, . Nitrate of soda, 1628 per cent. per cent. 2.56 0.92 0.66 trace. trace. trace. trace. trace. 96.78 97-74 1977 Home-Made Fertilizers. 49 Nitrate of Potash.—This salt which is commonly known as nitre or saltpetre is of similar composition to the nitrate of soda. Owing to the superior weight of the potash, how-ever, it contains 10 per cent, less nitric acid than the nitrate of soda. It contains, when pure, 13.8 per cent, of nitrogen. This salt is valuable for its potash as well as for its nitrogen, and is, therefore, in certain cases where these two elements are needed, a most powerful manure. Very little is sold for agricultural purposes in this country. This article is yery pure, as sold to farmers, as may be seen by this analysis. 2135, sent by Mr. R. P. McAnally, Walnut Cove, N. C. Used in his mix-ture for tobacco, analysis No. 2138. 2135 Moisture, 0.03 per cent. Nitrate of potash, s_ 99.48 , Containing potash, 46.49 Containing nitrogen, 13.61 " The nitrates we have been describing, are most powerful stimulants when applied to plants just at the period when they are developing their leaves. Nitrate of soda or sul-phate of ammonia is an admirable top dressing to apply to cereals in March. After a severe winter, when the wheat has been very much endangered, the application of fifty to one hundred pounds of either of these salts per acre will have an effect almost magical. The increasing interest taken in wheat growing in mid-dle and western North Carolina induces me to give some important extracts from a late Bulletin of the New Jersey Experiment Station. The present market prices of nitrate make this matter well worth the attention of wheat growers. Nitrate of soda has been favorably used for this purpose for fifty years in England. In the experiment at the New Jersey farm, 350 pounds of acid phosphate per acre were drilled in with the wheat. The nitrate of soda "increased the yield of wheat from 27 bushels per acre to 34 bushels; it increased the weight of straw by nearly 1,600 pounds, 50 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. and, as far as can be judged at present, favorably influenced the growth of clover and timothy." The weight of a measured bushel of wheat in each case was 60 pounds. The analyses of the grain and straw show that the quantity was not gained at the expense of the quality. The paper re-ferred to concludes with the following general statements of the results of the field experiments made during the last fifty years : — "Nitrate of soda, judiciously used as a top-dressing, will generally give a profitable increase both of wheat and straw. If an acid phosphate has been drilled with the wheat, nitrate of soda can be used alone, mixed with twice its own weight of dry soil. To insure a perfect' mixture with this soil, it is necessary to break all large lumps and pass the nitrate through a coarse seive. If an acid phoshate has not been drilled with the wheat, English experience teaches that it is best to mix the sifted nitrate with twice its own weight of sifted salt. From 100 to 150 pounds of nitrate of soda per acre will probably, in most cases, be a sufficient dressing ; larger quantities in some cases have materially increased the profits. The best time to use nitrate of soda is probably soon after vegetation begins in the spring, care being taken not to delay too long, as there is danger that late dressing will delay or cause imperfect ripening of the grain. If possible, the nitrate should be spread just before a light rain; this will distribute it in the soil and aid in prevent-ing it from damaging the young plants. If wheat has been injured by a severe winter, or if, from any reason, it appears yellow and sickly in the spring, it is claimed that a light dressing of nitrate of soda will often prove a serviceable remedy. The farmers, particularly those who used phosphate only Home-Made Fertilizers. 51 on their wheat last fall, are advised to give this top-dressing a careful trial." The Nitrogenous Matters used in fertilizers are of very va-ried character and are called by various trade names. We have Dried Blood, Tankage, " Azotin," " Nitrogen A. A," Cracklings, &c, from the slaughter-houses and the asso-ciate factories; Fish Chum, Dried Fish, Fish Scrap, Dry Ground Fish, &c, from the fisheries and fish-oil factories ; castor pomace, linseed cake, cotton-seed meal, &c, from the oil mills ; hoof and horn shavings, hair-manures, leather-scrap, wool-waste, &c, from the tanneries, wool and leather factories. All of these materials contain nitrogen in con-siderable amounts, as will be seen from the table at the end of this chapter. They are sold according to the varying amounl of nitrogen they contain, which is usually expressed as so many " units per ton " or pounds in 2,000 pounds. The nitrogen in these materials is very differently available, however, and commands, therefore, very different prices in the trade. The nitrogen of blood, tankage, cracklings, &c, is rendered quite rapidly available under the ordinary con-ditions of the soil. Well prepared fish-scrap produces good results also. Cotton-seed meal has been found a good manure in the South, and is steadily growing in favor as an ingre-dient of fertilizers. In the growth of the fertilizer production and the scarcity of sources of nitrogen for use in the "ammoniated " super-phosphates, a great variety of factory-refuse of very low ag-ricultural value is coming more and more in use. If the scarcity of " ammoniates " continues and the farmers con-tinue to require ammonia in large quantities in their ferti-lizers, these materials must inevitably be brought into requisition. Leather-scrap, roasted leather, wool-waste and " shoddy," horn-shavings and horn-meal find sales for these purposes occasionally already. These materials yield up their nitrogen so very slowly under ordinary circumstances , that they have a very low value agriculturally. The tan- 52 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. ning process is especially intended to prevent leather from rotting. Nature has constructed the other substances es-pecially to resist decay. This whole class of materials should be used, therefore, only when the farmer can wait for results from them. They should not be put into com-mercial fertilizers, without special mention is made of them, at least. We have examined specimens of leather, ground and roasted, of horn chips, and steamed horn, of wool-waste, " shoddy," &c, used occasionally for these purposes. Their character was entirely similar to the specimens upon which we made a special report last year. Our information is, that these materials are now sold under their true name. The fertilizers in which they are used probably go to the States where there is no regular inspection, as their detec-tion is, as we have shown, very easy. They occur very rarely in the fertilizers sold in North Carolina. The specimens of "Ammonite," "Azotin/'&c., of which we have examined a large number microscopically during the year, have been found to be free from any admixture of these materials, excepting a small amount of hair and hoof, which is inevitable where whole animals are worked into these products. Salts yielding Potash chiefly.—The more important of these salts are : Muriate of Potash, containing 50 pr. ct. potash, K2 High grade Sulphate of Potash, " . 40 " Low grade, " " " 30 " Kainite, " 12 " These are average figures for good commercial articles, and represent the grades usually guaranteed. Mirtate of Potash.—This is the chloride of potassium—the salt of potash corresponding to common salt (chloride of sodium). The commercial article contains about 80 per cent, of muriate, the rest being common salt. Home-Made Fertilizers. 53 1629, sent by Mr. J. S. Joyner, Franklinton, N. C. An excellent sample of muriate. Potash 52.70 per cent. Equivalent to chloride potassium 83.42 per cent. Kainite.—This salt, which is imported from Germany, is steadily growing in favor in the South. Ten thousand tons were, probably, used in North Carolina last year by our cotton farmers, chiefly. It is largely used as an ingredient of fertilizers also. An analysis of a rather superior sample of crude Kainite gave these figures : Sulphate of potash, 25.38 per cent. Sulphate of magnesia, ._ .16.76 Chloride of magnesia, 13*59 Common salt, * 30. 1 1 Moisture, 13-40 Insoluble matter, 0.73 99-97 Per cent. One to two per cent of sulphate of lime is frequently found. We may take this as representing quite closely the composition of all of the Kainite received in this country. It is an article of remarkably uniform composition. The onty variations are between the sulphate of potash and the common salt, the majority of the samples we have analyzed having a little less of the former and correspondingly more of the latter than this analvsis shows. We have only in one instance found a sample of Kainite which had been in any way adulterated. This was several years since, when it was first introduced in this section. It is so cheap that it would not pay to adulterate it, if any one were found capable of doing it, and the admixture could be too easily detected by any one, who knew what Kainite was. It is hardly necessary, therefore, for farmers to send us samples of Kainite for analysis. The slight variations in composition are natural and scarcely to be avoided in so 54 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. cheap a product. We quote the following analyses from our records, made during 1883 : — 1955, sent by W. R. McEachin, Laurinburg. 1961, sent by E. C. Glenn, Greenville. 2018, sent by J. S. Joyner, Franklinton. 2126, sent by W. R. Parker, Farmville. 2175, sent by B. F. Scarborough, Falling Creek. 2176, sent by B. F. Scarborough, Falling Creek. 1955 1961 2018 2126 2175 2176 Potash, _ Equivalent to sulphate of potash, 13-54 25-05 14.64 27.07 12.58 23.27 12.40 22.94 13-47 24.92 12.87 23.81 The chief uses of Kainite are : — 1. To sprinkle upon the manure in stalls and on manure-heaps, to keep down the ammoniacal gases and to enrich in potash the animal excrements, naturally poor in it. 2. To keep the soil moist. ' . 3. As a digestive agent in the soil, it has a varied action, especially when accompanied by lime. Its action in im-proving peaty and bog-soils, (like the so-called swamp soils of eastern North Carolina,) should probably be classified here. 4. Kainite with lime or phosphate, appears to be the spe-cial manure for legumes. Marl, Kainite and peas thus sup-ply the means for improving our sandy or peaty soils. 5. On cotton, Kainite appears to promote a full and healthy foliage, to prevent diseases of the leaves, as "rust" and " blight," and to cause the plant to fruit more uniformly. G. Kainite, with lime, improves the quality of the grasses on sour, wet meadows, producing for a time results similar to those brought about by drainage. With and without plaster, and phosphate, it has uniformly improved upland pastures. For details and experiments see the article in the Report of this Station for 1882. Home-Made Fertilizers. 55 Mixtures of Chemicals. 1979 and 1980 were sent by Mr. R. S. Mitchell, Ruffin, N. C, made of South Carolina superphosphate, bone-meal, sulphate of ammonia, nitrate of soda and muriate of potash—his formula for tobacco manure. Mr. Mitchell recommends this for soils like his. 2086, from Mr. S. N. Little, Pacific, made of sulphate of ammonia, sulphate of soda, nitrate of soda and dissolved bone. 2087 and 88, from Mr. J. A. Gunn, Wentworth, ingredients not known. 2138. made by Mr. R. P. McAnally, Walnut Cove, called the N. C. Mix-ture for Tobacco. 285 lbs. nitrate of potash, 215 lbs. of sulphate of ammonia, 650 lbs. of dissolved animal bone, and 850 lbs. of South Carolina superphos-phate, mixed with fine earth for application ; 500 lbs. per acre. Mr. McAnally was much pleased with the results. 2145, sent by Mr. B. F. Hester, Oxford, proportions not known. 1979 1980 2066 2087 2088 2138 2145 Moisture, 8.62 Sand, _.. 5.19 17-54 5.15 2.56 o.73 3-19 Vol. and organic matter, _ _ Available phosphoric acid, Insoluble phosphoric acid, Ammonia, Potash,- _ 6-59 0.26 5-05 4-39 6.57 0.32 4.37 3.5i 4-39 0.66 2.71 0.40 5.36 2.42 3-29 2.41 4.21 0-39 2.57 3-43 10.61 i-43 6.82 7.11 (}OMPO 3TS. From farm materials and chemicals. 2112, made by Dr. R. H. Lewis, Raleigh, from kainite, cotton seed and floats. 21 13, made by same from kainite, acid phosphate and cotton seed. 2128, made by Mr. L. L. Doub, Raleigh. He gives this account of it : "I put down 15 basketfuls (2 bushels) of stable manure direct from the stalls, the same amount of rich, fine earth, 300 lbs. kainite dissolved in 3 tubs of water, (which was sprinkled over the layers), 20 bushels of cotton seed and 600 lbs. of dissolved phosphate. I put 13 layers of this in one heap and let it stay about a month and chopped it up and sifted it. Used 1500 lbs. to the acre. Moisture, Vol. and organic matter, _ Available phosphoric'acid, Lnsoluble phosphoric acid, Ammonia, Potash, . 2112 2113 42.86 48.41 26.72 26.75 0.60 1.98 2.85 0.52 1.04 0.74 1-77 1.04 2128 31.71 2.59 0.95 1. 12 1-59 56 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. NORTH CAROLINA RESOURCES FOR COMMER-CIAL FERTILIZERS. It seems well to give at this time a summary of the resources of North Carolina for the production of commer-cial fertilizers. North Carolina imports yearly from eighty thousand to ninety thousand tons of commercial fertilizers, for which we have paid at retail, an average of $40 per ton for ammoniated fertilizers, $25 for acid phosphate, $13 for kainite and $10 or $12 for lime. Surely it is time for us to begin to ask ourselves if we can produce at home some small part at least of these articles of such great consump-tion, nearly all of which are now brought from points out-side the State. We need more home manufactures, and I know of no fitter place to begin this work than in fertilizers. Three nr four million of dollars are annually sent out of the State for these manufactures, which now appear to be permanent necessities of our agriculture. The discovery of extensive workable beds of phosphate rock in the State give especial interest to this subject at this time, and make it important to take in review everything which can contri-bute to the production of fertilizers from home materials. As showing most forcibly what we might do in this direc-tion, let us briefly review the facts afforded us by analyses on file at the Station made upon material sent us from va-rious parts of the State by our correspondents. This cannot, of course, be a complete review of the possibilities of the State in this line, for we have not been able to get all of the samples which we should like to have analyzed, and if auy-bodv's material is omitted, theirs must be the blame for not having sent us a sample. We shall omit the ordinary poorer marls in this enumeration, because they have already been sufficiently discussed, and not being able to stand Home-Made Fertilizers. 57 transportation at the present rates on the railroads, do not come under the head of commercial fertilizers. We will include, however, everything which is actually shipped to a distance and sold, or which might be so shipped if we had sufficient enterprise to do so. This is a question of great economic importance to the State. In considering it, let us put aside every prejudice and too hastily formed opinion, and review the subject purely from the standpoint of the actual needs of our soils. It may be that we cannot supply at home exactly the same form of material we have been buying abroad, but if we can get the fertilizer which will produce the desired effect, in a different but equally effective and cheap form, a form made from home materials, we should accept this in prefer-ence to the imported article, because its use will keep, our money at home. I. Phosphates. History.—All the writers upon North Carolina geology have referred to the coprolites found in the coal stratas of Rockingham, Stokes, Chatham and Moore, and in the marl beds. Dr. Emmons says in his report, 1852, p. 6 : " They do not exist in sufficient abundance, as I have seen, in either formation, (that is, coal or marl—C. W. D.) to warrant the expense of extracting them. Still, the facts are important, and should not be forgotten." The knowledge of the subject remained virtually in this condition from that time, 1852, to February, 1883, when the writer caused to be opened beds of low grade phosphate rock at Castle Hayne, and showed that they existed in sufficient quantity to be of value to the farmers of the neighborhood. Dr. Emmons in the same report, describes some of the coprolites he found in the various marl beds. Speaking of the marl on the S. bank of the Cape Fear, one-half, mile below Elizabeth, he says, (p. 46) : " Coprolites and teeth of, 5 58 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. fish are common. The latter are mixed in the bed with shells, more or less. Both teeth and eoprolites lie at the bottom of the structure, intermixed with some boDes and rounded pebbles of quartz. This layer at the bottom, in-termixed with pebbles and rolled eoprolites, is an interesting feature of the bed. I have been in hopes that in this posi-tion in some favored place, eoprolites, in sufficient quantity, might be discovered, to pay the expense of extracting them separately. They possess a composition superior to bones,, and may be used for the same purpose as bones. The following results of an analysis represent, in the main, their composition; — Silica, ,_ „.. 9.68- Phosphate of lime, _ . , 71-59 Carbonate of lime, , ,i 11.28 Magnesia, _ „__ _„ .50 Potash, ., a trace; Organic matter and water, ., „_____., _ 4.40 97-35 The eoprolites of this bed are all black or dark brown. They are quite hard, and may easily be mistaken for the dark pebbles of quartz, with which they are associated. They are generally broken and are rounded; but some re-tain their original spiral forms. They are two and a half to three inches long and three-fourths of an inch in diame-ter." Of the marl in the banks of the Tar at Greenville, Dr. Emmons says, (p. 63) in the same report: "The color is a drab or light yellowish brown. They are frequently per-forated by a round hole ; they have a close resemblance to the ordinary clay stones. Coprolites are associated with them, and I was inclined to regard them all as eoprolites, but it proved that many of the flattened bodies are not Home-Made Fertilizers. 59 coprolites. Analysis of one of them gave the following results: — Insoluble matter, _..- _ -- 13 Phosphate of lime, _ - _-.i4.50 Carbonate of lime, — - - 10. 50 Magnesia, . - trace 24.13 The coprolites have always given potash when tests are applied. These substances in the Greenville beds are soft, and unlike coprolites which occur on the Cape Fear river. They are unlike them in color and form. Most of them are, in their flattened cakes,' not much unlike a cracker in form, though in this respect, there is much diversity." Dr. Kerr refers to these coprolites of the marl beds in two places. On page 193 of his vol. I, 1875, Geology of North Carolina, he says, speaking of a specimen of marl from Dr. Roberts, near Mt. Olive, Wayne county, it " is a good rep-resentative of the marl beds of the immediate neighborhood at Jesse Flowers', Kornegay's, Benj. Carr's, &c. In this region the eocene marl has been commingled with a con-siderable per centage of the underlying green sand, and contains numerous shark's teeth, rounded fragments of bones and coprolites." On page 196, of the same report, the marl in the north bluff of Waccamaw lake, Columbus county, is described as follows : " The bed is within three feet of the surface. The upper portion of the bed, represented by 23, is full of de-composed shells and is very rich in lime; the lower portion (24) is clayey in appearance, and in fact, contains many black, smooth phosphatic (probably coprolitic) nodules. Such nodules are of frequent occurrence in the marls of both this and the preceding age—miocene and eocene ; they are of no more value agriculturally than so many flint pebbles, unless ground and treated with acid." 60 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. Drs. Emmons and Kerr regarded these occasional phos-pbatic nodules of the marl beds as true coprolites or fossil dung, as we have seen, and Dr. Emmons's description and analysis of the Cape Fear coprolites leaves little doubt about their being of this origin. Their position, as well as their composition, show that the}' are entirely different from the phosphates of Sampson, Duplin and Onslow counties, found last year, and described farther on. The latter are large flat lumps, weighing mostly from 10 to 300 pounds, and lie in a continuous layer in a sand or sandy loam, distinct from the marl. They contain 30 to 40 per cent, of sand, 40 to 50 per cent, of phosphate of lime and small amounts of carbonate of lime, fluoride of lime and protoxide of iron and alumina. They are rather to be classed as pseudo-coprolites or phosphatized marls. Of the existence of this phosphatic rock we remained in ignorance until last February. On the 28th of February, Dr. Thomas D. Hogg, of Raleigh ? brought the writer in person a specimen of rock from his farm at Castle Hayne, in New Hanover county. This was the conglomerate described below, in which worn stony pebbles,, sharks' teeth, shells, &c, were bound together by a cement of carbonate of lime. A few days later, at Dr. Hogg's suggestion, Mr. George Z. French sent me a similar rock from his farm eight miles northeast of Castle Hayne. As no examination of these particular beds had ever been made, I at once visited and explored the immediate localities. What I found there will be stated below. This brief inspec-tion of the localities led me to report to the Board of Agri-culture that I deemed the subject worthy of thorough examination, and to ask for means with which to prosecute explorations in this region. The Board made a small ap-propriation for this purpose at their April meeting, and directed me to give the matter such time as I might find in the intervals of other work. The results obtained were promptly published, and awakened a great deal of interest Home-Made Fertilizers. 61 in this matter. People commenced hunting for phosphates everywhere, so that much that is known now is due in part, at least, to the efforts of private parties. Our labors were interrupted by the work connected with the Boston Expo-sition, but were resumed immediately upon our return to the State in November. The Board of Agriculture instructed the Director at the January meeting to get some one to assist him in the field-work and to make a reconnaissance during February and March, of the eastern counties supposed to contain phos-phates, preparatory to more thorough investigations. The services of Gen. W. Gaston Lewis were secured and a hasty survey of a considerable territory has been made with the results which are noted below. The ready-maple openings were examined and the people were interrogated to ascertain where there were any indications of the exist-ence of phosphatic rock. Samples were drawn and careful notes made wherever any phosphate, or other deposit rela-ted to it, was found, and the specimens are now being ana-lyzed at the Station. The object of this preliminary work was to ascertain the location, character and extent of the phosphate beds so as to determine what work might be necessary on the part of the Board in order to develop them. The information we have gathered is still in that unfin-ished condition which forbids our giving detailed results, and renders any scientific description of the great field impossible at this time. This paper is simply a report of the progress, with some of the facts illustrating the economic features of the discoveries made and the possibility of pro-ducing superphosphate and other merchantable products from the rocks found. Distribution.—Phosphate rock has been found so far (March 1st, '84,) in larger or smaller quantities in Sampson, Duplin, Onslow, Pender, New Hanover, Bladen, Columbus, and Brunswick counties. The largest deposits now known are in Duplin and Sampson. The same rock probably ex- 62 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. tends into the southern part of Wayne county. Phosphatic marls of great richness are known to exist besides in Greene, Lenoir, Pitt, Jones, Craven and Carteret counties. It is likely that phosphate will be found in these counties. The phosphatic rock is found in two different relations in this field. In the lower country we find worn phosphatic nodules imbedded in comminuted shells, forming a con-glomerate. In the up country we find the rock in larger nodules, slabs, or cakes imbedded in sand. We shall speak of these different occurrences in the order in which they come to our attention, which is probably the opposite of the order of their formation. 1. The 'phosphatic marls of Pender and New Hanover. It is here, where these two counties join, along the northeast Cape Fear, that these phosphatic nodules are found imbed-ded in a marl, forming the rock we first examined. The beds are seen wherever the creeks have cut through the sand, or wherever ditches have been dug, throughout a region about twenty-five miles long and ten miles wide. Beginning at the south, they appear at various points about Wilmington ; one mile east at the ballast quarry, whence a lean phosphatic rock has probably been shipped to many parts of the world ; two miles northeast, along the banks of Smith's creek ; one and a half miles east, in S. WT . Noble's marl pits, &c. From this point the beds extend up the Northeast Cape Fear, appearing chiefly upon the right bank of the river, and through the country to the east until they disappear under the sand banks of the coast. Ten miles north of Wilmington, in the Castle Hayne neighborhood, they attain their greatest development and come nearest the surface. They appear all along the bank of the creek here, four or five feet thick. On the Saunders farm, south of the creek, the nodules lie all over the fields, where the conglomerate came to the surface and has decomposed. In the fields adjoining the creek, on Dr. Hogg's place, the con-glomerate is found within two feet of the surface and four Home-Made Fertilizers. 63 feet thick. The beds cross the river one and a half miles north of Castle Hayne, and from this point on, appear chiefly on the west side, between the river and the line of the Wil-mington & Weldon Railroad. They are seen here again on the banks of the creek and in the ditches. They are ex-posed to great advantage on French Bros' farm, three miles east of Station Rocky Point, where marl and limestone have been largely dug. The Messrs. French have removed the limestone, for burning lime, down to the conglomerate and exposed it for several acres. To the north from this point the beds are found on the Durham farm, the Walker farm, across the river on Gregory's creek, &c, until they are lost in Holly (Shelter and Angola Bay swamps. North of the swamps, in Duplin, Onslow and Jones, the phosphates occur again, but under different conditions, as has been referred to. Taking French's beds first, we find thero, two to three feet below the surface, a tough, solid shell-limestone five feet thick, below this the bed of conglomerate, two feet thick. At Castle Hayne there is either a mere skim of the lime-stone, or none at all, covering the four to five feet of con-glomerate. Under this we see evidences of the green sand. At other places we find a layer of loose nodules on top of the conglomerate. At Noble's farm near Wilmington, we find a bed of very soft marl carrying the nodules, two feet, and a bed of hard conglomerate under this, two feet again. At other places, a thick bed of shell marl rests upon the conglomerate. In all cases, the material forming the con-glomerate cement, and that forming the bed above, is iden-tical in character. It looks as if the nodules were bedded first and the lime formation followed. The comminuted shell-lime penetrated the interstices of this nodule bed and bound it together. At places there was not enough of this cement to cover the bed, and we have a layer of loose nodules on top of the conglomerate. At other places it rises high above the nodules and we have a limestone or a chalk bed over them, as at French's. Everywhere the cementing 64 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. material is the same, nearly pure carbonate of lime, in the form of shells more or less broken and ground up. The chalk and limestone at French's yield 95 per cent, carbo-nate of lime. The cement between the nodules differs from this only in -having absorbed a little phosphoric acid from the nodules, while it has undoubtedly given them some carbonate. The cement between the nodules contains 90.7 per cent, of carbonate and 1.5 per cent, of phosphate of lime The nodules of this conglomerate bed are of all sizes from a pumpkin to a bean. They are smaller about Wilmington and Castle Hayne and larger at French's. They are of all shapes, but for the most part kidney and egg shaped. Some are perforated, though much less so than South Carolina rock. Color, light grey to greenish black. Freshly broken or rubbed together they give the odor of burnt powder, characteristic of such phosphates. The peculiar thing about them is the large number of clear, sharp grains of sand which they contain. This is noticeable in every specimen of North Carolina phosphate I have examined. Their specific gravity is 2.6 to 2.7. The nodules, even in the same piece of conglomerate, will vary very much in composition. The following is the complete analysis of one of these nodules from the conglomerate, taken at random: Sand, _ __ _ 43.66 Carbonate of lime, i 34-56 Magnesia, _ 0.86 Potash, „ _ 0.39 Oxide of iron and alumina, 0.56 Phosphate of lime, _ _ _ 19.99 Sulphuric acid, , _. _ trace Chlorine, , ^ trace 100.02 The average per cent, of phosphate of lime in a large number of individual nodules separately examined, is thirty- Home-Made Fertilizers. 65 two. The variations in composition of these nodules from different localities, and even from the same locality, are illustrated by the following analyses :— ANALYSIS OF NODULES FROM THE PHOSPHATIC CONGLOMERATES. I. Nos. 1981, 1982, and 2029, are single nodules taken from the conglome-rate at Castle Hayne. 2132 is a collection of such nodules ground up together. II. Nos. 2097, 2098, 2109, 2130, are nodules taken from the conglomerate at French Bros' quarry, Rocky Point. III. Nos. 2100, 2102, are nodules from the marl pits of S. W. Noble, Wil-mington. The determinations are calculated on the substance dried at 2i2°F. I. From Castle Hayne 19S1 ._. 1982 2029 2132 --- French's. . 2097 _ 2098 2109 2130 Noble's— 2100 2102 II. III. Sand and In-soluble Matter. per cent. 22.07 33-52 43.66 18.50 20.02 3.25 31.66 Carbonate of Lime. per cent. 42.12 20.45 34-55 39-°4 42.12 51-34 15-94 Phosphate of Lime. per cent. 20.50 33-97 19.99 30.90 25-34 22.68 13-73 19.62 31-59 42.09 Equivalent to Phosphoric Acid. per cent. 9-39 15-57 9-13 14.16 11. 61 10.39 6.29 8.99 14-57 19.28 The average per cent, of phosphate of lime in a large number of individual nodules separately, examined, is thirty-two. A large lot of nodules ground up together and well mixed, gave 30.90 per cent, of phosphate of lime. The cement between the nodules is composed of comminu-ted shells, with sand at some localities. At Noble's and the southern end of the beds generally the marl contains more, at Castle Hayne less, and at the northern end of the field, least sand. This is virtually the same material as the beds 66 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. of limestone and chalk lying over the conglomerate, as at French's place. The hard shell limestone at French's quarries is nearly pure carbonate of lime. Analyses run from 95 to 97 per cent. His soft limestone or chalk contains 87.64 per cent, of carbonate of lime. The cement taken from between the nodules at Castle Hayne was found to contain Sand and insoluble matter, __ 3.04 per cent. Carbonate of lime, _ _ _ go. 80 ' ' *Phosphate of lime, 1.46 " ^Equivalent to phosphoric acid, _ 0.67 " COMPOSITION OF THE CONGLOMERATE TAKEN AS A WHOLE. I. No. 1994 was taken from Castle Hayne, Dr. T. D. Hogg. II. Nos. 2099 and 2222 are from French Bros' quarry, Rocky Point. III. Nos. 2103 and 2104 are from S. W. Noble's marl pits, near Wilmington. The determinations calculated on the substance dried at 2I2°F. I. F7 opt Castle Hayne 1994 ._ II. French's— 2099 2222 III. Noble's— 2103 2104 Sand and In-soluble Matter. per cent. 20.28 24.96 42.98 35-48 Carbonate of Lime. per cent. 57.29 54-71 10.12 51.81 Phosphate of Lime. per cent. 13.40 11. 81 16.42 26.64 6.40 Equivalent to Phosphoric Acid. per cent. 6.14 5.41 12.57 2. S3 The ground, Conglomerate.—The economic relations and ag-ricultural value of these deposits are being tested this year b}7 various persons. Dr. Hogg has erected a mill and is grinding for his own use. The following is the analysis of a sample of his grinding. The conglomerate is very easily mined. After the two feet of earth is removed with plows and scrapers, the deposit is shattered with powder, crushed and ground. This rep-resents, therefore, the character of the whole four to five feel beds. Home-Mads Fertilizers. 67 Analysis No. 2,333. The specimen, fresh from the mill, contained, moisture J.39 per cent. Calculated on the sample dried at 212°F. Carbonate of lime, _. 64. 26 per cent. ^Phosphate of lime, _._ 11.16 " Magnesia, 0.81 Potash, __ 0.40 Sulphates and chlorides, — traces. Sand, soluble silica, oxide of iron, alumina, &c, un-determined, ._ 23.37 per cent. 100.00 ^Equivalent to phosphoric acid, _ T— 5. 11 We may regard this as an excellent marl with the addi-tion of 11 per cent, of phosphate of lime and J- per cent, of potash, which amount is found uniformly in all of these beds. This deposit will yield at this and several other places almost unlimited quantities of this material. It can be mined and ground very easily, as has been shown, and it is found immediately upon navigable water. Lime is the chief agent in improving all classes of soils in the eastern part of the State, and is specially applied to a number of crops, as peanuts, peas and oats. This marl, with the addi-tion of phosphate and a little potash, must inevitably prove of the greatest value to the whole section. The plan of burning the Conglomerate.—-Sir John Bennett Lawes first suggested, in a letter to Mr. George Z. French and the writer, the plan of reducing this rock by burning. His expectation was that the rock contained sufficient car-bonate of lime to reduce it all to a powder by burning and slaking. He expressed the belief at the same time that the phosphate thus reduced would be available to plants. Mr. French and Dr. Hogg have both acted upon this valuable suggestion and prepared the following articles. The nodules contain too much phosphate and silica to be materially 68 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. broken down by the burning. The lime between the nodules breaks down perfectly on slaking the rock after burning, which suggested to Mr. French this plan of separating the nodules from the excess of carbonate of lime. We give sample analyses of the products prepared in this way. Some of the nodules were slightly fused. They were taken just as they came from the sieve with considerable lime still adhering to them. The nodules are ver}7 brittle in this state and grind easily. The lime is a fine yellowish white powder. The phosphate conglomerate before and after being burnt. No. 2222, is the rock before being burnt, 2223, after the burning. The specimens were selected as of the same character, but, according to the analy-sis, do not appear to have been so. These came from Mr. Geo. Z. French. No. 2231, is also a specimen of the burnt rock, from Castle Hayne. 2222 2223 2231 per cent. per cent. per cent. Sand and insoluble matter, 24.96 36.49 32.29 Phosphate of lime, '. 16.42 20.34 15. n Carbonate of lime, 54-71 * Lime, as oxide and hydrate,. ..._ 37.52 Oxide of iron and alumina, and loss, 3.91 5.65 100.00 100.00 Fuel is cheap in this section, and it appears that burning and grinding might prove a good plan for treating this rock. Lime is a well known and highly valued manure. It is largely used already on our farms, and will be more used as the swamp lands of the East are brought under cultiva-tion. Such lime as the above, No. 2223, with 20 per cent, of phosphate of lime, must prove a good manure in many cases. Some of the agricultural limes sold in the State are about such mixtures as this would be, if mixed with one-fourth its weight of kainite. This burnt rock can un-doubtedly be supplied at very low figures. Burnt, Slaked and Sifted.—If it is desirable, two grades of Home-Made Fertilizers. 69 material can be easily produced from this burnt rock. The rock slakes easily with water, and the lime can be sifted from the nodules. 2250. Phosphate conglomerate, from French's quarries, burned, water slaked and sifted. This is the fine portion passing through the seive. 22.51. The nodules from the same, with considerable lime still adhering. 2250 2251 per cent. per cent. Sand and insoluble matter, _ 16.76 36.53 Phosphate of lime, 6.89 20.04 Lime in hydrate and carbonate, 60.00 38.36 Combined water, carbonic acid, oxide of iron and alumina, 16.35 5-°7 100.00 100.00 In a second lot of samples from French Bros, we found In the phosphatic lime. In the coarse part. Phosphate of lime, _ .11.13 40.84 per cent. The following similar specimens were prepared from the Castle Hayne rock : 2344. Coarse, left 2345. Powder pass-on seive. Phos- ing through the phatic nodules. sieve. Phosphatic lime. Sand and insoluble matter, 31.08 per cent. 22.49 Per cent. Carbonate of lime, 22.75 9.00 " Phosphate of lime, 28.90 " 6.77 " Lime, as hydrate and oxide, _ 9.94 37-i6 Potash, _ _ _ 0.21 " 0.30 " Alumina, oxide of iron, combined water, soluble silica, &c, unde-termined, _ 7.12 " 24.28 " 100.00 100.00 Equivalent to phosphoric acid,.. 13.24 " 3.10 " This lime must prove very useful. It is a stronger lime than the one made from the whole rock, and could be used where a more energetic action was required and less phos-phate, as upon very sour meadow and bottom lands. The 70 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. nodules might possibly be separated in a similar way from the excess of carbonate of lime, to be ground for use as in-soluble phosphate, or making into superphosphate. Such insoluble phosphates with lime are highly esteemed in France and England. They certainly deserve a trial on peas, peanuts, oats, wheat, &c, where lime and phosphates are known with us to do so well in combination. The effect of this phosphatic lime may be judged from the following observation, made on French Bros' farm near Rocky Point. The formation carrying this carbonate of lime and phosphate of lime occurs there five feet below the surface. In digging the rock a yellowish, sand}7 loam, which lies immediately upon this formation, has been thrown out in large quantities. Vegetation grew luxuriantly upon the fresh banks of this earth, and where thrown over the adja-cent cultivated fields, it lias improved them to a marked degree. The following is an analysis of this sub-soil : The fine earth—70.40 per cent, of the sample as received. The coarse por-tion is nearly pure quartz. Moisture at ioo°C.=o.8o per cent. The fine earth dried at ioo°C, contained Lime, _ 0.20 per cent. Magnesia, . - •- trace. Potash, o.n per cent. Soda, 0.06 " Phosphoric acid, o. 17 Sulphuric acid, _ trace. Oxide of iron, alumina, .. 8.40 per cent. *Sand and insoluble matter, 89.30 " Volatile and organic matter, 2.17 " Water lost at 200°C _. 0.52 '•« 100.93 ^Digested for five days with hydrochloric acid and a few drops of nitric acid. This amount of lime, phosphate and potash make this, which would be otherwise a barren sand, a productive soil. The ingredients are all doubtless owing to long contact with so .powerful an agent as lime, in a readily available form. Home-Made Fertilizers. 71 II. The Phosphate Rock of Sampson, Duplin and Onslow Counties. On the 17th of May last, I received a sample of marl, from Mr. Levi Moore, of Duplin, which reminded me so much of the marl found in connection with the phosphate * described above, that it led to inquires. Other work pre-vented my visiting the locality then, but in the course of time, Mr. Moore sent me a specimen of phosphate from, underneath his marl, which was similar to that described below. Still later, samples were sent me by Col. A. M. Faison, of Duplin, (near Sampson,) and other persons in Sampson county. In a personal reconnoissance, a large number of samples were collected in this region. What the extent of these beds is, it is impossible to say at present. All we can assert now, is, that a phosphatic rock appears at places in the ditches, marl pits and creek banks, at a large number of places south of Clinton and along Six Runs Creek, in Sampson ; between this place and Warsaw and north toward Faison's, disappearing under the sand ridge on which the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad runs here; just east of Faison's and south near Bowdeivs Station; throughout the whole country between the headwaters of the N. E. Cape Fear and Angola Bay Swamp ; about Kenansville, and east at John W. Murray's, and so on until it is lost sight of in the swamps along the river. For details, see the list of lo-calities from which specimens have been obtained, which is appended. Two localities will illustrate the mode of its occurrence. This is a gently undulating country, sixty to one hundred and twenty feet above the sea level. The bed of phosphate, as far as observations go, is approximately horizontal. It is found at all depths, therefore, from the surface to twenty feet below, as deep as has been dug. The surface soil is a very sandy loam, the subsoil a stiff, yellowish or reddish clay. The phosphate rock is found frequently immediately underneath a stratum of two to four feet of this clay, im- 72 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. bedded in a course sand. Underneath this is another stiff, fine grained blneish clay again. On the farm of Mr. D. J. Middleton, 2J m. E. of Warsaw, for example, we see in the ditches in his lower lands, six inches to one foot of culti-vated soil (sand) one and a half to two feet of the clay and then the phosphate rock. At other places the rock occurs underneath a marl. At Mr. Levi Moore's we find one foot of sand, two to three feet of clay, two to three feet of a shell marl and then the phos-phate rock in a coarse sand, resting upon a stiff blue clay. The layer of phosphate rock is six to twenty inches thick. The rock here is found in dark, greenish black, somewhat rounded lumps, which are but slightly perforated. They vary in size from one's fist to great slabs or cakes weighing a half ton. All of this rock contains a large amount of sharp, coarse sand, as referred to above. We have made the following analyses up to date : No. 2263, from Levi Moore, 3 miles southwest of Warsaw. Nos. 2334, 2336 and 2338, from D. J. Middleton, 2 miles east of Warsaw. No. 2335, from R. M. Middleton, 1^ miles northeast of Warsaw. No. 2337, from G. W. Middleton, 1}^, miles east of Warsaw. No. 2339, from Col. A. M. Faison, 2 miles west of Warsaw. No. 2490, from J. W. Best, 3^ mile east of Warsaw. No. 2496, from L. Franks, 2 miles northeast of Richlands. No. 2541, from W. H. Kornegay, 3 miles south of Kenansville. No. 2580, from J. W. Best, 3^ mile east of Warsaw. This was sample of the lot ground and made into acid phosphate. 2263. 2334- 2335- 2336. 2337- 233S- 2339- 2490. 2496. 2541- 2580. wSand and Insoluble Matter. 41.06 45.62 44-73 49-5S 51-17 52.00 47-74 42.90 25.36 38.S0 Carbonate of Lime. 4.86 4-59 2.30 4.98 5.91 7.72 7.96 4.18 9-77 4-65 7-77 Phosphate of Lime. 44-o3 39 86 39 33 33 33 37 28 32 59 39 03 42 46 50 60 43 94 39 97 Equivalent to Phospho-ric Acid. 20.17 18.26 18.01 17.56 17.07 14-93 17.SS 19-45 23.18 20.13 1S.31 Moisture in Original Sample. 3-75 2.39 3.26 1.79 0-59 3-54 1.08 1.87 0.86 0.52 Phosphates. 73 2488. No. 10. From the farm of Daniel Bowden, $£ m. East of Bowden's Station, W. & W. R. R., and about 4 m. N. of Warsaw. Found below a bed of blue marl, four to six feet below the surface. Stratum 6 inches thick. 2489. No. 11. From the farm of Arthur Weeks, ^ m. W. of Bowden's. Picked up where his well was dug. 2490. No. 12. Three specimens from the farm of J. W. Best, }( m. E. of Warsaw and a short distance S. of the Warsaw-Kenansville road. Two and a half feet below the surface, a bed of marl underneath them. On several of the ditches and branches on his farm, and only a few feet below the surface. Striat-um, where these were dug, 6 inches thick. 2491. No. 13. From the farm of Col. A. M. Faison. Said to be in large quantities. 2492. No. 14. From the farm of the heirs of Rufus Bowden, 1% m. W. of Warsaw. Specimen from a marl pit 7 feet below the surface. Stratum 6 inches. About 200 feet higher up the branch, and about 8 feet below the surface the same rock is found. • 2496. No. 18. Coprolites from the farm of L. Franks, 2 m. N. E. of Rich-lands, and N. side of Cobern Creek and near White Oak Swamp. Found on the surface on the side of a hill. 2541. No. 21. From the marl bed of W. H. Kornegay, 3 m. from Kenans-ville on the Magnolia road. Found 100 yards S. of road. 2542. No. 22. From farm of G. W. Middleton, 3 m. E. of Warsaw, on, Kenansvilie road. Found in a ditch % mile north of house and 3 feet below surface, and seems to be in large quantities and very accessible. 2543A. No. 23A. From Grove Branch on farm of R. Middleton. Founds feet below the surface, and gives indications of large quantity. 2543B. No. 23B. From fish pond branch on Same farm, in large quantities. 2544. No. 24. From the farm of Jesse Swinson, 6 miles northeast of War-saw, on the Warsaw-Faison road. 2545. No. 25. From the farm of J. A. Boyd, i l/i miles east of Warsaw, and between the two roads from Warsaw to Kenansvilie. Found in a ditch two feet below the surface, in large quantities, very accessible. 2546. No. 26. From the farm of Kilby Hollingsworth, 2 miles north of Magnolia, on Magnolia-Kenansville road. Found in a ditch 3 feet below the surface, on the top of a white shell marl, and gives indications of some quantity. 2547. No. 27. From farm of L. Middleton, 5 miles east of Warsaw, on the Warsaw-Kenansville road, 4 feet below the surface. 2548. No. 28. From the farm of A. Hollingsworth, 2 miles north of Mag-nolia, and 1% miles from W. & W. R. R. 2549. No. 29. From the farm of Levi Moore, 4 miles east of Warsaw, on the Warsaw-Kenansville road. Ten feet below the surface and below marl. 2550. No. 30. " Coprolites" from the farm of R. Middleton, in the Grove branch. 2551. No. 31. From farm of R. Middleton. 2552. No. 32. From farm of A. D. Johnson, \]/2 miles southwest of Ke- 6 74 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. nansville, on the old Newbern-Fayetteville road. Large quantities in the bot-tom of ditches and 3 feet below the surface, and in some places among marl. It is black. 2553. No. 33. From the farm of G. W. McLammy, 3 miles west of Kenans-ville, on the Kenansville-Magnolia road. 2554. No. 34. A mixture of fragments of bone, coprolites and phosphate rock from the farm of J. B. Carr, 5 miles north of Kenansville, on the road to Faison's depot. 2555. No. 35. "Coprolites" from the farm of A. D. Johnson, \]/z m. S. W. of Kenansville, on the old Newbern-Fayetteville road. 2556. No. 36. From the farm of Col. A. M. Faison, 1% m. W. of Warsaw •on the plank road. Found 3 feet below surface and 250 yards from his dwell-ing. Stratum about 6 inches thick. Quantity seems large. 2557. No. 37. From farm of W. H. Faison, 5 m. W. of Warsaw, in Samp-son county, S. of plank road in a ditch 2^ feet below surface. Stratum 6 to 8 inches. * 2558. No. 38. From farm of Edward Mann, 6 m. W. of Warsaw and S. of plank road, in Sampson county. Four feet below surface. Stratum 6 to 8 inches. 2559. No. 39. From farm of A. J. Daniels, 5 m. W. of Warsaw, and near and to the west of Wilmington and Raleigh road, in Sampson county. Found in bottom of a ditch 3^ feet below surface. Stratum 8 inches. 2560. No. 40. From a ditch which divides farms of J. N. Williams and A. Blanchard, 4 m. W. of Warsaw, in Duplin county, and S. W. of Col. A. M. Faison's. Stratum 6 to 8 inches, and 3^ feet below surface. 2561. No. 41. Found in ditch which divides farms of John Blanchard and Col. Faison, 3 feet below surface, in Duplin county. Stratum 8 inches.' 2562. No. 42. Found 3 feet below surface on lower edge of a hill 3 m. S. of Warsaw, on E. side of W. & W. R. R., on farm of W. C. Carlton, in Duplin • county. Stratum 6 to 8 inches. 2563. No. 43. Found 2^ feet below surface, on the farm of W. H. Win-dows, 2yi m. E. of Warsaw, on the Magnolia road, and on E. side of W. & W. R. R. in Duplin county. Stratum 10 inches. 2564. No. 44. Found in a pit of blue marl 4 feet below surface, on same iarm. Stratum 6 to 8 inches. 2565. No. 45. Found on the surface on the side of a hill on the same farm. Phosphates. 75 2566. No. 46. Found 2 feet below the surface in a ditch which leads from the marl bed in which No. 2564 was found. Station No. Sand and Insoluble Matter. Carbonate of Lime. Phosphate of Lime. Equivalent to Phospho-ric Acid. Moisture in original Sample. per cent. per cent. per cent. per cent. per cent. 2488 50.02 4-72 33-32 15-26 0.41 2489 39-71 4.48 43-29 19.83 0.40 2490 42.96 4.18 42.46 19-45 1.08 2491 58.38 2-95 32.67 14-55 0.56 2492 60.58 3-43 28.88 13-23 0.60 2496 25-30 9-77 50.60 23.18 1.87 2541 38.80 4.65 43-94 20.13 0.86 2542 59-47 3.12 28.19 12.91 1-73 2S43a 28.09 3-8i 45.16 20.70 1-57 2543^ 28.92 2.43 57.18 26.19 0.92 2544 64.97 2.85 23.24 10.64 0.51 2545 48.57 2.95 37.72 17.28 1.58 2546 40.92 3.56 46.13 21.13 1.78 2547 29.46 3-90 54.89 25.15 1.06 2548 45- 20 4.18 40.09 18.37 0.41 2549 37.36 4.96 44-51 20.39 0.63 2550 38.82 3-35 46.06 21.09 1.56 2551 33.42 3.02 41.94 19.22 0.89 2552 58.54 3-41 29.85 13.67 0.48 2553 37-75 4-39 45-29 20.76 o.53 2554 3-55 3-94 73.38 33-61 1.65 2555 20.93 3.83 64.62 29.68 0-79 2556 39.60 3. or 46.56 21-33 1.08 2557 30.47 4.84 49-47 22.66 0.58 2558 52.00 3.93 33-6o 15.39 0.46 2559 42.79 4.20 42.00 19.24 o.34 2560 43-11 4-54 42.20 19-33 0.80 2561 40.12 3.59 45.05 20.64 0.58 2562 48.13 3.17 39-40 18.05 1.06 2563 42.06 3.65 45.16 20.73 0.23 2564 48.32 3.50 37-95 17.29 1.50 2565 52.52 2.84 31.45 14.38 0.80 2566 63.85 r.8r 23.05 10.78 6.10 The rock varies but slightly in composition at any given locality, but it varies gradually mile by mile thus, as it con-tains more or less sand. We find in this up-country all of the grades of phosphatic nodules which we first found in the calcareous conglome-rates of New Hanover and Pender. The latter are only much smaller, more worn .and mixed, all grades together. W e may fairly conclude, then, that the conglomerate was 76 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station. made by the breaking up and mingling of beds of phos-phatic rock, like those seen to-day in the up-country. Spread out over the bottom of a lagoon, the ground shells were spread over them later, and filling all the interstices between the lumps, bound them together into the conglom-erate we find now at Castle Hayne, Rocky Point, &c. Selecting a place convenient to the railroad, we dug a lot of rock to see what the yield per acre would be. Gen. Lewis, who had charge of the work, reports as follows : " Enclosed please find statement of cost of excavating fifty tons of phosphate-rock on the farm of J. W. Best, near War-saw. Also cost of hauling, loading, &c. This is not a fair basis to calculate on for the future. The weather was ex-tremely bad, the laborers green, and the hauling picked up promiscuously. I had an overseer for ten hands. One overseer would be sufficient for twenty-five or thirty hands. With a well organized force, I think I could reduce the cost of getting out and hauling the rock one-third. You, will also notice that the ditching was expensive. The extreme wet weather and bigh water necessitated bringing up the fall of a canal and ditch to rid us of the water accumulating in the pits. Fifty tons: Cubic yards excavated, 681; fraction of an acre 0.11. Cost of Excavation, , $110.05 " "
|Title||Annual report of the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station|
|Publisher||[Raleigh, N.C.?]: Board of Agriculture,1879-1944.|
|Rights||State Document see http://digital.ncdcr.gov/u?/p249901coll22,63754|
|Collection||North Carolina State Documents Collection. State Library of North Carolina|
|Digital Characteristics-A||117 p.; 9.6 MB|
|Digital Collection||North Carolina Digital State Documents Collection|
|Pres File Name-M||pubs_ag_aragriculturalexperiment18831887.pdf|
|Pres Local File Path-M||Preservation_content\StatePubs\pubs_ag\images_master|
Horih Carolina State Librwy
ANNUAL REPORT ^
gricultural Experiment Station
Mold to tlie Facts.
Ashe & Gatling, State Printers and Binders.
Presses of Edwards, Broughton & Co.
Office of the North Carolina
Agricultural Experiment Station,
Raleigh, N. G* April 15th, 1884.
To Governor Thomas J. Jarvis,
Chairman of the Board of Agriculture ;
Sir:—I have the honor to submit herewith the Annual
Report of the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment
Station for the year 1883. I trust it will prove satisfactory
to your Excellency and the Board of Agriculture.
CHAS. W. DABNEY, Jr,
N. G. State Beard ef Agriculture
Governor Thomas J. JARVIS,
(Ex officio), Chairman.
Col. Thomas M. Holt,
President of the State Agric. Society.
Kemp P. Battle, LL. D.,
President of the State University.
W. R. Williams, Esq.,
Master af the State Grange, Patrons
Col. R. W. Wharton,
ist Congressional District.
Dr. A. G. Brooks,
2d Congressional District.
John A. Gates, Esq.,
3d Congressional District.
Col. W. Forney Green,
4th Congressional District.
Capt. J. D. Glenn,
5th Congressional District.
John Robinson, Esq.,
6th Congressional District.
A. Leazar, Esq.,
7th Congressional District.
Burwell Blanton, Esq.,
8th Congressional District.
Dr. C. D. Smith,
gth Congressional District.
Gov. THOMAS J. JARVIS,
Col. THOMAS M. HOLT,
Col. W. F. GREEN.
MONTFORD McGEHEE, Commissioner.
PETER M. WILSON, Secretary.
STEPHEN G. WORTH, Sup't of Fish and Fisheries.
CHARLES W. DABNEY, Jr., Chemist.
THE NORTH CAROLINA
Agricultural Experiment Station.
This institution was established by Act of the General
Assembly of 1877, for the advancement of North Carolina
agriculture. The Station now occupies the large and hand-some
apartments assigned it in the Agricultural Depart-ment
Building in Raleigh. The Laboratory is a complete
one in every respect.
Every North Carolina farmer, and every person interested
in developing our agriculture or other industries, has a right
to call upon the Station for any information or assistance
which it is within the province of the Station to render;
and the Station will do all that lies in its power to meet
The work of the Station will include, as heretofore;
The analysis of all Fertilizers legally on sale in the State ;
The analysis of Agricultural Chemicals, of Composts and
Home-made Fertilizers, and of all materials from which
they can be made
The analysis of Soils, Marls and Mucks;
The analysis of Feeding-Stuffs ;
The examination of Seeds with reference to their purity,
and capacity to germinate;
The examination of Grasses and Weeds;
The study of Insects injurious to vegetation ;
The analysis of Minerals, Ores and Mineral Waters;
The analysis of Drinking Waters, and Articles of Food ;
Practical Experiments upon different crops, with different
Numerous publications upon these and kindred subjects
are mailed free of charge. Correspondence is invited upon
subjects pertaining to scientific agriculture. Address,
Dr. CHAS. W. DABNEY, Jr., Director,
Raleigh, N C.
ricultural Experiment Station,
CHARLES W. DABNEY, Jr., Ph. D., (Goettingen.)
Balduin von Herff, Ph. D, Frank B. Dancy, A. B.
Herbert B. Battle. B. S. W. Alphonso Withers, A.B.
Office and Laboratory in the Agricultural Department Building,
Visitors are always welcome.
Rerth Carolina Experiment Statist
(878 to (884.
This list includes reports, special publications and con-tributions
to the Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture,
but excludes all circulars, directions, and forms. Unless
marked otherwise, they are unbound.
The following were issued under the Directorship of Dr.
Albert R. Ledoux:
Directions for making Vinegar, 1878, 4 pages;
Analyses and Valuation of Fertilizers, 1877-78, 30 pages;
Ville's formulae for Composting and others furnished by
Dr Ledoux, 1878, 16 pages;
The Sugar Beet in North Carolina, 1878, 50 pages;
Silica vs Ammonia, results of comparative soil-tests of
Poppleins Silicated Phosphate, with a number of ammo-niated
guanos, 1878, 24 pages ;
Analyses and Valuations of Fertilizers for 1877 and 1878,
republished, 1879, 16 pages;
Report of the Director to the Legislature, January, 1879,
Document No. 8, 16 pages;
Analyses and Valuations of Fertilizers for 1879, 8 pages ;
Formulas for Composting, 1879, 16 pages ;
Report of the Station for 1879, (bound) 198 pages ;
Report of the Station for 1880, including Analyses of Fer-tilizers
for that year, (bound) 148 pages.
The following were issued by Dr. Charles W. Dabney, Jr.,
Report to the, Legislature, January, 1881, 16 pages;
Analyses of Drinking Waters, Bulletin for January, 1881
Value of active ingredients of Fertilizers, Bulletin for
The use of Agricultural Chemicals, Bulletin for March,
Analyses and Valuations of Fertilizers and Chemicals,
Adulterated Chemicals, Bulletin for July, 1881;
Analyses and Valuations of Fertilizers, 2d edition, 1881,
Report of the Station for 1881. (bound) 172 pages;
Trade in Fertilizers—Extension in Cotton Culture, Bul-letin
for January 1882;
Home-made Manures—High-manuring on Cotton, Bulle-tin
for February, 1882 ;
Does Cotton exhaust? Cotton seed and its uses, Bulletin
for March, 1882;
Stable Manure, saved and composted—Rice products as
a feeding-stuff, Bulletin for April, 1882;
Analyses of Fertilizers, 1882, 8 pages;
Analyses of Fertilizers, 2d edition, 1882, 12 pages;
Experience with Home-made Manures, Bulletin for June,
Report of work done for the State Board of Health, 1881,
Treatment of Cotton Lands—Station at State Fair, Bul-letin
for October, 1882; '
Report of the Station 1882, (bound) 152 pages;
Horn, Leather and Wool-waste, and the Fertilizers made
from them, 1882, 10 pages ;
Finely-ground Phosphates or " Floats," 1882, 10 pages
On Kainite, 1882, 28 pages
Rice and its products—Food and Fodder plants, Bulletin
The Soja Bean—Waste products of Tobacco Factories,
Bulletin, May, 1883;
Analyses of Fertilizers, 1883, 16 pages;
Analyses of Fertilizers, 2d Edition, 1883, 16 pages ;
Cotton seed and its products, Bulletin June, 1883 ;
N. C. Resources for Commercial Fertilizer?,
I. Ammoniates; II. Potash sources, Bulletin Dec, 1883;
III. Phosphates, Bulletin January, 1884 ;
The trade in Fertilizers during 1883, 12 pages; ;
Cost of the ingredients of Fertilizers, Bulletin Feb., 1884
The Phosphate investigation, Bulletin March, 1884;
Analyses of Fertilizers, season of 1884, 16 pages ;
Composition of N, C. Phosphates, Bulletin April, 1884.
N. C. Phosphates, report on, 26 pages.
fciorth .Carolina State Library
Board of Agriculture and Officers, 3
Announcement of the Station, 4
Officers of the Station, 5
Publications of the Station 1878 to 1884, 6
Work of the Station during the year, 9
Laws establishing the Station, 18
The Fertilizer Control, 24
The Fertilizer Trade during 1883, 26
Analyses of licensed fertilizers, _. 30
Agricultural Chemicals and Home-made Fertilizers, 43
Bone manures, 44
Chemicals yielding Nitrogen, 46
Chemicals yielding Potash, 52
Mixtures and Composts, . 55
North Carolina resources for commercial fertilizers, -. _ 56
Phosphatic conglomerate and lime, : . 62
Sources of Nitrogen, 83
Sources of Potash, 91
Analyses of Feeding-stuffs—Hays, . . — 96
Okra products, _ _ 96
Analyses of marls, _ - - 97
Appendix A—Cysticerus cellulosa, 98
Appendix B—N. C. Fisheries Statistics, 100
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR
Igrtealtaral Experiment Station
WORK OF THE STATION DURING THE YEAR.
The requirements of the law regarding the work of the
Station may be classified as follows
The analysis of all fertilizers legally on sale in the State.
The analysis of agricultural chemicals, of composts and
home-made fertilizers and all materials from which they
can be made.
The analysis of soils, marls. and mucks.
The analysis of feeding-stuffs.
The examination of seeds with reference to their purity
and capacity to germinate.
The examination of grasses and weeds.
The study of insects injurious to vegetation.
The analysis of minerals, ores and mineral waters for the
The analysis of drinking water, articles of food, &.c, for
the State Board of Health.
Practical experiments upon different crops, with different
manures, upon new crops which it may be desirable to in-troduce,
and upon such other subjects as the Department
Some work has been done in all of these directions as
will be seen. Our work continues to be chiefly that of the
fertilizer control and that connected with the home produc-tion
of manures. This is, after all, the subject of the great-est
interest and importance to our farming community.
10 Annual Report N. C. Experiment Station.
Marls and phosphates have taken the second place in our
work the past year. The public has taken the liveliest
interest and has vouchsafed the heartiest support to the
work of the Station upon the marls and phosphatic rocks of
the eastern portion of the State. Less interest is taken in
feeding stuffs, grasses and insects. The public does little
to avail itself of the opportunities for testing seed offered
Routine work has occupied nearly all of our time, and
less opportunity than usual was afforded last year for sys-tematic
investigation. This was owing chiefly to a large
part of our force having been called away from the regular
Station work, to assist in the collection and preparation of
the exhibit of North Carolina ores, minerals, building-
-stones, woods, &c., which the Board of Agriculture sent to
the American Exposition at Boston last September. We
ifind little time at the Station for original, systematic work,
• except during the summer. Fall, winter and spring the
fertilizer and connected work demands all of our attention.
En i883 three out of our five workers were occupied nearly
the whole time from June 1st, to November 1st, with the
exhibition referred to. Though out of our line, much of this
wTork was profitable for us. We gained an intimate knowledge
of the forestry resources of the State, and laid the foundations,
in information and specimens, for an extension of the work
of the Department in that direction. The collection of
specimens of soils, marls, phosphates and of agricultural
products, has furthered our regular work, and a better gen-eral
knowledge of the agricultural resources of the State has
been gained, so that the interruption, while it denied us
our time for special work and thus shortened the matter of
this report, is not without its good results in preparing us
for future greater usefulness.
Though the work of the Station was thus somewhat cut
short in 1883, in kind we believe it will prove as valuable