Annual report of the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station
|Previous||46 of 56||Next|
small (250x250 max)
medium (500x500 max)
large ( > 500x500)
/\i\i\Ual Report for 1&&9 OF THE JVortt\ ^arolix\& i\griQliltliral £iXp^rin\^i\t <Statioi\; To tl\e ^oV^ri\or, EDWARDS & BROUGHTON, PAINTERS AND BINDERS, RALEIGH, N. C. OFFICE OF The North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, Raleigh, N. C, February 1st, 1890. To His Excellency Daniel G. Fowle, Governor of North Carolina : Sir:—I have the honor to submit herewith a report of the opera-tions of the N. C. Agricultural Experiment Station for the year end-ing December 31st, 1889. This report is made in accordance with the following portion of section 3 of the Hatch Act of the Congress of the United States for the maintenance of Agricultural Experiment Stations in the various States: " It shall be the duty of each of the said stations annually, on or before the first day of February, to make to the Governor of the State or Territory in which it is located, a full and detailed report of its operations, including a statement of receipts and expenditures." Trusting that this report will prove satisfactory to your Excellency, I am, very respectfully yours, H. B. BATTLE, Director. IKOJEITIZ CAKOLINA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AND STATE WEATHER SERVICE, UNDER THE CONTROL OF THE STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. Col. W. F. GREEN, Chairman. "W. R. Williams, Esq Master State Grange Patrons of Husbandry. Col. R. W. Wharton _ First Congressional District. Dr. W. R. Capehart Second Congressional District. W. E. Stevens, Esq Third Congressional District. J. S. Murrow, Esq Fifth Congressional District. J. F. Payne, Esq... _ Sixth Congressional District. Hon. A. Leazar Seventh Congressional District. Burwell Blanton, Esq Eighth Congressional District. Dr. C. D. Smith. Ninth Congressional District. TRANSFERRED DECEMBER, 1889 (BY LEGISLATIVE ENACTMENT OF 1887), TO THE CONTROL OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES, A. & M. COLLEGE, COMPOSED OF THE STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE WITH W. S. Primrose, Esq. , President. _ . .Raleigh. N. B. Broughton, Esq _ Raleigh. H. E. Fries, Esq.... Salem. Col. Elias Carr Old Sparta. Capt. S. B. Alexander Charlotte. RALEIGH, N. C. NORTH CAROLINA Apiltnral Experiment anfl Fertilizer Control Station, RALEIGH, N. C. OZFIE'IOEIRS H. B. BATTLE, Ph. D., Director and State Chemist. J. R. CHAMBERLAIN, B. S.. Agriculturist. W. F. MASSEY, C. E. (elected December, 1889) Horticulturist. F. B. DANCY, A. B. (resigned September, 1889). _. Assistant Chemist. B. W. KILGORE, B. S._ ..Assistant Chemist. F. B. CARPENTER, B. S.._. ..Assistant Chemist. B. THORP, B. S. (died July, 1889) Assistant Chemist. J. R. HARRIS .Assistant Chemist. GERALD MCCARTHY, B. Sc Botanist. H. McP. BALDWIN (U. S. Signal Corps), before July Meteorologist. C. F. von HERRMANN (U. S. Signal Corps), after July Meteorologist. R. T. BURWELL, Ph. B. (resigned September, 1889)-- ..Secretary. H. L. HARRIS, B.S ..__ Secretary. Offices and Laboratories, Corner of Edenton and Halifax Streets, Raleigh ; Farm, Plant House, Experimental Barn and Dairy, 1-j- miles west on the Hillsboro Road. The Experiment Station, by legislative enactment of 1887, receives the benefit of all funds derived from the U. S. Hatch Act. VISITORS CORDIALLY INVITED AND ALWAYS WELCOMED. ANNUAL REPORT OF THE NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION TO TIKE G-CrVZEIRIISrOR-FOR THE YEAR 1889. The scope of the work of the N. C. Agricultural Experiment Sta-tion has been formulated to be included under the following heads: 1. Chemical and Microscopical Work, including 1. The analysis of all fertilizers legally on sale in the State. 2. The analysis of agricultural chemicals, of composts, and home-made fertilizers, and all materials from which they can be made. 3. The analysis of soils, marls and mucks. 4. The analysis of feeding stuffs. 5. The analysis of potable and mineral waters. 6. The examination of seeds with reference to their purity, and capacity to germinate. 7. The examination of grasses and weeds. 8. The study of insects injurious to vegetation. 9. The analysis of milk, butter and other dairy products. 10. Such other chemical and microscopical investigation as is demanded in the experimental work of the Station. II Experimental Work in the Field, Stable and Laboratory, to include 1. The effect of different fertilizers on various soils of the State. 2. The study of improved methods for cultivation of the staple crops. 3. The study of the best treatment for worn-out lands. 4. The study of the best system for the rotation of crops. 5. Chemical investigations, with practical experiments with cattle, on the value of the various forage crops. 6. Investigations on the growth of new crops for this climate, in comparison with those we now have. 7. The construction of the silo, and value of ensilage. 8. The study of the growth of cattle using the different feeding stuffs. 9. Investigations in the production of milk and butter under dif-ferent conditions, and with various implements. 10. Digestion experiments with stock, to ascertain the value of various food stuffs. 6 N. 0. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. 11. Experiments with the various feeding rations to ascertain how far the feeding standards can be relied on. 12. Such other work from time to time as may be deemed advisable for the interests of the agriculture of the State. Ill The Collection and Distribution of Meteorological Data, such as will directly aid the various agricultural industries of the State. The work is expected to be of benefit in 1. A foreknowledge of the coming of cold waves, protecting fruit, tobacco and trucking interests. 2. A foreknowledge of the coming of frosts, to benefit the same industries. 3. The distribution of daily telegrams of weather indications trans-mitted to various portions of the State. 4. The collection of various meteorological data, by obtaining a more perfect idea of the various climatic changes to extend to other localities the crops found useful in portions of this and other States. 5. The collection and distribution of reports showing the effect of the weather on the crops during successive periods of their growth. IV. A Bureau of Information for all subjects connected with the agricultural industries of the State. Information of this character is always given as promptly and carefully as possible. Samples, when sent by citizens of the State for chemical examina-tion, will be analyzed free of charge — 1. If they are taken strictly according to our printed forms, and are fully described. 2. If they are of sufficient public interest, and the experimental work will not be unduly retarded thereby. With this work in view, the result of the labors of the Station for 1889, has been classified in distinct divisions, as follows : 1. Chemical Division. 2. Agricultural Division. 3. Division of Co-operative Field Experiments. 4. Botanical Division. 5. Horti-cultural Division. 6. Meteorological Division. 7. Entomological Division. 8. Division of Publications. 9. Bureau of Information. The work for the year has been greatly retarded by the many changes in the corps of workers at the Station. There have been two changes in the Chemical Division, one brought about by the resignation of the first assistant, Mr. F. B. Dancy ; the other by the sad death of the third assistant, Mr. B. Thorp. The place of the former has been filled by the election of Mr. B. W. Kilgore, of the Mississippi Experiment Station. In the Meteorological Division (State Weather Service), Mr. C. F. von Herrmann has been detailed by the U. S. Signal Corps to act as assistant in place of Mr. H. McP. Baldwin. Mr. H. L. Harris takes the place of Mr. R. T. Burwell as Secretary. In the Agricultural Division, Mr. J. R. Chamberlain, Agriculturist, has been elected Professor of Agriculture in the Agri-cultural College. Pending the election of a suitable person to take his place as Agriculturist, he has been acting as such. This pro- REPORT OF DIRECTOR. 7 visional arrangement had not been changed up to the close of the calendar year of 1889. The disarrangement of the force has quite seriously retarded the progress of the work of the Experiment Station. It has rendered it impossible to finish certain lines of investigation which should have been included in the publications of the year. On December 8th, the Station was formally connected with the Agricultural College, and becomes a department of the College. This was in accordance with section 6, chapter 410, State Laws of 1887, which is as follows : "The Agricultural Experiment and Fertilizer Control Station, already established under the management of the said Board of Agriculture, shall be connected with the said College," etc. According to the agreement made between the Board of Agriculture and the Board of Trustees at the time of the transfer, the Station will still retain its distinctive existence. In becoming a department of the College, both Station and College will be mutually able to receive and give aid in the conduct of the work both of instruction and experimentation. It is believed that by this arrangement both the Station and College will accomplish more complete and thorough work. At this time the Division of Horticulture was added to the Experi-ment Station, and Prof. W. F. Massey was elected Horticulturist. The affairs of the Agricultural Experiment Station are now man-aged by the Board of Trustees of the College, composed of five mem-bers appointed by the Governor, together with the Board of Agri-culture. The latter still has charge of affairs connected with the Fertilizer Control, inspection, sampling and analyses, as heretofore. It is proper to state, that for the work done for the Fertilizer Control by the Experiment Station, the Board of Agriculture appropriates to the latter a sufficient sum to reimburse the Station for the time and materials used. This appropriation also covers the cost of mis-cellaneous analytical work which may be done for the citizens of the State which does not properly come within the province of the Hatch Act. A Station Council has been established to have in charge matters directly appertaining to the Station. This Council is composed of the President of the College, three members of the Board of Trus-tees, and the Director of the Station. The record of work for 1889 is classified under the different divis-ions already enumerated, as follows: I. Chemical Division. a. Fertilizer Control. The operations of the Control have gone on as usual. By increasing the number of inspectors to three, the samples were procured at a much earlier date than ever before. Analyses were accordingly printed and sent out very early ; the first 8 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. publication being on February 12th. This contained analyses of all of the licensed brands famished up to that date. The second and third publications were on February 26th and March 26th, respect-ively. When it is considered that these samples are taken from the goods after they are received in the State, and the analyses must be made from these samples, it is eas}^ to see how difficult it is to pub-lish the analyses so that they can be used by the farmers before buying. It is believed, however, that the analyses for 1889 were, in most cases, published in ample time for this purpose. One hundred and ninety-seven samples of commercial fertilizers were taken for the Fertilizer Control, and thirty samples of miscel-laneous fertilizers were analyzed for farmers. b. Experimental Chemical Work. Numerous samples of forage plants were analyzed to determine their food value. Among these were Dhoura corn, pearl millet, millo maize, early amber sorghum, Kaffir corn, German millet, Hungarian millet, etc. These were grown on the experiment farm, and the yield per acre for each is known. Chemical investigation has also been carried on relative to the food value of Kaffir corn-meal. Analyses have been made to ascer-tain the variability of composition of tobacco stems from various States. The investigation which has already been commenced in relation to the chemical history of the cotton plant, has been, unfortunately, delayed, and is barely ready at this time for publication. A com-panion work has been outlined, and is now well under way, on the chemical history of the tobacco plant. This work will include the chemical examination of different portions of the plant from the seed-bed to the cured leaf. c. Miscellaneous Chemical Work. Here is included the analyses of samples sent to the Station by farmers and others. This work is done without charge, provided the samples are of sufficient public importance to justify the work. Work of this character will be made public whenever it is thought best. Among these samples are embraced cotton seed products, marls and phosphates, tobacco prod-ucts, mineral and health waters, soils, and miscellaneous work of a like character. Two hundred and forty-three samples were thus examined during the year. II. Agricultural Division. Under this head is embraced the operations of the experiment farm. Experiments were conducted to ascertain the result of green manuring with cow-pea vines, and the effect of the same on the growth of wheat. Comparisons were also made with various applica-tion of fertilizing ingredients with this system of green manuring; the value of the ingredients, phosphoric acid, ammonia and potash, as fertilizing applications for cotton ; plot experiments showing the REPORT OF DIRECTOR. 9 effect on the growth of cotton of various applications of lime in different forms, as unburnt lime, as burnt lime, as pho«phatic lime, as carbonate and phosphate of lime combined with ammonia and potash niaterials,—all compared with the ordinary ammoniated fer-tilizer and -with acid phosphate. The purpose of this experiment was to test the value of a new fer-tilizer containing the ordinary ammonia and potash materials of commercial fertilizers mixed with insoluble phosphate and carbonate of lime. This fertilizer was made from the crude phosphate rock, mined and ground in the State, mixed with ammonia and potash ingredients. According to laboratory standards, these latter ingre-dients were available, but the phosphate of lime, being the insoluble tricalcic form, could not be so classed. The company placing this fertilizer on the market claimed that the presence of carbonate of lime mixed with the phosphate rendered the latter available to the plant in the field. The Station was constantly asked as to the value of such a combination as a regular fertilizing application. Beyond the fact that it could be stated that the phosphate was not available by laboratory methods, nothing definitely could be said in reference to field results, as no tests had been made by the Station to decide this point. To ascertain its action, extensive tests were planned to compare it with unburnt lime, burnt lime, with the phosphate and carbonate of lime, unmixed with other ingredients, with acid phosphate, and with the regular ammoniated superphosphate with potash. The applications were all on a basis of equal cost, taking the money value of the regular application of an ammoniated fertilizer as the standard. The question sought to be answered, was whether it was desirable to purchase with the same amount of money, the usual commercial fertilizer or acid phosphate, or this new undissolved phosphate with ammonia and potash, or the corresponding value in either of the various forms of lime application. The question specifically asked was what the farmer would ask were he to be approached with the request that he purchase this new application. The crop experimented with was cotton, on plots somewhat less than one-tenth acre each; all applications were in duplicate, to be compared with five unfertilized plots in various portions of the experimental field. The plan of the experiment included similar applications on the same plots, extending over several successive years, in order that it might be seen whether the lime applications were not more beneficial after the first year. The plot chosen for the work was considered one of the best on the farm. Great care was exercised in every detail from beginning to end of the year's work. Yet, the result of the year's work was so disappointing and misleading that it is considered unwise to chroni-cle it at all. Although it was considered the best soil at the disposal of the Station for the work, yet the results proved so conclusively 10 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. that the soil was so far from being uniform that to print the results would be erroneous and misleading. Duplicate plots varied mate-rially more than that due to the several applications. One part of the field, though seemingly nothing to indicate it, was discovered to be materially more fertile than another part and entirely irrespective of any application. The result of this work, together with others of similar nature, which need not be mentioned here, point to the fact of the apparent futility of general field-work of a comparative nature at the experi-ment farm with its soil so ill adapted to it. The conclusion was reached that work of this character must be conducted in other localities. Without specifying, at this time, what definite changes will be made on account of this decision, it may be as well to state that more attention in the future will be paid to a few distinct loca-tions throughout the State where co-operative work will be carried on in connection with the central work in Raleigh. By fostering the efforts in these localities, it is expected that the results of the experiments there will more nearly represent the various local con-ditions than is possible from what may be done at this point, even if the soil here was entirely applicable to the work. In addition, the work of the Station and of the district stations will thus be brought more closely to the farmers, the value of which cannot well be over-estimated. The Experiment Station farm will in the future be utilized for various horticultural work commenced in the field and plant-house, and for detailed work in the dairy, for the feeding of cattle, the growth of various feed-stuffs, forage plants and grasses, in con-nection therewith. Cattle-feeding experiments have been conducted to ascertain the value of cotton-seed hulls and meal alone, for the purpose of fatten-ing cattle ; the value of the same food as compared with ensilage for fattening sheep. Details of these experiments will be given in the report of the Agriculturist. III. Division of Co-operative Field Experiments. It is impossible to generalize from the result of one experiment, or a series of experiments, made in any one locality. Recognizing this, it was thought eminently proper to conduct similar experi-ments in various portions of the State. North Carolina embraces such a variety of soils, climates and areas that such work is espe-cially needed here. Accordingly, the co-operative field experiments commenced in 1888 were continued for 1889. The territory embraced for the latter year is larger than heretofore, and covers the central and western sections, as well as the eastern section of the State. REPORT OF DIRECTOR. 11 The list of exDerimenters for the season of 3 889 includes the fol- J. lowing names: Eastern District.—W. L. Barlow, Tarboro, Edgecombe County ; J. W. Bryan, Goldsboro, Wayne County; Dr. D. Cox, Hertford, Per-quimans County; F. R. Johnston, Plymouth, Washington County; T. L. Jones, Columbia, Tyrrell County ; E. F. Lamb, Elizabeth City, Pasquotank County; E. Mears, Clarkton, Bladen County; J. B. Oliver, Mount Olive, Wayne County ; W. H. Shields, Scotland Neck, Halifax County ; 0. W. Sutton, Mount Olive, Wayne County ; Dr. R. P. Thomas, Bethlehem, Hertford County; H. Clay Williams, Willeyton, Gates County; J. G. Williams, Edenton, Chowan County Dr. R. W. Wooten, Kinston, Lenoir County. Central District.—C. N. Allen, Auburn, Wake County ; H. B. Hun-ter, Sr., Ridgeway, Warren County ; T. J. King, Louisburg Frank-lin County; T. B. Lindsay, Douglas, Rockingham County; W. B. Little, Deep Creek, Anson County ; R. D. Lunceford, Smithfield, Johnston County ; Prof. A. Mclver, Pittsboro, Chatham County ; J. C. Williams, Winslow, Harnett County. Western District.—W. E. Ardrey, Pineville, Mecklenburg County ; J. C. Cooper, Dobson, Surry County ; Lee Crawford, Franklin, Macon County ; H. C. Dunn, Clear Creek, Cabarrus County ; R. G. Hamil-ton, Mill Spring, Polk County. The plot experiments embraced the application of different fer-tilizing ingredients—cotton-seed meal, acid phosphate and kainit-furnishing ammonia, phosphoric acid and potash respectively. These materials were used as being the most available for ordinary use. While, for exact experimentation, pure chemicals should have been taken; yet, under the circumstances, it was considered that the materials used were sufficient for the ends of the experiments. The crops planted for this field-work were cotton, corn and peanuts. The field plots were ^ acre in extent. Various forage plants which might prove useful in the different localities were tried, as well as some other plants which might become serviceable adjuncts to the ordinary staple crops. One-fiftieth acre plots were used, and the yield as closely as possible was recorded. The list was as follows : 1. Kaffir corn; 2. Egyptian rice corn; 3. Brazilian flour corn; 4. Improved evergreen broom corn ; 5. Improved dwarf broom corn; 6. Early amber sugar cane; 7. Early orange sugar cane; 8. Early rural branching sorghum; 9. Prolific tree bean; 10. Soja bean; 11. Pearl millet; 12. Canadian field peas—white; 13. Canadian field peas—blue; 14. Flax; 15. Sunflower; 16. Silver ramie The results attendant upon these co-operative field tests were, in the main, very satisfactory. Much interest was manifested in the work in nearly every locality, and from letters received it is known that material good was accomplished. 12 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. IV. Botanical Division. The botanical work for 1889 included a continuation of the work towards arriving at a specific standard of quality for field and garden seed. For this purpose several hundred tests of varieties of seed were made. Samples were secured directly from the growers, as well as purchased from retail dealers. It is well to note, in passing, that the quality of the two varied widely. It is proposed to give the local dealer the benefit of the doubt, and say that where low vitality of the seed was noticed, it was due to their being kept on hand for too long a time before being sold. In other words, the retail dealers were not particular in every case to offer strictly fresh seed. It may be that they did not know that seeds deteriorated on being kept. Many growers sell strictly first-class seed, both as to purity and vitality. Others do not. To the^ first should be bestowed praise ; the second, condemnation. A fair conservative standard for seed, which could be used both by seller and buyer, would be a protection both to the buyers and the honest sellers who deal in strictly first-class seed, and who wish to sell no other. As to the other class of dealers and growers who do not sell fresh and pure seed, either through ignorance or dishonesty, the seed standard would compel them to improve the quality of their merchandise. It is useless to deny that there are many of this class of dealers who are constantly disposing of worthless seeds under the guise of fair-trading—who sell, in their seed, a large quantity of weed seeds which are destruc-tive to crops and very difficult to eradicate. It is this class that a seed standard would control with great benefit to the buyers, as well as to the honest seller of good seed. It is not expected that an experiment station will endeavor to regulate the sale of seed, or to inaugurate laws for the control of the trade. This belongs to the law-makers. It is not the legiti-mate work of agricultural experimentation. The work which has been begun at this Station, can be mentioned under two heads : First, to fix a conservative standard for comparison, by means of a careful examination of the seed sold by reputable dealers and growers, both as to purity and vitality ; in this wa}^, to arrive at a definite grade for the various seeds which should be reached before these seeds could be classed as good. Second, to teach the buyers of seeds that the cheapest seeds are very far from being the seed which ought to be purchased and used ; that while they are the cheapest in one sense, they are the dearest in another ; that these seeds have, for the most part, low vitality, are impure and contain weed seeds which should not find a foothold in any cultivated field. It is expected that a more thorough knowledge of this important matter cannot but result in the accomplishment of material good. Further work has been carried on in the investigation of the REPORT OF DIRECTOR. IB growth of lucerne in the various portions of the State, to compare the relative value of spring and fall sowing. Many plants have been identified and their value discussed. Miscellaneous samples of seed from farmers and others have been tested, and their purity and vitality specified. V. Horticultural Division. This division of the Station was added in December, and Prof. W. F. Massey elected Horticulturist. But little can be mentioned here beyond a mere outline of the proposed work. Details and results will be left for a later time. The vineyard and fruit interests will be carefully investigated, and the best varieties, methods of cultivation most suitable to the State, will be studied and recommended. The varieties of vegetables most suitable for early marketing will be studied, and the best methods for shipment determined. Other plants which promise well for the State will be carefully examined. It is confidently expected that the work of this division will aid in the material advancement of the trucking interest, the fruit and vineyard interests—all of which have grown to be extensive and valuable industries in our State. VI. Meteorological Division. Under this head is included the operations of the State Weather Service. A member of the U. S. Signal Service is detailed here as Meteorologist and assistant in the Weather Service, and acts without pay from the Station. The Station is at no expense therefore for the continuation of this work beyond that of merely printing the results. There has been a growing tendency for some time past to transfer the U. S. Signal Service to the U. S. Department of Agricul-ture, in order that it may become more directly connected with the agricultural interests of the country. The present U. S. Congress is appreciating this demand, and has already formulated a bill for the transferral of the Signal Service, which will, without doubt, become a law. This is mentioned to show that the connection of the Weather Service here with the Experiment Station, and with the agricultural interests in it involved, has not been ill-timed. The Station has aimed to benefit these interests during 1889, as heretofore, by the distribution of telegrams showing the probable state of the weather for the succeeding twenty-four hours. By foretelling the coming of frosts and cold waves, the various farming interests, fruit and trucking industries will be directly benefitted; by the collection of meteorological data through the medium of various co-operating observers, both voluntary and U. S. Signal Corps, scattered throughout the State, a more definite idea of the 14 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. various climatic changes may be obtained. In this way the growth of new plants and crops may be found possible where, through lack of full meteorological data, such may not be known at present. The Weather Crop Bulletin, which attracted so much attention in 1888, has been issued weekly during the growing season. The num-ber of reporters were materially increased over that of the year pre-vious; the value of the bulletins were thus largely enhanced. For detailed points in connection with the operations of the weather service, reference must be made to the report for 1889, bound in as an appendix herewith. VII. Entomological Division. While at present there is no Entomologist on the staff of the Sta-tion, yet, for convenience of work this division is kept distinct. It is the intention of the Station at some future time to add a specialist for this division ; in the meantime, that portion of the work of the Station falling in the entomological line is assumed by others of the staff. During the ravages of the caterpillar, which was so destructive to cotton in some portions of the State during the summer, a special bulletin was prepared and mailed promptly to all the newspapers of the State. In it was given the life history of the cotton worm, and methods to be adopted for its extermination. The various papers very kindly printed this bulletin in full, and in this way were the people reached with much more facility and dispatch than through the regular issue of the bulletin. From time to time, as occasion demands, are insects identified and reported. Special bulletins will also be prepared whenever there is need of the same. VIII. Division of Publications. The publications of the Station are classified under different heads as follows: a. Regular Issues.—These are sent to every name on the Station's mailing list, embracing 11,444 farmers and others in the State; also newspaper exchanges, scientific exchanges, scientists, experiment station officers, and others throughout the country. In all, these issues are sent to somewhat over thirteen thousand names. The bulletins are numbered consecutively. The matters contained therein will be of such a nature as to be easily comprehended by the unscien-tific reader, and will contain results of experiments as well as matter not original when bearing upon the work. REPORT OF DIRECTOR. 15 The following is a list of the regular issue of the Bulletin for 1889 : Bulletin No. 62—February 26. Article XII. Fertilizer Analyses and the Fertilizer Control, Season of 1889. Bulletin No. 63—June. Article XIII. 1. Tests of Seeds with Special Reference to the Vitality of Old Seed. 2. Rust on Wheat and Cotton. Article XIV. Laboracory Notes. 1. Does Stable Manure in Drying lose any of its Ammonia? 2. Additional Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers. 8. Pamunky Marl Phosphate. Bulletin No. 64—July. Article I. Practical Stock Feeding on Scientific Principles, Together with its Relations to Chemistry. Bulletin No. 65—August—September. Article II. Co operative Field Tests During 1888. Bulletin No. 66—September 15. Article III. Stock Feeding as Practiced in North Carolina. Article IV. Indian Corn. Bulletin No. 67—October 15. Article V. Seed Tests. Bulletin No. 68—November 1. Article VI. Farm and Dairy Buildings. b. Special Issues.—Include publications not mailed to the general list, but are sent to those specially interested in their contents. These Bulletins are numbered with the numbers of the regular issues, with additions of letters, generally, to prevent confusion. Following is a list of these Bulletins with circulation of each: Bulletin No. 61$—February 12. Fertilizer Analyses, Partial List. Seed Examina-tion for Planters. Sent only within the State, Bulletin No. 62^—March 26. Fertilizer Analyses and the Fertilizer Control. Sent only within the State. Bulletin No. 64a—August. The Cotton Worm ; the Best Measures to Prevent its Ravages. Sent to State papers for insertion in their columns. Bulletin No. 65a—November. Special edition, embracing wall charts, showing some of the benefits of the Station to the farmers of the State. These were sent to nearly two thousand Secretaries of Alliances for posting on the walls of Lodges, also to every newspaper. Bulletin No. 67a—October. Technical Bulletin No. 1, Seed Tests. Sent to scien-tific exchanges and special list, embracing newspapers, Stations and others. This Bulletin will be bound in with this report as an appendix. Bulletin No. 68a—November 15. Meteorological Division, No. 1. Meteorological Summary for North Carolina for October. Sent to State weather services, meteorological exchanges, and State papers. Bulletin No. 68b— December. Meteorological Division, No. 2. Meteorological Summary for North Carolina for November. Weekly Weather Crop Bulletin. Issued only during growing season. Sent to newspapers, special reporters, and meteorological exchanges. c. Annual Reports.—Editions of five thousand copies are mailed to a selected list of names, exchanges, Stations, newspapers, Alliances, for libraries, etc. IX. Bureau of Information. It is the endeavor of all connected with the Station to make this division as accurate and valuable to the farmers in the State as possible. All questions are very carefully considered in the appro-priate divisions, and are answered as promptly as possible. 16 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. The North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station IN ACCOUNT WITH The United States Appropriation. 1889. Dr. To receipts from the Treasurer of the United States, as per appropriation for the year ending June 30th, 1889, under act of Congress approved March 2d, 1887 $15,000 00 Cr. June30. Bysalaries.. $7,244 17 wages of servants and farm labor 1,293 71 telephone service 120 00 apparatus, re-agents and implements 1,263 96 stamps, stationery and miscellaneous printing. 546 22 express freights and in cidentals 572 35 periodicals and books of reference 136 43 annual reports and reports of progress __ 1,137 64 farm supplies _ . 921 44 fertilizers, seed, plants, etc 396 26 repairs and fixtures 444 95 gas, fuel and stoves 464 35 equipments and supplies .... _ 11475 paper for reports of progress 297 70 travelling 46 07 $15,000 00 The undersigned, duly appointed Auditor for the State Board of Control, hereby certifies that the above items of expenditure, made by the North Carolina Agri-cultural Experiment Station for the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1889, are made up from the books of the Auditor of the Board and the Treasurer of the State of North Carolina (Treasurer ex officio of the North Carolina Agricultural Experi-ment Station), and that the receipts for the year named were $15,000 and the dis-bursements $15,000, for all which proper vouchers are on file in the office of the Treasurer above named T^ZL (Signed) T. K. BRUNER, Auditor. J | I hereby certify that the foregoing statements, made up from vouchers on file in this office, to which this is attached, is true and in accordance with the records of this office. (Signed) DONALD W. BAIN, Treasurer ex officio of the N. C. Experiment Station. REPORT OF THE CHEMICAL DIVISION. Through the Chemical Division, the Station is enabled to carry out one of the objects designed for it by the statutes of 1877. This is to protect, by a fertilizer control, the farmers of the State from fraudulent fertilizers, and by a judicious control of the trade in general, through careful inspection and analysis, to see that the guaranteed grade of the fertilizers is maintained. THE FERTILIZER CONTROL. Season of 1889. The great difficulty this year has. been, as heretofore, in securing samples for analysis. This is due not to any fault of the inspectors in failure to secure the samples, but to the lateness of time at which fertilizers are shipped into the State and offered for sale. The sam-ples are all drawn from goods after they leave the manufacturers' hands, and consequently not until they are in the hands ol local agents can samples be taken. The wisdom of this plan is manifest,, since in this way is all possibility of securing an erroneous sample avoided. AVhile it may throw the analyses somewhat late, yet even this is preferable to accepting samples sent by manufacturers to represent goods designed to reach the farmers. DIGEST OF FERTILIZER LAWS IN FORCE IN NORTH CAROLINA. In order to give a short and more concise statement of all laws now in operation in regard to the fertilizer inspection and control, the following carefully prepared digest of existing laws is inserted, as a guide to the fertilizer trade and for the information of 'the farmers. The full text of the fertilizer laws can be supplied upon application: No manipulated guanos, superphosphate or other commercial fertilizers, shall be sold or offered for sale until a license shall be issued by the State Treasurer. This privilege tax of $500 per annum is required for each separate brand or quality. The Department of Agriculture has power at all tinaes to have samples collected of any fertilizer on sale, which must be taken from at least ten per cent, of the lot selected. These samples are taken from the goods in the hands of deal-ers after they are shipped from the manufactories, and accordingly represent the true grade of fertilizers offered for sale. Every package of fertilizer offered for sale must have thereon a plainly printed label, a copy of which must be filed with the Commissioner of Agriculture, together with a true sample of the fertilizer which it is proposed to sell, at or before the shipment of such fertilizer into the State, and which label must be uniformly used and not changed during the year. This label must set forth the name, location and trade-mark of the manufacturer, also the chemical coniposi- 2 18 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. tion of contents, and percentage of the ordinary ingredients, together with date of analyzation, and that the tax has been paid. By a recent ruling the variation in claims, which has been allowed for a num-ber of years, is now no longer accepted. The bags must be branded with the exact chemical composition of the contents. Licenses issued after this ruling will all conform to this plan. Any fertilizer that is offered for sale without being licensed, or that is spurious and does not contain ingredients as represented by the label, is seized, and, after being established on trial, its value is recovered by the Board of Agriculture. Any person who offers for sale a fertilizer without having attached thereto labels as provi led by law is liable to a fine of $10 for each separate package, one-half, less the cost, going to the party suing, and the remainder to the Department; and if such fertilizer is condemned the Department makes analysis of the same and has printed labels giving the true chemical ingredients of the same put on each package, and fixes the commercial value at which it may be sold. The Department of Agriculture can require agents of railroad and steamboat companies to furnish monthly statements of the quantity of fertilizers transported by them. The Director of the Experiment Station analyzes all fertilizers required, which are published when deemed needful. In order to further define the term "commercial fertilizer," it was resolved by the Board of Agriculture, October 15th, 1879: "That the following articles shall be admitted free of tax, with such additions or changes as may afterwards be made by the Executive Committee, upon con-sultation with the chemist, viz. :. ground bone, bone ash, ground bone-black, ground phosphate rock, or other mineral phosphate, nitrogenous organic matter commercially free from phosphoric acid and potash, nitrate of soda, nitrate of potash (saltpetre), sulphate of ammonia, muriate of ammonia, kainite, sulphate of magnesia, sulphate of potash, sulphate of soda, muriate of potash, lime, plaster, ground cracklings, ground tankage, salt, and oil of vitriol." Upon the following articles the license tax will be exacted : "Any of the above articles, or others, sold for fertilizing materials under any trade-mark or proprietary brand; upon dissolved bone, dissolved bone-black, dissolved mineral phosphates (all acid phosphates or superphosphates), and upon any two or more of the articles mentioned in the first list, if combined, either chemically or mechanically." ANALYSES OF FERTILIZER SAMPLES FROM FARMERS. All official analyses are made from samples taken by the author-ized inspectors. These only are published and are sufficient as final evidence if the guaranteed claim is not maintained. In any special cases where there appears to be a reason for doubt-ing that the lot be not up to the guaranteed claim, the Experiment Station will analyze a sample of the same, provided it is taken strictly according to the instructions which are given below. The sampling must be witnessed by two additional persons, who must attest the saint by their signatures. The sample must also be sealed in their presence. CHEMICAL DIVISION. 19 N. C. EXPERIMENT STATION. DIRECTIONS FOR SAMPLING FERTILIZERS. The Station makes analyses for farmers of North Carolina without charge; provided the samples are taken according to these directions and proper form is completely filled up and certified to. Samples, when accepted, will be entered upon our register in the order of their coming, and analyzed in turn. The results of each analysis will be promptly com-municated to the person sending the sample. Fertilizers are sampled by the regular inspector for official analysis. The valuation of a high priced fertilizer requires the amounts, or per cents, of its principal fertilizing elements, to be known. Chemical analysis of a small sample, so taken as to fairly represent a large lot, will show the composition of the lot. The subjoined directions, if faithfully followed, will insure a fair sample. Especial care should be observed that the sample neither gains nor loses moisture during the sampling or sending, as may easily happen in extremes of weather, or from even a short exposure to sun and wind or from keeping in a poorly closed vessel. 1. Provide a tea cup, some large papers, and for the sample a glass fruit jar, or tin can or box, holding about one quart, that can be tightly closed—all to be clean and dry. 2. Weigh separately at least three (3) average packages (barrels or bags) of the fertilizers, and enter these actual weights in the " Form for Sending Fertilizer Samples." 3. Open the packages that have been weighed, and mix well together the con-tents of each, down to one-half its depth, emptying out upon a clean floor if necessary, and crushing any soft, moist lumps in order to facilitate mixture, but leaving hard, dry lumps unbroken, so that the sample shall exhibit the texture and mechanical condition of the fertilizer. 4. Take five (5) equal cupfulls from different parts of the mixed portions of each package. Pour them (15 in all) one over another upon a paper, intermix again thoroughly, but quickly to avoid loss or gain of moisture, fill a can or box from this mixture, close tightly, seal in the presence of witnesses, label plainly, and send, charges prepaid, to The N. C. Agricultural Experiment Station, Raleigh, N. C. 20 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889, The following is a sample of the form which is supplied on appli-cation, in case it is desired to send a sample of commercial fertilizer to the Station. The fertilizer must be licensed for sale in the State. All of the form must be filled completely: N. C. EXPERIMENT STATION. FORM FOR SENDING FERTILIZER SIMPLES AND CHEMICALS. This Form must be Filled up Completely or Sample may be Rejected. NEVER SEND A SAMPLE GIVEN YOU BY A MANUFACTURER OR DEALER. Date of taking sample 189 . . . N. C. Agricultural Experiment Station, Raleigh, N. C: Sir : I send you to-day, marked ..., contained in a . . ,a fair sample, drawn according to directions on opposite side of this sheet, of the following fertilizer : Weight branded on each bag or package lbs. Actual weight of one bag or package lbs. Name of fertilizer Manufactured by ... . At Purchased of or received from At Selling price per ton, bag or barrel, $ Give the amounts of the following ingredients as branded on the bags : Available (or soluble and reverted) phosphoric acid ... per cent. Nitrogen (or ammonia), if claimed .... " Potash, if claimed .. . . " My reasons for supposing this fertilizer is below its guarantee are : Name, . Post-office, This Certificate must be Signed by two Witnesses : We hereby certify that we have witnessed the drawing of the above sample, that it is a fair one and taken according to the instructions on the opposite side of this sheet, that the above copy of names and figures is a correct one, and that it was sealed in our presence and delivered to the post-office or express company. Name of Witness .... Name of Witness NO ANALYSES OF UNLICENSED BRANDS WHEN ORDERED BY FARMERS, In the fertilizer control, the Station offers protection to farmers, in seeing that the claims of manufacturers for their goods are sus-tained. TJie manufacturers on their part pay the license tax for the privilege of selling their brands in the State. Official inspectors CHEMICAL DIVISION. 21 take samples of the brands after they are out of the control of the manufacturers. The Experiment Station analyzes these samples to see that the guarantee is maintained. So much for the official con-trol of licensed brands. There is nothing in the present law to prevent any person, acting for himself alone, from ordering any unlicensed brand of fertilizer for his own use. He does it, however, at his own risk, for the Station can offer him no protection in the way of analyzing the fertilizer. There being no restriction as to a purchase of this kind, either on the part of the buyer or seller, we can offer no protection to the pur-chaser. FERTILIZERS DURING 1889. The number of brands licensed for sale during the year 1889, shows a small increase over the years previous. In order to show the character of the trade for the year, and for comparison of several years past, the subjoined table is inserted, giving the number and description of the different brands on sale in the State. It will be noted, however, that as the licenses do not lapse with the calendar year, a single license can extend through portions of two years. The numbers, therefore, while showing the number of licenses in force, do not show the actual number of licenses issued during each year. 1881. 1882. 1883. 1884. 1885. 1886. 1887. 1888. 1889. " Acid phosphates," or simple superphosphate 8 10 11 7 9 11 10 9 12 Superphosphates with potash, 9 15 15 10 10 9 8 7 5 Ammoniat'd superphosphates 40 55 61 56 63 66 58 62 62 Natural guanos ... . 132323 111 Agricultural lime 1 1 2 1 1 1 .._. Specialties .. ._ 2 1 . . . . . .. __ 1 59 86 92 80 85 90 77 79 81 The average composition of ammoniated superphosphates with potash show, with some slight fluctuations, an improvement over that of former years. AMMONIATED SUPERPHOSPHATES, WITH POTASH. Average in 1880. 1882. 1883. 1884. 1885. 1886. 1887. 1888. 1889. Available phosphoric acid... 7.40 8.91 8.59 8.15 9.13 8.69 8.54 9.11 8.74 Ammonia _ 2.70 2.60 2.33 2.67 2.65 2.53 2.43 2.61 2.57 Potash... 1.30 1.82 2.18 2.13 2.34 2.30 2.08 2.33 2.23 Valuation on the 1889 basis. $21. 10 23.50 22.56 23.04 24.60 23.53 22.71 24.42 23.65 22 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. It will be noticed that with some changes, the increase in avail-able phosphoric acid has been decided, the ammonia has been remarkably close for all of the years, the potash from 1.30 in 1880 to 2.23 in 1889, or an increase of nearly one per cent. Using the seaboard valuation of 1889 for all the years, viz.: Available phos-phoric acid, 7c. per lb , for ammonia, 17c. per lb.; for potash, 6c. per lb.; the valuation per ton has varied from $21.10 to $23.65. As to the cost of these fertilizers to the farmers the change has been more decided. In 1877, when the Station was established, the average cash price of the ammoniated fertilizer was $43.50 per ton. This same fertilizer in 1889 could be bought for $27 50—a reduction in price of $16.00 per ton. This means that our farmers in 1889 could buy for three million dollars what they paid over four million for in 1877. And not only this, but the average fertilizer is better than it was in 1880. It is not claimed that the Station was the sole cause of this reduction, but that by a judicious control of the trade in renewing confidence between the dealers and consumers, in the prevention of fraud, in producing healthy competition, it aided largely towards this end. The cost of the different ingredients for 1889 was higher than for 1888. It is possible that this may have been the cause of the slight decrease in average composition. It is the law of trade that compe-tition produces small profits. Competition, together with a higher price of ingredients, would tend all the more to lower the percent-ages of the average fertilizer. The increase in cost of ingredients to the manufacturers was fully 12 to 15 per cent, during this year. It is wonderful, under the circumstances, that the decrease in composi-tion has been so slight. An investigation of these licensed brands as to the States in which they were manufactured, will be interesting. On this basis the fol-lowing table has been compiled: WHERE THE FERTILIZERS ARE MANUFACTURED. 1880. 1881. 1882. 1883. 1884. 1885. 1886. 1887. 1888. 1889. Massachusetts 23..2 231462 Connecticut..... 12 24331211 New York 3653243112 New Jersey 33 11123244 Delaware. 22 22244433 Maryland... 21 25 45 42 30 31 35 29 25 28 Pennsylvania .. . . 1 1 _. .. 1 ._ 1 Virginia 7 9 15 17 20 18 21 14 12 12 North Carolina... 3 3 6 6 8 9 10 11 13 14 South Carolina 5 6 9 14 12 11 11 10 13 15 Totals 47 59 86 92 80 85 90 77 79 81 A casual glance at the above table will show how the number of fertilizer licenses accredited to the States of Virginia, North Carolina CHEMICAL DIVISION. 23 and South Carolina, have increased, notably so in the case of North Carolina, where the increase has been over fourfold within eight years. As illustrating this fact the following calculation is inserted, which shows the per cent, of the brands which were manufactured in the three States before mentioned for the different years: THE NUMBER OF BRANDS MANUFACTURED IN THE THREE STATES, VIRGINIA, NORTH CAROLINA AND SOUTH CAROLINA, FOR THE YEARS 1880 TO 1889, IN PER CENTS OF THE WHOLE NUMBER. 1880. 1881. 1882. 1883. 1884. 1885. 1886. 1887. 1888. 1889. Virginia ) North Carolina. Ul. 92 30.50 34.88 40.21 50.00 44.70 46.67 45.45 48.10 50.62 South Carolina. ) In reference to North Carolina alone, the change is more decided: THE NUMBER OF BRANDS MANUFACTURED IN NORTH CAROLINA FOR THE YEARS 1880' TO 1889, IN PER CENTS OF THE WHOLE NUMBER. 1880. 1881. 18S2. 1883. 1884. 1885. 1886. 1887. 1888.*31889. North Carolina.. 6.38 5.08 6.97 6.52 10.00 10.47 11.11 14.30 16.46 ^17.28 "Here the increase is nearly threefold. What does this change foretell? Considering the number of brands as indicative of the amount sold, which can safely be said, since the conditions for the various years have remained unaltered, these figures prove almost conclusively that the home manufacturers are gradually driving the other more distant competitors from the field; that the distance from the source of supply of the various ingredients, and from the market where the fertilizers are sold, and the consequent high freights which these fertilizers must pay to reach a market, are proving each year a more effectual barrier, in a commercial point of view, to their entering the State. Taking our own State and the two adjoining, it is plainly seen that the three, while they controlled one-third of the trade eight years ago, now control one-half. North Carolina alone, eight years ago, controlled only one-sixteenth, now controls one-sixth. With this increase—and there is now no reason why it should not continue—it is not hazardous to assert that in ten years, one-half of the commercial fertilizers sold in North Carolina will be-made in North Carolina. An additional reason for this assertion is, that the State, either alone or by calling on South Carolina, can furnish the raw ingredients, except potash, sufficient to make all of the fertilizers needed here. With our comparatively inexhaustible beds of phosphates, which will be surely worked in the future much more extensively than at present, it very probably will not be neces-sary to procure any of the paw materials from South Carolina." The above, taken from the report for 1888, shows what was the apparent 24 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. tendency of the trade at that time. Experience of 1889 indicates that the above prediction is slowl}- becoming fulfilled. FERTILIZER ANALYSES AND VALUATION DURING 1889. In the following pages are inserted the analyses of official samples from the inspectors, completed for the season of 1889. The samples were all taken from goods received after the beginning of the year, and at least 10 per cent, of the bags or packages were sampled in each case. The inspectors are always especially cautioned not to sample goods which have been exposed in any way so that their quality may have been injured. Last year (1888) was rated at the seaboard : Available phosphoric acid 6 cents per pound. Ammonia 15 cents per pound. Potash . _ 5 cents per pound. 2;This year (1889), on account of the increased cost, the ingredients are rated at the seaboard : Available phosphoric acid 7 cents per pound. Ammonia . 17 cents per pound. Potash 6 cents per pound. These values are chosen, not to represent the exact cost of the ingredients at the seaboard, but as an approximation of the value of these ingredients after they are mixed, bagged, and ready for sale in manipulated goods Approximately these values, then, when calcu-lated in fertilizers, indicate the cost at which the fertilizers can be purchased at the ports in. small lots, less than 5 tons, for cash. At interior points, freight to those points should be added. At best, however, these commercial values are approximate only. Their chief importance is to facilitate comparison between the various brands, though even here discretion must be used. A knowledge of what special ingredients, whether phosphoric acid, ammonia or potash, are needed for particular soils, should guide every one in their selections. The standard methods of the association of official agricultural chemists are used for every determination in the analyses. The Station's Laboratory Register No. is given on the pages to the left, as well as the brand name, name of the manufacturer or general agent, and the locality where the sample was taken. All the figures (except valuation) are given in parts per 100. Water is the amount of moisture lost by continued heating of the fertilizers, exactly at the temperature of boiling water (212° F.) and no higher. Insoluble phosphoric acid embraces that form of phosphoric acid which is insoluble in standard neutral solution of ammonium citrate (specific gravity 1.09) according to the methods referred to above. CHEMICAL DIVISION. 25 Reverted phosphoric acid represents the phosphoric acid (other than the soluble in water)- which will dissolve in this solution. Soluble phosphoric acid is that form of phosphoric acid which will dissolve in pure water at ordinary temperature. Total available phosphoric acid is the sum of the reverted and solu-ble phosphoric acid, since these forms are generally conceded to be readily available to the plants in the soil. The total available phos-phoric acid must not be confounded with total phosphoric acid, which is the sum of the three forms given above—the insoluble, the reverted, and the soluble phosphoric acid. Oftentimes the phos-phoric acid in either of these forms is given in the equivalent of " bone phosphate," "phosphate of lime," or "tricalcic phosphate " — and expresses the combination in which the acid occurs in the fer-tilizer. The factor for converting the phosphoric acid into the bone phosphate is 2.183. Ammonia. The valuable element found in ammonia (N H3 ), organic nitrogenous materials, and nitrates, is nitrogen (N). The quantity of this latter element is estimated, whether occurring in either of these forms, and calculated to ammonia Potash is given as actual potash (K2 0) and not in any of its com-binations. This potash is readily dissolved by water. Relative commercial value per ton. These valuations are intended to show at what prices approximately the fertilizers can be purchased at the seaboard for cash in small lots of 5 tons and under. The following calculation will illustrate how the relative commer-cial values are obtained from the analyses: 8.40 per cent, available phosphoric acid=8.40 pounds per 100, at 7 cts. per pound $ .58 80 2.35 per cent. ammonia=2.35 pounds per 100, at 17 cents per pound- . . .39 95 1.87 per cent. potash=1.87 pounds per 100, at 6 cents per pound .11 22 Value per 100 pounds $ 1.09 97 20 Relative commercial value per ton (2,000 pounds). ..$ 21.99 40 26 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. o 5451 5348) 5404 \ 5417 ) 5465 \ 5371 ) 5391 \ 5625 5690 5355 5351 5606 5356 5612 5544 5556 5578 5387 ) 5410} 5537 5416 5521 NAME. Acid Phosphate Acme Fertilizer Amrnoniat'd Dissolved Bone, Ammoniat'd Dissolved Bone Phosphate, Amnioniated Soluble Navassa Guano, Anchor Brand for To-bacco, Ashepoo Acid Phos-phate, Ashepoo Fertilizer Ashley Acid Phosph'te Atlantic Acid Phos-phate, Baker's Stand'd Guano Baugh's Animal Bone & Potash Compound Bono Fertilizer Bos Ammoniated "Su perphosphate, Bradley's Pat. Super phosphate of Lime, i British Mixture 5562 ) 5610 [ 5559 Chesapeake Guano Diamond Soluble Bone ADDRESS OF MANUFACTURER OR GENERAL AGENT. Rasin Fertilizer Co. , P. O. Box 715, Baltimore, Md. Acme Manufacturing Co., Wil-mington, N. C. Jno. Merryman & Co., 24 2d St., Baltimore, Md. H. S. Miller & Co. , Newark, N. J. Navassa Guano Co., Wilming-ton. N. C. Southern Fertilizing Co., 1321 Gary St., Richmond, Va. Ashepoo Phosphate Co., Robert-son, Taylor & Co., Agents. Charleston, S. C. Ashepoo Phosph'te Co., Charles-ton, S. C. Ashley Phosphate Co. , Charles-ton, S. C. Atlantic Phosphate Co. , Charles ton, S. C. Chemical Co. of Canton, 32. 34 S. Charles St. Baltimore, Md. Baugh & Sons' Co., Baltimore. Md. Bono Fertilizer Co., Bait., Md. Wm. Davison & Co., Baltimore, Md. Bradley Fertilizer Co., 27 Kilby Street, Boston, Mass. Slingluff & Co., 300 W. Fayette St., Baltimore, Md. Chesapeake Guano Co.. 21 P. O Avenue, Baltimore, Md. Walton, Whann & Co., Wil mington, Del. SAMPLED AT Dunn Wadesboro - Wilmington Wilmington .., Laurinburg. Goldsboro Newbern Fair Bluff Thomasville . Wadesboro Wadesboro CharloLte ... Wadesboro Monroe . — Gastonia .. Lumberton Littleton .. Oxford . Kinston Davidson Col'ge Wilmington . . . Wake Forest . Tarboro Monroe . Salisbury 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 CHEMICAL DIVISION. 27 1 tive com. ue per ton al Seaboard. u CD 4-i eg CO o CO O p—l ~ -So CO o -C PLH 4.65 1.07 1.66 TOTAL AVAIL-ABLE PHOS. ACID. cp o EQUIVALENT TO AMMONIA. POTASH. F'nd. 14.09 7.90 8.33 Guar't'd. 14 8 8 F'nd. Guar't'd. F'nd. Guar't'd. CO i—i CD 1 11.74 13.20 13.37 1.71 1.13 .84 9.44 6.83 6.67 .13 2.62 2.55 .16 3.18 3.10 20 3 3 $ 20.27 2 2.98 2.55 2i 2* 25.45 25.26 3 11.91 12.31 3.63 3.29 6.65 7.04 2.55 1.99 9.20 9.03 8 8 2.05 jl.99 2.49 2.42 2 2 2.19 2,44 1 1 23.97 23.80 4 11.78 14.89 .84 .10 8.93 9.71 2.17 .41 11.10 10.12 8 8 1.83 1.89 • 2.22 2.29 2 2 3.17 3.22 n 26.89 25.82' 5 15.12 3.57 6.70 0.66 7.36 9 2.19 2.66 2.75 1.84 ii, 21.56 6 12.53 4.18 6.14 1.91 8.05 8i j2.55 3.10 3 1.34 H 23.42 7 12.76 2.02 6.23 5.66 11.89 10 1.76 1 18.76 8 11.82 13.93 5.37 3.90 6.40 7.18 1.43 1.46 7.83 8.64 8 8 2.09 1.99 2.54 2.42 2 2 1.90 1.52 1 1 21.88. 20.15 9 14.72 15.55 13.35 13.04 13.12 1.92 2.24 3.65 3.11 3.42 8.48 7.80 8.33 6.70 3.30 2.78 3.64 2.48 4.15 3.90 11.26 11.44 10.81 10.85 7.20 10 10 10 10 8 1.58 1.25 1.73 1.36 2.00 l l 1 l 2 17.66 17.52 10 17.21 i 16.82 11 1.82 2.21 2 19.99 12 13.16 13.92 2 67 2.64 7.85 5.90 1.45 3.05 9.30 8.95 8 8 1.50 1.70 1.82 2.06 2 2 2.48 2.13 2 2 22.18 22.09 18 11.76 1.92 5.77 3.32 9.09 8 1.71 2.08 2 2.14 H 22.37 14 15 15.89 13.13 2.43 2.51 7.92 8.61 1.93 1.76 9.85 10.37 9.45 9.45 1.93 2.04 2.34 2.48 2.40 2.40 1.79 1.47 l 1 23.89 24.71 16 17 12.89 13.20 4.73 4.18 4.80 5.19 3.26 3.47 8.06 8.66 9 9 1.60 1.71 1.94 2.08 2i 2* 1.50 1.15 if if 19.68 20.58 18 12.92 2.43 11.58 1.89 13.47 12 18.86 28 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. 5414 5459 5592 5746 -5539 5453 5463 5399 5358 5413 5467 5623 5591 5624 5626 5466 ) 5394 - 5395 5456 5427 5452 Diamond State Super-phosphate, Durham Ammoniated Fertilizer, Durham Ammoniated Fertilizer with Peru-vian Guano, Edieto Acid Phosphate Empire Guano Etiwan Ammoniated Superphosphate, Etiwan Dissolved Bone Excellent Ga. Stand'rd Farmers' Bone Fertili-zer, Farmers' Friend Fer-tilizer, Farmers' Fr'nd Special Tobacco Fertilizer, Game Guano. Gem Fertilizer ADDRESS OF MANUFACTURER OR GENERAL AGENT. Lord & Polk, Odessa, Delaware. Durham Fertilizer Co. , Durham. N. C. Durham Fertilizer Co. , Durham. N. C. Edisto Phosphate Co., Charles-ton, S. C. Rasin Fertilizer Co., Box 715, Baltimore, Md. Etiwan Phosphate Co., Charles-ton, S. C. Etiwan Phosphate Co., Charles-ton. S. C. Wilcox & Gibb's Guano Co., Charleston, S. C. Tarboro Oil Mills, Tarboro, N. C. Read & Co., 88 Wall St., New York. Read & Co., 88 Wall St., New York. Baltimore Guano Co., 32 S. Charles St., Baltimore, Md. Acme Manufacturing Co., Wil-mington, N. C. SAMPLED AT Gibbs & Co.'s HighjE. J. Powers, Wilmington, N. C. Grade Ammoniated I Phosphate, H. S. Miller & Co.'s Harvest Queen, Harvest Queen Phos-phate, High Grade Premium Guano, H. S. Miller & Co. , Newark, N. J. Lister's Agricultural Chemical Works, Newark, N. J. Geo. L. Arps & Co., Norfolk, Va. Tarboro Gibson's Station Littleton . Durham Shelby .... Fayetteville ... Gibson NewTbern Wadesboro Gieenville Laurel Hill Maxton. Oxford Fair Bluff .'. .. Fair Bluff Laurinburg Wilson Newbern Warrenton Washington ... Dunn 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 34 35 CHEMICAL DIVISION. 29 O X! Ph <x> o ° c h- 1 02 o -So EC o Si Ph us CD O 2.13 TOTAL AVAIL-ABLE PHOS. ACID o 8 EQUIVALENT TO AMMONIA. POTASH. > /i, ^ Fnd. 9.33 Guar't'd. 81 F'nd. Guar't'd. 1* Fnd. Guar't'd. 3 "a 3 19 12.03 1.97 7.20 1.65 2.00 1.90 2 $22.14 20 11.02 1.60 5.71 2.09 7.80 8 1.95 2.37 Si 2.77 n 22.30 13.76 2.72 5.12 2.57 7.69 8 1.75 2.12 % 2.14 i* 20.54 21 11.67 2.70 3.85 4.16 8.01 8 2.23 2.71 2i 2.25 n 23.13 22 23 17.22 1.48 6.17 308 9.25 9 1.69 2.05 2.50 1.99 1.75 22.31 16.51 1.77 6.81 2.09 8.90 9 1.92 2.33 2.50 2.09 1.75 22.89' 24 11.47 2.56 6.47 3.70 10.17 8 to 10 1.69 2.05 2to2i 2.16 1 tolj 23.80 25 11.77 13.53 2.58 3.17 10.13 9.29 3.24 3.28; 13.37 12.57 12 12 18 72 17 60 26 27 11.72 .91 5.83 1.32 7.15 7i 1.80 2.19 2i 3.38 2£ 21.51 28 14.67 1.85 6.75 1.69 8.44 H 1.94 2.36 2 2.38 2 22.70 15.11 1.52 6.18 2.44 8.62 8| 2.06 2.50 2 2.16 2 23.16 29 16.30 2.15 5.41 2.75 8.16 8 2.57 3.12 3 2.97 3 25.60 30 12.77 2.74 4.80 3.36! 8.16 8 1.85 2.25 2 1.92 2 21.38 31 12.94 .96 6.68 1.32 8.00 8 1.69 2.05 2 2.83 2 21.57 32 14.19 .87 8.25 1.41 9.66 8.89 1.46 1.77 2.54 1.93 1.73 1 21.86 14.21 .88 8.47 1.11 9.58 8.89 1.59 1.93 2.54 1.81 1.73 22.15 33 14.64 .40 10.13 1.06 11.19 10 1.70 2.06 1 2.28 H 25.41 14.65 1.02 9.63 1.23 10.86 10 1.74 2.11 1 2.08 H 24.87 34 35 14.28 2.12 7.23 2.42 9.65 8 1.88 2.28 2 1.87 1 23.51 12.64 5.50 3.31 5.19 8.50 8 2.34 2.84 2 2.32 1 24.34 30 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. o o •r— I 5560| 5695 \ 5541} 5608 \ 5449 5396 5429 5450 5614 5419) 5554 \ 5400) 5575 X NAME. ADDRESS OF MANUFACTURER OR GENERAL AGENT. L. & R. Acid Phos-phate, Lorentz & Rittler, 70 South Sti; Baltimore, Md. L. & R. Ammoniated Lorentz & Rittler, 70 South St. 5392 5411 5455 5601 5571 | 5574 J" 5415 5464) 5406 5551 ) 5607 J Guano, Lazaretto Acid Phos-phate, Lister's Ammoniated Dissolved Bone Phos-phate, Long's Prepar'd Chem-icals, Meadows' Spec'l Guano for all Crops, National Fertilizer Navassa Acid Phos-phate, Baltimore, Md. Lazaretto Chem. and Fert. Wks, G. W. Grafflin, Proprietor, 14 S. Holiday St., Baltimore, Md. Lister's Agricultural Chemical Works, Newark, N. J. John R. Long & Co., Baltimore Md. E. H. & J. A. Meadows, New bern, N. C. S. W. Travers & Co., Richmond Va. Navassa Guano Co., Wilming-ton, N. C. SAMPLED AT Concord Rutherfordton . . Siatesville Monroe . . - N. C. Ammoniat'd Fer- N. C. Phosphate Co., Raleigh tilizer, N. C. Old Dominion Soluble Guano, Owl Brand Guano Owl Brand Special To-bacco Guano, Palmetto Acid Phos phate, Patapsco Guano Peruvian Guano No. 1, Imported, Peruvian Mixture Piedmont Special Fer-tilizer, Old Dominion Guano Co., Nor-folk, Va. Davie & Whittle, Petersburg, Va. Davie & Whittle, Petersburg, Va. Bradley Fertilizer and Chemical Co., Baltimore, Md. Patapsco Guano Co., 14 S. Holi-day St., Baltimore, Md. Smith & Gilchrist, Wilmington, N. C. American Fertilizing Co., Nor folk, Va. Piedmont Guano Man'f'g Co. , 49 South St. , Baltimore, Md. Henderson Newbern Williamston Fayetteville Newbern ... Maxton ... Lumberton Wilson Staley . Wilson . Tarboro Smithfield Leaksville Wilson _ . . Siler City. Smithfield Gibson Wilmington Concord Monroe - CHEMICAL DIVISION. 31 CD <p Insoluble Phos. g Acid. CO* O i-j CO CO O Q-i •a a, . CD o CD ^ ft TOTAL AVAIL-ABLE PHOS. ACID. £3 CD hD O Sh -t-) S EQUIVALENT TO AMMONIA. POTASH. tive corn. ue per ton at Seaboard. F'nd. Guar't'd. F'nd. Guar't'd. F'nd. Guar't'd. -2 "3 ® 36 13.77 10.11 1.44 11.55 12 $16.17 13.06 2.81 11.25 1.97 13.22 12 18.51 37 14.06 3.12 7.80 1.36 9.16 8 1.44 1.75 2 1.79 1 20.86 14.20 2.33 8.61 1.02 9.63 8 1.67 2.03 2 1.35 1 22.00 38 16.53 1.96 9.91 2 52 12.43 12.50 17.40 39 12.83 1.77 7.59 1.94 9.53 9 2.21 2.68 2.20 1.95 n 24.79 13.61 1.73 8.01 2,20 10.21 9 2.15 2.61 2.20 1.44 H 24.90 40 14.36 11.65 1.56 2.57 11.26 6.86 2.15 1.97 13.41 8.83 12 9.13 2.22 2.73 1.8 2.91 21 44 41 1.92 2.33 2.28 23.56 42 10.27 1.87 7.16 2.00 9.16 8 2.17 2.63 21 2.61 2 24.90 10.09 1.60 8.75 .46 9.21 8 2.04 2.48 2* 2.38 2 24.18 43 17.61 16.92 2 70 3.83 8.71 8.83 3.88 2.91 12.59 11.74 13 13 - - - 17 63 16.44 44 see page 34 45 15.39 1.16 6.31 2.76 9.07 8* 1.98 2.40 2* 2.52 3* 23.88 14.97 1.15 6.69 1.59 8.28 8i 1.91 2.32 3i 2.61 8* 22.61 46 16.31 2.92 6.88 1.69 8.57 8 1.74 2.11 2 1.85 1 21.39 47 17.05 3.01 7.92 1.49 9.41 8 2.00 2.43 3* 279 2 24.78 48 14.25 2.07 11.50 2.24 13.74 14 19.24 14.03 16.93 2.09 2.17 11.58 8.15 1.84 132' 13.42 9.47 14 9.25 18.79 49 1.90 2.31 2.50 1.67 1 1 23.12 50 13.41 4.40 7.65 3.69 11.34 13 7.88 9.57 »* 3.26 2 52.33 14.11 4.40 7.71 3.55 11.26 13 7.76 9.42 9* : 3.38 2 51.85 51 52 14.44 1.80 6.88 1.52 8.40 8 1.76 2.14 2 1.69 1 21.06 15.12 1.88 7.07 1.77 8.84 8 1.66 2.02 2 1.75 1 21.34 32 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. o O W 5586? 5600 \ 5403 ) 5420 J 5349 ) 5389^ 5393) 5564 ) 5613 S 5525 ) 5590 ] 5418) 5522 j" 5538 5545 5587 ') 5589 \ 5454 ) 5585 f 5558 ) 5374 j" 5402? 5421 f 5405 ) 5747 - 5407 f 5457 y 5566 5388 5583 5372? 5584 C NAME. Piedmont Guano for Tobacco, Pine Island Ammonia-ted Phosphate, Pocomoke Superphos-phate, Prolific Cotton Grower Raleigh Stand'd Guano Raw Bone Superphos-phate Plow Brand , Red Navassa Guano, Ammoniated, Reese's Dissolved Bon^ Phosphate (formerly Pacific), Reese's A 1 Guano Roanoke XX Ammo niat'd Sup'rph'sph'te Royster's High Grade Acid Phosphite, Sea Fowl Guano (BD). Slingluff's Dissolved Bone for Home Fer-tilizer, Soluble Pacific Guano Special Cotton Com-pound, Special Compound for Tobacco, Phosphate and Alkalies, Star Brand Guano ADDRESS OF MANUFACTURER OR GENERAL AGENT. Piedmont Guano Man'f'g Co., 49 South St., Baltimore, Md. Quinnipiac Fertilizing Co., New London, Ct. E. B. Freeman Va. Co., Norfolk Goldsboro Oil Co., Goldsboro, N. C. Raleigh Oil Mills and Fertilizer Co., Raleigh, N. C. Walton, Whann & Co., Wil-mington, Del. Navassa Guano Co., Wilming-ton, N. C. Jno. S. Reese & Co., Baltimore, Md. Jno. S. Reese & Co., Baltimore, Md. Benj. H. Read, Baltimore, Md. Rovster & Strudwick, Norfolk. Va. Bradley Fertilizer Co., 27 Kilby St., Boston, Mass. Boykin, Carmer & Co., Balti-more. Md. Jno. S. Reese & Co.. Baltimore, Md. G. Ober & Sons' Co., 85 Exch'ge Place, Baltimore, Md. G. Ober & Sons' Co. , 85 Exch'ge Place, Baltimore, Md. Allison & Addison, 1322 Cary St., Richmond, Va. SAMPLED AT Mt. Airy Reidsville Wilmington Maxton Wilson Raleigh Wilmington . . . Wilson Goldsboro Wake Forest. _ Oxford Wilmington Wake Forest . . _ Shelby Gastonia Thomasville .. Littleton Fayetteville ... Thomasville Salisbury Goldsboro Wilmington Maxton Wilmington . . . Leaksville Wilmington ... Henderson Wilson Oxford Madison _ . Selma Winston. 5& 54 55* 5& 57 58 59* 60 61 6£ 63- 64 65 66- 67 6& CHEMICAL DIVISION. 33 I 03 c/5 o Pn fl M 1.55 1.98 OS o Pm 7.07 6.27 o n CD • 0/ o CD s .80 1.63 TOTAL AVAIL-ABLE PHOS. ACID. 53 bJO OH • i— i 2.28 2.59 EQUIVALENT TO AMMONIA. POTASH. tive com. Lie per ton ai Seaboard. F'nd. 7.87 7.90 Guar't'd. 8 8 F'nd. Guar't'd. F'nd. Guar't'd. 03 i—I CD 53 16.62 14.04 2.77 3.14 2* 8* 4.91 4.49 3 3 $26.38 27.12 54 21.19 21.32 1.04 1.56 6.35 6.49 3.52 2.79 9.87 9.28 8 8 1.90 2.04 2.31 2.48 2 2 1.66 1.74 1 1 23.66 23.51 55 14.46 17.84 17.72 2.01 2.14 2.14 6.98 8.26 7.88 1.62 .31 1.05 8.60 8.57 8.93 8* 81 1.68 1.94 1.85 2.04 2.86 2.25 2 2 2 1.94 1.81 1.74 n 14- 21.30 22.19 22.24 56 11.63 11.56 2.20 2.47 5.71 5.45 1.79 1.32 7.50 6.77 9 9 2.44 2.26 2.96 2.74 2^ 3.15 3.32 2 2 24.34 22.78 5? 10.98 12.51 2.' 26 2.32 6.14 5.69 .89 1.06 7.03 6.75 9 9 2.48 2.38 3.01 2.89 3 3 1.99 2.20 2i 2} 22.45 21.92 58 12.72 12.58 2.90 2.98 7.22 7.29 1.55 2.86 8.77 10.15 9 9 2.42 2.36 2.94 2.87 2£ 2i 2.71 2.56 If 25.53 27.04 59 14.49 1.61 7.93 2.72 10.65 9 1.82 2.21 2 2.14 1.25 24.99 60 14.66 5.45 6.61 4.10 10.71 10 14 49 m 21.95 21.15 2.66 3.16 1.42 1.42 7.10 6.59 8.52 8.01 8 8 1.94 1.99 2.36 2.42 2 2 1.32 1.31 i 21.54 21.01 62 15.77 16.78 2.12 2.38 5.60 6.78 3.35 1.70 8.95 8.48 8 8 1.64 1.75 1.99 2.12 2 2 3.16 2.12 1* 23.09 21.62 63 10.83 12.04 1.69 .70 8.84 7.10 2 17 3.15 11.01 10.25 Hi Hi 15 41 14.35 64 13.57 13.98 1.74 2.01 8.70 8.79 2.07 1.80 10.77 10.59 9.45 9.45 2.02 1.90 2.45 2.31 2.40 2.40 1.58 1.56 1 l 25.30 24.55 65 12.98 2.69 0.90 9.76 9.72 2.29 2.57 12. ©5 12.29 13.50 13.50 .91 2.01 1.10 2.44 2 2 • 19.90 25.50 66 14.07 13.63 3.79 2.94 5.80 5.99 1.49 1.91 7.29 7.90 8£ 8* 2.09 2.22 2.54 2.70 2.35 2.35 1.60 2.11 1.20 • 1.20 20.76 22.77 67 13.86 2.79 6.96 2.13 9.09 8 1.71 2.08 2 1.87 1.40 22.04 68 11.67 14.17 2.66 2.96 7.37 7.93 1.68 1.37 9.05 9.30 8 8 2.47 2.25 3.00 2.73 24 3.43 3.03 2 2 26.99 25.94 69 14.62 15.51 1.98 2.01 3 7.10 7.14 1.86 1.28, 8.96 8.42 8 8 1.90 1.90| 2.31 2.31 2 2 1.75 1.63| li li 22.50 21.60 34 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. o 5524 5543 5373 5354 5398 5350 5390 5602 5555 5609 5401 ) 5359$ 5397 5353 5565 5627 NAME. Star Brand Special To-bacco Manure, Stonewall Brand Fer-tilizer, Stono Acid Phosphate. Stono Soluble Guano. Tinsley's Tobacco Fer-tilizer, Walker's Ammoniated Phosphate, Wando Acid Wando Soluble Guano Wilcox, Gibbs & Co.'s Acid Phosphate, Wilcox, Gibbs & Co.'s Manipulated Guano. Zell's Animon'd Bone Superphosphate, Zell's Tobacco Fertiliz'r ADDRESS OF MANUFACTURER OR GENERAL AGENT. Allison & Addison, 1322 Cary St., Richmond, Va. Jas. G. Tinsley & Co., Rich-mond, Va. Stono Phosphate Co., Charles-ton, S. C. Stono Phosphate Co., Charles-ton, S. C. Jas. G. Tinsley & Co., 1326 Cary St., Richmond, Va. Joshua Walker, 13 German St.. Baltimore, Md. Wando Phosphate Co. , Charles ton, S. C. Wando Phosphate Co., Charles ton, S. C. Wilcox & Gibbs Guano Co. , 78 E. Bay St., Charleston, S. C. Wilcox & Gibbs Guano Co., 78 E. Bay St., Charleston, S. C. Zell Guano Co., Baltimore, Md. Zell Guano Co., Baltimore, Md. SAMPLED AT Durham Gastonia Selma ... Laurinburg _ Newbern ... Laurinburg Newbern . . . Ruffin Lumberton Monroe Washington . Laurinburg _ _ Washington .. Laurinburg— Wilson . Maxton 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 78 79 80 81 N. C. Ammoniated Fertilizer. No. 5783. No. 5784. Sampled at Sampled at Raleigh. Raleigh. Moisture. 4.58 4.53 Total Phosphoric Acid. Not available by laboratory methods 6.22 7.69 Nitrogen, equivalent to ammonia 2.29 2.17 Potash 2.28 2.26 Claimed. 2i CHEMICAL DIVISION. 35 CO -a Ph a> is 1— 1 si Ph m CO A Ph 0) • a> > < P3 1.78 TOTAL AVAIL-ABLE PHOS. ACID. U EQUIVALENT TO AMMONIA. POTASH. tive com. ue per ton at Seaboard. F'nd. Guar't'd. F'nd. Guar't'd. F'nd. 1.65 Guar't'd. li Ph* > ^ 70 15.89 1.98 7.41 9.19 9 2.41 2.93 2 $24.81 71 11.93 1.55 6.15 2.85 9.00 8 1.91 2.32 2 2.33 2 23.28 11.65 1.70 8.30 .62 8.92 8 1.73 2.10 2 2.25 2 22.33 70 9.96 11.18 15.27 2.94 2.78 3.34 9.52 4.46 7.04 1.48 5.69 .85 11.00 10.15 7.89 10 10 8 1.34 1.57 1.37 1 1 1 17.01 16.09 73 2.61 3.17 2.50 23.47 14.45 2.84 6.10 2.91 9.01 8 2.46 2.99 2.50 1.64 1 24.75 74 13.19 0.92 7.47 1.24 8.71 8 3.06 3.71 4 3.51 H 29.02 75 16.86 1.84 6.79 2.01 8.80 9 1.80 2.19 2i 2.03 n 22.20 76 77 13.22 2.60 7.52 2.08 9.60 9 1.81 2.20 2i 1.85 ii 23.14 78 14.03 1.07 12.18 2.09 14.27 13 19.98 12.85 13.03 1.46 3.90 11.67 4.55 2.75 3.32 14.42 7.87 13 8 20.19 79 2.04 2.48 2i 2.24 2 22.14 11.14 3.53 4.32 3.63 7.95 8 1.92 2.33 2i 2.79 2 22.40 80 14.04 5.04 6.41 1.27 7.68 8 1.78 2.16 2 1.71 1 20.15 13.85 4.86 6.68 .46 7.14 8 1.95 2.37 2 1.95 1 20.39 81 36 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. TOBACCO PRODUCTS FOR FERTILIZING PURPOSES. The following analyses are given to show the relative value of the various tobacco products which may be useful for fertilizing pur-poses. It is interesting to observe the variation between the tobacco stems of this and other States. The large content of potash in the Western stems prove that this crop in those States must be much more exhaustive to the soil than the tobacco grown here. It is noteworthy also that so large a quantity of the potash present is soluble in water. Occurring in an organic material, it would hardly be expected that from DO to 98 per cent, of the total potash present is soluble in water. Yet such is the case. The samples were kindly furnished by the Durham Fertilizer Company, Durham, N O, who are responsible for the samples and marks given to each. 59©0. Missouri stems, White Burley Tobacco, used for manufacturing chewing tobacco. 5901. Kentucky stems, White Burley Tobacco, used for manufacturing chew-ing tobacco. 5902. Ohio stems, White Burley Tobacco, used for manufacturing chewing tobacco. 5903. Virginia stems, dark heavy shipping, or '• Export Tobacco." 5904. Virginia stems, dark heavy shipping, or ''Export Tobacco." 5905. North Carolina stems, " Bright Lugs." for cigarettes. 5906. North Carolina stems, " Bright Lugs," for cigarettes short. 5907. Stalk of bright North Carolina bright tobacco. 5923. North Carolina, u-^ed for chewing tobacco, before casing. 5924. North Carolina stems, used for chewing tobacco, after casing. 5925. North Carolina stems from smoking tobacco. 5926. Dust from smoking tobacco factory—poor sample, as it contains a larger quantity of sand than usual. CHEMICAL DIVISION. 37 TOBACCO PRODUCTS FOR FERTILIZING PURPOSES. a s O m 5900 5901 5902 5903 5904 5905 5906 5907 5923 5924 5925 5926 Missouri stems for chewing tobacco Kentucky stems for chewing to-bacco Ohio stems for chewing tobacco. . Virginia stems for shipping or ex-port tobacco. . .- Virginia stems for shipping or ex-port tobacco . . . North Carolina stems for cigarettes North Carolina stems for cigarettes-short ... . Stalk of Bright N. C. Tobacco North Carol na stems for chewTing tobacco before casing, North Carolina stems, for chewing tobacco after casing*. North Carolina stems, short, from smoking tobacco North Carolina dust from Smoking Tobacco Factory, poor sample . . 6 'o 16.56 OS t- 4 Volatile and °^ Organic Matter. < CD T3 o 21.79 Per cent. Phos-phoric Acid. "3 o a a <i o <V Ph £ <a +a i — °HQcQ Ph .82 3.06 8.44 16.85 61.69 21.46 .72 2.89 8.36 15.70 62.17 22.13 .84 3.47 8.11 16.20 63.72 20.08 .56 3.14 6.35 17.15 63.80 19.05 .43 2.15 5.25 18.18 65.86 15.96 .51 .93 4.97 15.90 65.80 18.30 .58 1.71 4.11 17.36 71.78 10 86 59, 2 11 3.92 16.75 67.40 15.85 .73 1.19 3.37 12.42 70.29 17.29 .43 1.82 4.27 16.00 67.16 16.84 .59 1.14 4.80 9.04 48.68 42.28 .87 1.49 1.67 o H -wpd si °° Oh S^3 i—I CO O o3 CQ *» &Ph -m , | rt as 51 C (X) -rt O CD Ph 9.08 92.95 8.8994.04 8.5694.63 7.0090.71 5.63!93.25 184.108.40.206 4.19J98.09 4.3490.32 3.66 4.55 5.14 1.97 92.08 93.84 93.38 84.77 *This sample being wet when received, was air-dried, which accounts for the increased percentage. MARLS. Below are given locations of beds and analysis of each, samples of which were sent to the Station during the year. 5370. A. J. Kilpatrick, Kinston, N. C. Marl. 5527. Robt. Pitt, St. Lewis, N. C. M-irl. The marl is about four feet from surface and about twelve or fifteen feet thick, and seems to be about fifty or sixty yards wide and about half mile in length. 5528. Robt. Pitt, St. Lewis, N. C. Same location as 5527. 5594. G. W. Lamb. Chinquepin, N. C. Marl, marked "fine" about the depth of ten feet and about fifty yards wide. 5595. G. W. Lamb, Chinquepin, N. C. Marl, marked " coarse" from same bed. 5596. W. B. Dawson, Conetoe, N. C. Marl. Bed belongs to J. H. Clark, and was dug from his land in Pitt County; is about five feet from the top of the land and about nine feet deep. 5618. E. N. Robeson, Tar Heel, N. C. Marl. " Whole farm seems to be under-laid with it." 5647. W. B. Southerland, Rose Hill, N. C. Marl, lies about four feet from surface. 5717. B. T. Mooring, Jason, N. C. Marl. 5992. Peyton Page, Page, N. C. Supposed blue marl. 6146. Daniel Moore, Warsaw, N. C. Supposed Marl. 38 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. 6041. B. F. Sutton, LaGrange, N. C. Marl. Four feet from surface, the top petrified for twelve inches or more. 6153. H. W. Malloy, Wilmington, N. C. Shell Marl. 6162. Dr. J. M. Kirkpatrick, LaGrange, N. C. Marl. From plantation near Goldsboro, N. C. ao • 1—4 o3 GO 5370 5527 5528 5594 5595 5596 5618 5647 5717 5993 6146 6041 6153 6162 SENDER AND ADDRESS. A. J. Kilpatrick, Kinston, N. C Robt. Pitt, St. Lewis, N. C Robt. Pitt, St. Lewis, N. C G. W. Lamb, Chinquepin, N. C G. W. Lamb, Chinquepin, N. C W. B. Dawson, Conetoe, N. C E. N. Robeson, Tar Heel, N. C W. B. Southerland, Rose Hill, N. C. B. T. Mooring, Jason. N. C Peyton Page, Page, N. C Daniel Moore, Warsaw, N. C B. F. Sutton, LaGrange, N. C H. W. Malloy, Wilmington, N. C... Dr. J. M. Kirkpatrick, LaGrange, N.C -t-3 -t-3 o3 1=1 ^§ h O T3 CD CO 63.80 33.18 14.21 62.58 59.77 50.10 7.01 80.88 &0. 29 83.42 72.48 25.36 O CD 03 - Si o 81.50 27.29 57.65 74.24 2.91 23.52 44.38 90.74 2.59 Trace. 5.25 56.39 24.27 CD O s_ cp o3 „ rQ <D Ph .70 2.99 2.74 2.74 1.65 4.22 1.09 3.80 Trace. 6.71 1.87 .67 1.42 POTABLE WATERS. The following samples of potable waters have been received during the } 7 ear. In the majority of cases these samples were suspected of containing some impurities. The analyses, therefore, do not indi-cate the general character of the drinking waters of the State. The analytical work was done according to Wanklyn, and the conclu-sions from the results were drawn according to the rules laid down bv that writer. CHEMICAL DIVISION. 39 co" ft CO* #o CQ ft "3 ft .2 • 1— ft / o • I— 'o CO o ft ft CO • r-4 ft CO CO d fc*. ft CO CO rH T5 CD 3 ft o +3 ra rd CD rd-o3 CO . CD • 1— p ^ i M M <1 03 .4 "ft CO ft CD B o rb rft CD +3 o3 ft CO a CO 1 ft +3 03 d &C .2 CO* CO .2 a 'co a o3 +3 ft o ra-ft .2 ft O o3 o3 H-3 <o U CD -m cd •»-' ft "S •P-H ft ^ ft ft g d oo 03+? * o c3 co o3 ® r* CO CO CD CO +3 c3 Q GQ cd co lib ft o ft CO +3 -i-5 ft O •rH ft o3 [3 !H J) piM ft • 1— o c3 ft 'hh ft ra- o bO o cSs-i o cS o c] O «5 O-ft o u co os $_j cc „ to cu ^ d CD •rH ft ra bO ^« 'ft o • rH ft cc r3 . - fcc-o O.ft ft O O CD B co o * ft 05 CD a d O eg 58 O X 5h o d 2 d o rH o CO OfaQO H O CO co Ococo o CO ti <r) coo^«: CM CQ C5 CQ 03 CO CD o o "BIUOUTTXIY Si > CO CD CO — C<) T-H T-H C7i CO '-h CO T-H o rd J c> os t- oo os • OWH H T—< piouiranqry T—( O O tH O " a) GO 00 ^ JO co CO cc> CQ TJH CO C3 CO CO ps n •muommv t- •—l OS O O CO H t-> 00 JO J> CO os o •^ § * t- «C5HO • • c) O O T-H o o I—i Ph 09.TJ c> OC> rH • m *9cair j; 9:reuoq c oo oo ^ T-\ tH O O O CO CO GO -.ieq oq. 'Ainbg IC o o o o -i—i 1— 1 — o O CO CO CO 'ssaupj^jj T— <sj co ^H r-i oi cm' CM o" H O cc tH t- T-H -* GO CO GO OS CM JO Ph i-J < 3 •Qui.ioiqo cc T— rtj - • . o CO JC CO CCO^H o c O O OS O tH o JC •<* CO J> o t-H t' •spips o -i—i os ^°. cd GO CM GO MHO OS CO oc •^ 00 IO CO CO cd co" os* tH "3 1 1 1 1 1 H 1 o 1 ! ! 1 1 i-o ^ ! . £ CD ' ft -d t «W o < 2 o fa QH !> i— H O h 'a 1 Mc c3 rH o to ft 1 cc a; CO 2 CD rH P-o H-3 o -ft ^ _ a o3 HH McKee, Raleigh Woodard, Wiimingto Gregory Institute), ert Haywood, Raleig rnie well). r c] .ft "S 1—1 O cd ^.^ &^ h"-j cd CO m cd .Jz; ft c ra +3 CO ft c ft o CO Qj CC • i—i ft CD ft ft O r— CD c3 orH c3 +3 OQ ft -ft H-3 c c u ra En rH CD M ra M Spout Spring, Tarbo '.. Reid, Williamston. itchinson, Charlotte . raw ford. Steward . -ft b. 'a • cc <^ CD . Barker, Tarboro ry well). . Baker. Tarboro .60 ft •rH ft CQ BE TO co '"a o . c3 <1 o "T3 /"' . o m ffi s o ap ft' O 1-3 . J. M From . L. H P. Hi R. C Insan . o . o f""J 03 r-j c3 .R .fa Sh -ft '-< U CD ' !h s— ' (h "-' • s— ' ^H "•— Sh v~-' Q HP QO Q p S Q Q ^ CO CM CO JO 00 XiH CO GO OS 00 Tfi GO os *I(sqrarijsj; uoi^g CO 00 JO CO £- io *o CO OS CO CO CT3 GO tJH©!> OS O O O o o JO JO to JO JO IO IO JO IO CO CO CD CO CO 40 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. v 02 5 .3 g o .o 'Sh 'O S "Si 5 So " S IH co Ji "i -£ co * 3 5 p jg O rd O P5 V o £ o M "S ® •'H a 2 a «> .2 02 03 CO • H ^1 1 P3 •2 8 9 e g -2 .2 .2 t— i H j -P 4J jj $ as c« ta £ d a. d d Oo 1 aic CO ntami ntami ntami co aS 9 ° O P5 §0 ° u o w % o o o H ome rgan rgan rgan <1 £ co O O O o Pn £0 co cs o* © £ . •eiuorainy O T-1 ^ ^T l-H M O I— i pioairanqtv H T-i i— 1 25 rv^ ti •muoraiay CO 00 CQ CQ Ph <j 's OS O -^i i— I P Ph 99JJ O O -r-H P H „ eravj 9!TBiioq CQ CC lO CO w. -xbq O} •Ainbg rji GO £- CO O Ph fc 'SS9UpXEf[ C3 r-i Ph h o GO CO JO 03 02 P Ph 1-1 •ginjopqQ o qs o?• t*h CO En PS o tH o oo CO o •spipg OS O O CO CO ^ oo id co a , CO 1 ' !* i ', j I < £ ' < . i o O o O Ib" O f-, ^ J_| ^ %- ^ Ph O =0 O O s O ^A ^ X5 'a; -Q -Q -2 -o -* M Sj Sh !j —' >h q Q o3 — cS a3 co oS a; > H^d h e_i d eh ?h ^ CO ^ ,-i CD O ^2 sJ"~° u'B C co o ^o^fH^.-^^t: H a3 . c5^ rt j a3 O ti H . ^ . d . .'. Dr. J. M. (Well, Dr. J. M (Well, Dr. J. M (Cister Dr. J. M (Watei O t—i 03 CO J*jqranjsj uoi^g 00 0O 00 00 o o o o i CD CD CD CD CHEMICAL DIVISION. 41 Pamunkey Marl Phosphate. For sometime during the year a company known as the Pamunkey Marl and Phosphate Company, of Richmond, Va., have been sell-ing, in this State, a fertilizing material called the '' Pamunkey Marl Phosphate." Not being a manipulated fertilizer it is not liable to a license tax, provided it is not sold under a proprietary brand or trade-mark. At first, through ignorance, the company were selling under a trade-mark, but when the matter was called to their atten-tion by the Commissioner of Agriculture, the trade-mark was promptly omitted from the bags. As it is not subject to a license, it does not come under the require-ments of the law in having to be sampled by the official inspector, analyzed, and the analysis published. For this reason no analysis was included in the official list. Several samples, however, were received from private sources and analyzed, with the result recorded below. No guaranteed claim has been stamped on the bags. The circulars of the company have been so adroitly written that they contain no expressed guarantee, and only imply one by recording analyses by several of the most eminent authorities in the United States. Under the head of 4> A Few Facts," occur these words: "Now, if you purchase three tons of the Marl Phosphate at $10 per ton, * * and allow that the marl only analyze 8 per cent, of Phosphoric Acid and 2 per cent, of Potash," etc. Any one would at least expect, even if there is no expressed guarantee, that the Marl Phosphate would contain 8 per cent, of Phosphoric Acid and 2 per cent, of Potash. Yet what were the results of the analyses? Station No. 5761 was received from a private source at Lockville. No. 5748 was taken from a bag in Charlotte, and was in a very moist condi-tion; the other bags in this lot, consisting of 60 or 70, appearing to be fully as wet as from that taken. Sample No. 5723 was received from Wilson. ANALYSES OF PAMUNKEY MARL PHOSPHATE. No. Received froni Moisture. Phos. Acid. Carb. Lime. Potash. Sand. 5761 Lockville 1.28 1.80 16.03 .56 71.66 5748 Charlotte 11.82 1.75 4.52 .75 74.t)6 5723 Wilson 1.78 1.84 4.78 not det. 81.22 The potash given is that soluble in acid, and consequently shows all the potash present in the marl. A strict determination of this ingredient, according to the method employed in the usual analysis of commercial fertilizers, would most probably have shown no potash. Presuming that sample 5748 was accidentally wet, and the sample was not a fair one on that account, the. following calculation is made, reducing the moisture content to 1.50 per cent, which is about the 42 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. average of the other two samples. The result will now be, com-paring with the lowest implied guarantee: ANALYSES OF PAMUNKEY MARL PHOSPHATE. Phos. Acid. Potash. Garb. No. Rec'd from Moisture. Im. Guar. Found. Lime. Im. Guar. Found. Sand. 5761 Lockville 1.28 8.00 1.80 16.03 2.00 .56 71.66 5748 Charlotte 1.50 8.00 1.95 5.04 2.00 .83 83.58 5723 Wilson 1.78 8.00 1.84 4.78 2.00 .... 81.22 The above analyses of samples from totally different localities indicate that the Marl Phosphate, in round numbers, in two cases, four-fifths of the whole is sand ; in the third case, in round numbers, three-fourths of the whole is sand. For a ton, which costs $10.00, and freight probably added, a farmer pays $7.00 to $8.00 for 1,500 lbs. to 1,600 lbs. of sand. Can he afford it? Judging from the analyses, there are a hundred marl-pits in Eastern North Carolina each of which would show a better analysis, and, if applied to the soil, would show a better yield than this Pamunkey Marl Phosphate. It is doubtful whether the value is sufficient to pay the freight alone on this grade of goods. Does Stable Manure in Drying Lose Any of its Ammonia? F. B. DANCY. It was determined to make an experiment with a view to ascer-taining whether or not an ordinary manure pile, exposed to the atmosphere, would lose any of its supply of ammonia in slowly drving out. To this end a miniature manure heap was made, using 100 grams of well-rotted horse-stable manure. The sample was quite wet, being more than half water. [58.70 per cent, exactly.] Through this miniature heap a slow current of perfectly dry ammonia-free air was passed until the manure had completely dried. It was so arranged that the current of air, in passing through the manure, thoroughly permeated the mass of the pile. It required three weeks for the heap to completely dry. The air, after passing through the heap, was conducted through a measured quantity [20 c. c] of standard acid solution in a U tube, the strength of which solution had been previously determined. At the end of the three weeks, the manure heap being then thor-oughly dried, the standard acid was then taken out and titrated with standard alkali, when it was found that 1.62 c. c. of the stand- CHEMICAL DIVISION. 43 ard acid had been neutralized daring the passage of the air from the manure heap through it. On the supposition that this neutraliza-tion was caused by ammonia escaping from the drying heap, it would correspond to 0.01377 per cent, of ammonia [NH3 ], or 0:01134 per cent, of nitrogen [N]. It was observed toward the close of the experiment, when the manure was almost perfectly dry, that the current of dry air, obtain-ing no moisture from the manure, passed into the standard acid in an almost absolutely dry state, and consequently evaporated the standard acid solution. In order to see what effect such evapora-tion might have on the strength of the standard acid solution, another portion [20 c. c] was measured out, and a current of dry ammonia-free air was conduced slowly through this portion, without the inter-vention of the manure. When it had evaporated about as much as was the case in the previous experiment,—which required about two days,—the acid was titrated as before. No change was found to have occurred, hence it is apparent that whatever change had taken place in the acid in the direct experiment with the manure, was due to the partial decomposition of the manure itself. The total amount of ammonia in the manure before the drying was begun was found to be 0.41 per cent., and the loss during the. three weeks of drying was 0.01377 per cent., equal to 3.36 per cent, of the whole amount of ammonia originally present. As there is no other apparent cause to which the change in the strength of the standard acid can be ascribed, it would appear from the experiment that manure slowly drying in the air loses a very small amount of its content of ammonia. This loss, however, is so slight that, practically, it is inappreciable. This experiment, it must be remembered, was with ivell-rotted stable manure, where active fermentation had already taken place. The result most probably would have been different with fresh, unrotted manure, in which case slow fermentation in presence of air, would most likely have resulted in a greater loss of ammonia. On this point it is purposed, in time, to conduct another experiment; that is, using fresh instead of rotted manure. Feeding Value of Some Forage Plants and Gkasses. b. w. kilgore. In 1887 experiments were made on the farm in the growth of some forage plants and grasses, to determine their yield per acre, the influence of different manures, and their adaptability to this soil and climate. It was also planned that a portion of the work should include the analysis of the plants and grasses to determine 44 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. their relative feeding value. The former portion of the experiment was completed and the results published in. the Report of 1887. The latter is, in part, embraced herewith. Table I contains the results of the analyses of twenty-two (22) forage plants, grains and grasses, made in the laboratory, together with their approximate nutritive ratios. The analyses of ''cow-pea vines" and of "hay from mixed meadow grasses," are taken from the Connecticut Station Report. They are averages of six and nine analyses respectively, and are inserted for convenience in comparing feeding values. EXPLANATION OF RESULTS. Moisture.—By moisture is meant mechanically adhering or hygro-scopic water, which is driven off at the temperature of boiling water. It was determined by drying a weighed quantity of the substance in a current of dry hydrogen gas, at a temperature of 100° C, for six hours. Pare Ash—represents the residue left after burning the substance till all volatile matter is driven off. It is composed mainly of soda, potash, lime and magnesia, in the form of phosphates, sulphates and chlorides. Carbon dioxide was deducted in the determination. Ether Extract—is the term given to whatever is dissolved by ether, free from alcohol and water. It is composed mainly of fat, but con-tains also small quantities of gum and coloring matter. Albuminoids—are the nitrogenous compounds of the plant. They contain an average of about 16 per cent, of nitrogen and are esti-mated by determining the nitrogen and multiplying the result by 6.25.. They are represented in the animal body by lean meat, muscles, tendons, and tissues. Crude Fiber, or Cellulose—is the part of the plant which is insolu-ble in weak acid and alkali. The cell walls of the plant are com-posed chiefly of cellulose. The lint of cotton is almost pure cellu-lose. Its composition is similar to that of starch. It is the most indigestible part of a food-stuff, but when digested is considered of equal value to starch and sugar. Nitrogen-free extract and crude fiber, taken together, are known as carbohydrates. Nitrogen-free Extract—is the term applied to those non-nitrogenous portions of the plant which are represented in the main by sugar, starch and gnm. It is the remainder of the plant, and is determined by estimating the difference between the whole and the sum of the above five constituents. FUNCTIONS OF THE NUTRIENTS. Albuminoids, fats, and carbohydrates are called nutrients, each of which has its own office to perform in the animal economy. The CHEMICAL DIVISION. 45 albuminoids are the producers of flesh, muscles, sinews, and all por-tions of the animal machine which has strength, except the bones. The fats and carbohydrates perform the same office in the body — that of the production of the heat and force by which the animal mechanism is run. The ash, or mineral matter, furnishes the mate-rials for the bony structure. Thus, each nutrient has its specific office to perform in the animal nutrition. If, therefore, an excess of one, or of all, the constituents be fed, the loss will be clear and in proportion to the excess; while a deficiency will show itself, on the other hand, in the deteriorated condition of the animal. The economic value of such analyses as are here given, is to show the farmer the composition of these feeding materials, thus giving him some idea of the amount of the different nutrients he is feeding. In Bulletin 64 of this Station was printed a table showing the amounts of the different nutrients which practical experience has proven best suited to the different animals under different conditions. This amount is known as a Ration. For detailed information, reference must be made to this bulletin. In this ration, experience has also shown that it is necessary to have regard to the relations which the different nutrients bear to each other. This is known as the NUTRITIVE RATIO, and is the ratio which the digestible albuminoids bear to the digestible fats x 2J and the digestible carbohydrates. Fats, when burned, produce 2.5 times as much heat as carbohydrates, and as the office of both is the production of heat and force, fats are worth 2 5 times more. It is seen from the above, that to determine the true nutritive ratio it is necessary to know the digestibility. In this respect the nutritive ratios in this table are at fault, and represent only approxi-mate ratios, the digestibility not being known. The ratios were calculated from actual results given by analysis. It is thought, however, that this will be of practical value, as digestion often takes place in such proportions as not to materially change the ratio from what is shown by actual chemical analysis. Clover-hay has a nutri-tive ratio of 1 to 5 6, calculated from the proportion of digestible nutrients, while the one obtained from results of analysis is 1 to 5.7. In the same way, cow-pe:i vines have ratios of 1 to 4.6 and 1 to 5. EXPLANATION OP TABLES. The maize-corn, whole plant, was cut while the leaves were yet green, but the grain was moderately hard. The ear, stalk and fod-der were ground, well mixed, and analysis made of the mixture. Kaffir corn head, white millo-maize head, and yellow millo-maize head, were well matured heads of these respective plants. These, 46 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1 together with the Kaffir flour and middlings, were samples sent to the Station by Mr. Jasper Stowe, of Belmont, N. C. Kaffir middlings, as designated in the table, is a mixture of middling, shorts and bran, or all of the grain except the floor. The cotton stalks, burrs, and roots were pulled up from the field after the cotton had been picked. All the rest of the plants were harvested in the hay state. The high feeding value of the cotton stalks is especially noteworthy. Table II gives the total yield per acre of the forage plants and grasses, together with the number of pounds per acre of organic matter, mineral matter and moisture contained in each ; also the amount in pounds of the food constituents yielded by an acre of each. This table is based on the yield of these crops at the Experiment Farm, and consequently represents the condition only at this special loca-tion. The yield in other localities might be materially different, which would necessarily alter the figures in Table II. TABLE I.—ANALYSES OF GRASSES AND FORAGE PLANTS, GROWN MAINLY ON EXPERIMENT FARM. 3 PI o TJ1 4578 5981 4584 6*97 6398 6399 6400 6401 4583 4587 4581 4577 4580 4586 4582 4147 6097 6155 4579 4585 6098 6396 Name. Dhoura Corn Maize—whole plant Kaffir Corn—whole plant Kaffir Corn—head Kaffir Flour Kaffir Middlings White Millo-Maize—head Yellow Millo-Maize—head Broom-Corn Sorghum, Early Orange Sorghum, Early Amber German Millet Pearl Millet Pearl Millet—headed Hungarian Millet Cow-Pea Vines *Cow-Pea Vines Lucerne Italian Rye Grass Johnson Grass Fowl Meadow Grass Grass Cotton Stalks, Burrs and Roots *Hay from mixed Meadow Grasses. NO. OF POUNDS IN 100 OF 10.26 7.26 10.94 16.23 16.75 16.72 15,66 15.66 9.41 10.02 10.49 10.82 9.90 9.27 9.92 14.54 12.42 10.00 10.50 10.12 7.40 12.77 9 5.72 7.50 5.48 2.02 2.18 1.46 1.75 2.68 5.74 3.42 4.17 6.39 12.35 8.55 8.77 7.56 8.41 6.96 13.48 8.20 6.54 10.98 7.75 4.71 o 1.76 2.! 2.50 2.86 3.82 2.68 2.81 2.79 1.85 5.47 4.27 1.83 1.66 1.60 2.71 1.75 2.87 2.18 3.08 2.28 2.30 2.30 2.27 2.05 c jo # Pj-OJ '3 so 44. 54. 47. 65. 69. 7. 3. 3. 5. 6. 8. 7. 10. 12. 15. 15. 13. 7. 8. 7. 7. 6. 62!69, 18163. 62i62. 42. 49. 45. 47. 33. 38. 45. 39. 42. 33. 30. 40. 44. 45. 42. 40. a> s a> p6 33.41 23.16 30.37 6.79 1.16 1.09 8.45 8.47 36.76 27.76 30.68 26.60 34 74 35.42 22.38 23.68 19.80 29.42 29.58 31.09 27.93 27.11 27.55 31.09 c3 > 1:18.5 1:17.1 1:25.3 1:11.4 1:12.1 1: 8.9 1: 9.6 1:10.2 1:22.6 1:24.6 1:16.6 1:11.6 1: 8.6 1:10.8 1:7 1: 5.4 1: 4.4 1: 4.5 1:5 1:10.3 1:9 1:11 1:10.3 1:12.2 *Taken from Connecticut Experiment Station Report. CHEMICAL DIVISION. 47 TABLE II.—YIELD OF FOOD CONSTITUENTS PER ACRE, FROM GRASSES AND FORAGE PLANTS GROWN AT EXPERIMENT FARM. CD 3 a o m 4578 4584 4587 4581 4577 4580 4582 4147 4579 4585 Name. Dhoura Corn Kaffir Corn Sorghum, Early Orange Sorghum, Early Amber. German Millet _ Pearl Millet Hungarian Millet Cow-Pea Vines* Johnson Grass Fowl Meadow Grass T3 oo & P<C3 •S c *^j <* • CC D CO H 9.120 3.770 4.576 4.360 3.156 6.806 1.369 1.893 5.139 1.907 HAY COMPOSED, IN POUNDS PER ACRE, OP o cd rt c$ O 7662.6 3151.0 3962.0 3720.9 2613.0 5291.8 1113.2 1474.7 4178.2 1589.4 i—i a> 03 CC .2 ^h 521.6 206.6 156.5 181.8 201.6 840.5 120.0 143.1 421.3 124.7 935. 412. 458. 457. 341. 673. 135. 275. 539. 192. ORGANIC MATTER COM-POSED, IN POUNDS PER ACRE, OF BO CD eg CD o id -M ^4^ £1 G <?* o G O * rH CO cw ca w ix Sh 43 hc£ CD CD (*} 2 M TJ 3£ SW .-Sh < 160.5 ^ o 404.9 4050.1 3046.9 124.8 94.3 1786.9 1144.9 168.9 250 3 2271.5 1270.3 226.8 186.2 1970.3 1337.7 213.0 57.8 1502.6 839.5 565 6 112.9 2248.7 2364.4 145.4 37.1 624.3 306.4 237.8 33.1 755.5 448.3 382.4 117.2 2080.8 1597.7 165.8 43.9 847.1 532.6 *Yield low and sample poor. REPORT OF BIVISIOM OF CO-OPERATIVE FIELD EXPERIMENTS. Co-operative Field Tests have been conducted during the year,. similar to those of 1888. That this work is very essential, may easily be understood from the very diverse character of the soils of the State, made up as they are from the oldest Laurentian and Huro-nian rocks of the Middle and Western portions of the State, down to the more recent Tertiary and Quaternary formations of the Eastern section. The elevation of the lands embraced by various altitudes, from the high mountains to the seacoast, makes it very evident that the results of the field work of one locality, if it were conducted only in one place, would far from represent other points. The value, then, of co-operative field work in different localities, can easily be seen. It brings together results from various points for comparison and consideration, instead of accepting as final the result of work from one single point. Another item of consideration is the increased possibility of interesting farmers in the immediate neighborhood of the different localities, and thereby disseminating more widely what-ever value the work may have. The object of these experiments is twofold. 1st. To analyze the soil and ascertain what in its contents will be useful to the plant. 2d. To discover what elements, or combination of elements, are most necessary to the growth of a certain crop. As nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash are most needed by plants, and as these ingredients are liable to be easily exhausted from the soil, it is always the, endeavor to supply them, singly or together, in some of their com-binations, to make good any deficiency. To test this question, these ingredients, by ones, twos, or threes, are applied to similar portions of the soil, the crops observed on each, and from the results from these separate portions or plots it can be decided what ingredients give the best result, or, which is the same thing, what ingredient is most needed by the soil. Also by comparing the results from many different localities, the elements most needed* by the plant can be approximately defined. The fertilizing ingredients, to be added to the plots most correctly and scientifically, should only be the ingredients enumerated above, without an}7 admixture of foreign elements; in other words, the purest form of chemicals which contain only what it is desired to use. For, in this case the effect of the application can be ascribed only to the one constituent, without being affected by any of the other foreign elements. But for many reasons, for these co-operative experiments, it was thought best to choose, instead of pure chemicals, such of the ingre- DIVISION OF CO-OPERATIVE FIELD EXPERIMENTS. 49 dients in common use having a predominance of the fertilizing ele-ments desired. While the results will not be scientifically correct, yet they will be sufficiently accurate to suit the ends of the experi-ments. Instead, therefore, of using the chemicals, sulphate of ammonia, nitrate of soda, to furnish the nitrogen or ammonia, sul-phate of potash to furnish the potash, and so on with other chemi-. cals—the ordinary fertilizing ingredients, acid phosphate, cottonseed meal and kainit have been adopted for the purpose of furnishing phosphoric acid, nitrogen and potash respectively as their predomi-nant elements. They contain, as well, certain other ingredients in small proportion, but these have but little effect on the crop, as com-pared with the predominant constituent. The detailed plan of the experiments and the instructions sent to each experimenter were fully set forth on pages 60 and 62, Report of 1888, and need not be inserted again. The plots for 1889, how-ever, were one-twentieth of an acre each in extent, instead of one-tenth, as the year before. The fertilizing ingredients were sent to each experimenter, and were uniform in quality throughout the series-. The acid phosphate, furnishing available phosphoric acid, cost in the Raleigh market $18.50 per ton, which value was uniformly used in estimating the gain and loss in the results. On analysis, it yielded — Moisture 17. 63 per cent. Soluble phosphoric acid . 9. 86 * ' Reverted phosphoric acid . 2.46 " Available phosphoric acid 12.32 " Insoluble phosphoric acid 2.02 " The cotton-seed meal, furnishing nitrogen (or ammonia) princi-pally, cost $24 00 per ton, and on analysis gave — Total phosphoric acid_ . 2.48 per cent. Nitrogen 6.86 Equivalent to ammonia 8.33 " Potash 1.64 The kainit, furnishing potash as the valuable ingredient, cost $14.00 per ton, and contained — Potash.. _. 12.72 per cent. The stable manure is valued at 75 cents per two-horse load. In order to test the value of a new fertilizer which was being extensively sold in the State, an additional plot (No. 22) was added. This fertilizer, licensed under the name of N. C. Ammoniated Fer-tilizer, was sold by a home firm, the N. C. Phosphate Company. The basis of ammonia and potash in it was such as are used in the ordinary commercial fertilizers. The phosphoric acid was obtained from phosphate from the mines of the company at Castle Haynes, N. C , and was untreated with sulphuric acid. It was, consequently, a fertilizer containing ground undissolved phosphate mixed with ingredients furnishing ammonia and potash. 4 50 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. It was claimed by this company that the phosphoric acid was available in the field, if not in the laboratory, and they gave practical experiences of farmers to prove this assertion. The Station was con-tinually asked if this statement could be relied on. Not being in a position either to disprove or to credit this claim, field tests were planned and were carried out during the year. Comparison can be thus made with the ordinary combination of fertilizing ingredients with available phosphoric acid, or with any of these ingredients separately. The N. C. Ammoniated Fertilizer cost in Raleigh $20.00 per ton, and yielded on analysis — Moisture 3. 42 per cent. Total phosphoric acid, not " available " in laboratory 7.89 " Nitrogen r . 1.81 " Equivalent to ammonia 2.20 " Potash 2.30 It was applied at the rate of 5Q0 lbs. to the acre. The following table will give the application and cost of each ingredient, together with the amount of chemical constituent in each, all calculated per acre. Of these, Nos. 3 and 13 will repre-sent the average grade of commercial fertilizer as sold in the State, and will analyze approximately 8 per cent, available phosphoric acid, 2.50 per cent, ammonia, and 2.50 per cent, of potash : PER ACRE. a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 APPLICATION IN POUNDS. CONTAINING POUNDS. Acid Phos-phate. c. s. Meal. Kainit. Total. 400 None 525 500 400 500 500 manure 500 600 None 300 350 400 300 300 None 350 400 300 manure zer500 Avail'ble Phospho-ric Acid. Nitrogen Potash. 400 49.28 300 300 300 20 2-h 200 150 500 200 orse load 250 200 70 400 200 s stable 250 200 36.96 10.29 34.30 i 11.36 8.20 50.88 3.28 25.44 36.96 36.96 24.64 17.15 13.72 35.90 28.72 300 1 200 36.96 100 24.64 400 50 300 150 200 100 s stable ed Fertili 6.86 27.44 8.00 6.56 38.16 200 1.64 200 100 10 2-h N. C. A 100 200 100 orse load mmoniat 24.64 6.86 24.64 "l2.~82~" 13.72 6.86 19.08 28.72 14.36 39.45* 9.05 1 1.50 COST. 3.70 0.00 5.07 6.00 2.80 5.18 4.18 15.00 4.75 5.65 0.00 2.78 3.40 4.80 2.10 3.05 0.00 2,90 3.80 2.82 7.50 5.00 *Total Phosphoric Acid, and not available by laboratory methods. DIVISION OF CO-OPERATIVE FIELD EXPERIMENTS. 51 Experimenters. Following is a list of those who have been selected, and who kindly consented to co-operate in the work of the Station by con-ducting field experiments in their localities: Eastern District. W. L. Barlow . _ Tarboro Edgecombe County. Dr. D. Cox Hertford Perquimans County. F. R. Johnston Plymouth -Washington County. T. L. Jones Columbia Tyrrell County. E. F. Lamb Elizabeth City Pasquotank County. E. Meares Clarkton Bladen County. J. B. Oliver Mt. Olive Wayne County. W. H. Shields Scotland Neck Halifax County. O. W. Sutton Mt. Olive ..Wayne County. Dr. R. P. Thomas . Bethlehem Hertford County. H. Clay Williams. Willeyton '_ .Gates County. J. G. Williams . Edenton ;. Chowan County. Dr. R. W. Wooten Kinston Lenoir County. Central District. C. N. Allen Auburn Wake County. H. B. Hunter, Sr Ridgeway Warren County. T. J. King Louisburg Franklin County. T. B. Lindsay . Douglas .Rockingham County. R. D. Lunceford Smithfield Johnston County. Prof. A. Mclver _ .Pittsboro .Chatham County. J. C. Williams Winslow Harnett County. Western District. H. C. Dunn „ Clear Creek Cabarrus County. W. E. Ardrey Pineville Mecklenburg County. J. C. Cooper Dobson Surry County. Lee Crawford Franklin Macon County. 52 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. Results oe Co-operative Field Work, Season of 1889. The results of the co-operative field work for 1889 is given in the following pages. Unfortunately, the year was extremely bad for all growing crops The four months following the planting of all the staple crops, viz : May, June, July and August, were far above the average in the amount of precipitation. Then followed a period of partial drouth, lasting through the remaining growing season. The excessive rain-fall of the early portion, and the deficiency thereafter, dwarfed the growth of cotton and prevented complete maturity before the occurrence of a destructive frost in the early portion of October. Corn was not so badly damaged, except in the low grounds. In the counties embi^ced by the cotton tests, the cotton crop was cat off one- third to one-half, and in some localities as much as two-thirds. This last was more especially the case with low, sandy soils of the East Under these conditions it is easy to see how unsatisfactory was all field work, and especially so with comparative field tests, which should have as few disturbing elements as possible. The results for 1889 will not be valueless, however, as it is interesting to ascertain what is the effect of the various applications of fertilizing ingre-dients as altered by these disturbing conditions of abnormal rain-fall, drouth and early frost. The effect of the applications are noted in tabular form as increased yield, as compared with the average of the three unfertil-ized plots; next, as net money gain, and net loss, comparing again with the unfertilized plots after subtracting the cost of the applica-tion; and third, as rank, in which is noted the variation between the best and worst application as measured by the net gain and the net loss. No other expense than that of application is considered. It will be remembered that as the plots were io acre in extent, a con-sideration per acre will magnify twenty-fold any variation of the original plot. In connection with each report, deductions from the results are included, which may serve to give, in a general way, the effect of the application on the crop. It must be remembered that these results are far from conclusive. The season, the soil, and the possi-ble error of work may have some decided effect on the results. And it would be hardly proper to claim that the same results might certainly be looked for at other localities. Their bearing, in a great measure, is local, and must be considered as far from being conclusive. It is hoped, however, that the lessons gained from the experiments may not be without some value. DIVISION OF CO-OPERATIVE FIELD EXPERIMENTS. 53 FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH CORN. CONDUCTED BY E. MEARES, CLARKTON, BLADEN COUNTY, N. C. Character of Land:—Nearly level; soil uniform. Drainage good. In cotton previous year, with 225 pounds guano per acre. Field Notes:—Instead of three rows to a plot, had one long row. Length 136 hills A.\ feet apart ; width between rows 3£ feet. No vacant row left between plots. Seed raised at home. Planted April 6th. May 14th, plowed and applied fertilizers; 21st, plowed with cotton sweep; 30th, light plowing with turning plow. Weather very dry, nights cool. This retarded growth. June 13th, ran sweep in middles ; 18th, sided every other middle with sweep ; 26th, sided other mid-dles; 8th and 9th, hoed out crop nicely. per 0.983 ACRE. [Net gain and net loss show comparison with average of the unfertilized plot, after subtracting cost of application.] S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 APPLICATION IN POUNDS. Acid Phos-phate. 200 200 "ioo" 10 2-hor manu 500 N.C. Fertil (Pho bv C. S. Meal. 400 300 150 500 70 400 300 200 300 200 250 250 ' 200 200 200 300 200 100 50 400 "306" 100 "200" 100 se loads re Amnion z'r phateno lab'tory Kainit. 150 200 100 stable iated t soluble method) OO 3.70 .00 5.08 6.00 2.80 5.18 4.18 4.74 5.64 2.78 3.40 4.80 2.10 3.04 2.90 3.80 2.. 82 7.50 5.00 YIELD. RESULTS. Corn in Increas'd Net Gain. Net Loss. f Ear, Pounds. Value. $ 10.05 Yield. Pounds. 1173 139 $ $ 2.53 1034 1104 8.88 9.48 ~~70" 4.48 1385 11.88 351 3.00 1104 9.48 70 2.20 1380 11.82 346 2.24 1360 11.64 326 1.42 1110 9.52 80 4.10 1586 13.59 552 .93 1104 9.48 70 2.18 1172 10.04 138 2.24 1586 13.59 552 .09 758 6.50 *276 4.48 1104 9.48 70 2.44 1306 11.19 272 .59 1725 14.76 891 2.08 1380 11.82 346 .12 1650 14.16 616 2.22 1518 13.02 484 .86 M a « 14 4 17 15 10 12 8 16 7 9 12 3 17 13 5 1 2 11 6 * Decrease. Deductions from the results : 1. Applications, with few exceptions, proved unremunerative. 2. Cotton-seed meal alone, and in combination with kainit, gave best results. 3. Acid phosphate alone proved a poor application. 4. Application of kainit showed, in one case, a small increase; in another, a decrease, as compared with unfertilized plot, and was unremunerative. 54 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH CORN. CONDUCTED BY H. CLAY WILLIAMS, WILLEYTON, GATES COUNTY, N. C. Character of Land:—Nearly level; soiled mixed and somewhat light and sandy; drainage good, ditched on side and end. In cotton previous year, with 40 bushels cotton seed, 300 pounds raw-bone meal and 100 pounds kainit per acre. Previous yield 1,000 to 1,450 pounds seed cotton. Field Notes :—Rows 121 yards long, 4 feet apart, being one-tenth acre each, and double application of fertilizer. Instructions carried out, except that on Plot 8, ten one-horse loads of compost, and on Plot 21 five one-horse loads compost were used. Seed mixed. Planted May 1st : 17th plowed with sulky cultivator and with 5-hoe cultivator, and thinned and grassed with hoes ; 30th, partial cultivation with plow. Wet weather retarded growth on side of ridge. June 4th, finished plowing with sulky cultivator; 5th, ran "Iron-age" 5-hoe cultivator between rows; 6th, planted black peas in vacant rows ; 19th, hilled with turning plow and removed suckers. Rain has damaged crop in sandy places. Looking well on the whole and beginning to tassel. July 19th, finished cultivation; crop good, but injured by wet weather, which lasted most of the season. PER ONE ACRE. [Net gain and net loss show comparison with average of three unfertilized plots, after subtracting cost of application.] u CD B l 2 8 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 APPLICATION IN POUNDS. Acid Phos-phate. 400 300 300 300 100 1-ho 200 300 200 200 200 c. s. Meal. 150 500 200 rse loads 250 200 100 400 100 100 50 1-hor 200 100 se loads Kainit. 70 400' 200 compost 250 200 50 "300" 150 200 100 compost m Oo 3.70 .00 5.08 6.00 2.80 5.18 4.18 4.74 ' 5.64 .00 2.78 3.40 4.80 2.10 3.04 .00 2.90 3.80 2.82 YIELD. Corn in Ear, Value. Pounds. 1400 $ 12.00 1420 12.18 1580 13.56 2260 19.38 1540 13.20 1940 16.62 1540 13.20 2240 19.20 1940 16.62 1860 15.96 1440 12.36 1300 11.16 1500 12.84 1980 16.98 1280 10.98 1380 11.82 1290 11.07 1300 11.16 1500 12.84 1620 13.86 1860 15.96 RESULTS. Increas'd Yield, Pounds. 17 197 877 157 555 155 857 557 477 *83 117 597 *103 *3 *83 117 237 477 Net Gain. |... 1.57 .31 Net Loss. $3.57 3.39 1.47 .43 2.85 .01 1.55 3.49 2.43 2.99 3.09 3.61 2.83 .83 Ma & 18 4 16 1 9 7 13 6 10 3 17 11 2 14 15 5 19 His * Decreased yield. Deductions from the results: 1. Applications, with few exceptions, proved unremunerative. 2. Kainit and acid phosphate alone or combined showed poor yield, and in some cases a decrease as compared with unfertilized plots. 3. Cotton seed meal alone was best application, and in combination yielded well. 4. Compost gave excellent results. Cost not being stated, comparative value is not given. DIVISION OF CO-OPERATIVE FIELD EXPERIMENTS. 55 FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH CORN. CONDUCTED BY PROF. ALEXANDER MCIVER, PITTSBORO, CHATHAM COUNTY, N. C. Character of Land:—High, slightly sloping; clay, gravelly soil. Not cultivated previous year. Had yielded six bushels wheat per acre. Field Notes :—Instructions fully carried out. Rows between plots were planted but not fertilized. Seed, procured at a store, not good. Planted April 25th. May 21st, plowed, hoed and replanted. Dry weather retarded germination. June 15th, plowed, hoed and replanted. No rain from April 27th to May 31st. About one-fourtli first planting came up. After rain of May 31st it began to improve, and is doing well. July 11th, plowed and hoed. General condition good; lacks sunshine; cloudy and raining nearly the whole month. August, weather wet and favorable for corn, especially on red clay land like this. per one acre. [Net g^in and net loss show comparison with average of three unfertilized plots, after subtracting cos-t of application.] APPLICATION IN POUNDS. YIELD. RESULTS. u CO Acid c. s. Meal. Corn in Increas'd Net Gain. Net a Loss. Phos-phate. Kainit. CO Ear, Pounds. Value. Yield, Pounds. £ o 273 « 1 400 $ 3.70 1200 $ 10.27 $ $1.38 20 2 .00 5.08 900 1860 7.71 15.96 15 3 300 150 70 933 2.93 10 4 500 6.00 2140 18.36 1213 4.41 7 5 400 2.80 1220 10.40 293 .35 17 6 300 200 5.18 2520 21.60 1593 8.47 1 7 300 200 4.18 2120 18.18 1193 6.05 2 8 20 2-hor se loads stable manu re 15.00 2840 24.36 1913 1.41 12 9 250 250 4.74 2040 17.51 1113 4.82 5 10 200 200 200 5.64 2360 19.22 1433 5.63 3 11 .00 2.78 3.40 920 1180 1840 7.89 10.09 15.78 14 12 300 200 253 915 4.43 .64 18 13 100 50 6 14 400 4.80 2080 17.82 1153 5.07 4 15 300 2.10 3.04 1020 1260 8.75 10.76 93 333 1.30 .23 19 16 200 100 16 17 .00 2.90 960 1760 8.25 15.06 13 18 200 150 833 4.21 8 19 200 200 3.80 1680 14.40 753 2.65 11 20 100 100 100 2.82 1660 14.22 733 3.45 9 21 10 2-hor se loads stable manu're 7.50 1640 14.04 715 -- 1.41 21 Deductions from the results : 1. Soil was uniform, and responded well to fertilizers. 2. Acid phosphate and kainit proved unremunerative. 3. Cotton-seed meal alone and in combination gave fine results. 4. Stable manure increased the yield largely, but hardly commensurate with its value. 56 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH CORN. CONDUCTED BY LEE CRAWFORD, FRANKLIN, MACON COUNTY, N. C. Character of Land:—Rolling upland ; soil nearly uniform, clayey. In wheat previous year without fertilizer. Had been in clover, corn and wheat; yield not ascertained. Field Notes :^-Instructions carried out except that rows were three and a half feet apart instead of four, and rows between plots were planted though not fer-tilized. Seed raised at home. Planted April 23d. Plowed and hoed twice ; May 15th. (deep plowing) and May 28th, (plowed with cultivator). Weather dry ; corn small and yellowish. Fertilizing shows plainly in some of the plots. June 16th, plowed and hoed—a thorough working. Dry weather during first half of month. Daring last half, fine showing; weather caused great improvement. July 18th, plowed with cultivator and well hoed. Some smut, but no insects. Crop is looking well and helped by rainy weather. August, no cultivation; wet weather has been very favorable for this crop, many changes in appearance since last report. PER SEVEN-EIGHTH ACRE. [Net gain and net loss show comparison with average of three unfertilized plois, after subtracting cost of application.] APPLICATION IN POUNDS. YIELD. RESULTS. <1> Acid C. S. Meal. Corn in In creas'd Net Gain. Net a Loss. 3 Phos-phate. Kainit. -4_- 02 Ear, Pounds. Value. Yield, Pounds. z « 1 400 $ 3.70 2700 $ 23.16 1099 $5.09 $ 4 2 .00 5.08 1620 3120 13.88 26.74 13 3 300 150 70 1513 7.89 3 4 500 6.00 2620 22.46 1013 2.68 7 5 400 2.80 2500 21.42 893 4.85 5 6 300 200 5.18 2500 21.42 893 2.47 9 7 300 200 4.18 2160 18.51 553 .56 11 8 20 2-hoi se loads stable manu re 15.00 1500 12.85 *107 15.92 21 9 250 250 4.74 1680 14 40 73 4.11 20 10 200 200 200 5.64 1800 15.42 193 3.99 19 11 .00 2.78 1400 3480 12.00 29.82 14 12 300 1873 3.27 1 13 200 100 50 3.40 3160 27.06 1553 9 89 2 14 400 — 1 4.80 2720 23.28 1113 4.71 6 15 300 2.10 2000 17.16 393 1.29 10 16 200 100 3.04 2400 20.58 793 3.77 8 17 "200" "l50" .00 2.9Q 1800 1500 15.42 12.84 12 18 *107 3.83 18 19 200 200 3.80 2000 17.16 393 .41 16 20 100 100 100 2.82 1900 16.26 293 .33 15 21 10 2-hor se loads stable manu re 1 7.50 2180 18.66 573 — .. 2.61 17 * Decreased yield. Deductions from the results: 1. Soil responded well to most applications. Acid phosphate alone gave best returns. The complete mixture (8 and 13) yielded excellent results. Kainit alone, and -w ith acid phosphate, was not satisfactory. Cotton-seed meal alone, and in combination with acid phosphate, gave fair results. _. Stable manure yielded badly ; in large appl cations actually causing a decreased yield, compared with unfertilized plots. DIVISION OF CO-OPERATIVE FIELD EXPERIMENTS. 57 FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH CORN AND TOBACCO. CONDUCTED BY T. B. LINDSAY, DOUGLAS,- ROCKINGHAM COUNTY, N. C. Character of Land:—Level and uniform, natural drainage. Soil poor, rather porous, mixed with sand and gravel. Has been unculti-vated for several years. Last crop was rye; yield 5 bushels per acre. Field Notes :—Plots marked off equal to fa acre each. Fertilizer intended for fa acre applied to two of these plots; one being planted in corn and the other in tobacco. Corn planted April 30th ; tobacco planted May 31st. Hoed and replanted corn during May once. Weather dry ; corn came up badly. June 7th. hoed; 17th, hoed and plowed; 28th, used "Iron-Age" Cultivator. Wet weather has injured crop much. July 1st, plowed deep with shovel plow and hoed. Wet weather has almost ruined crops. Corn, tobacGO, wheat and oats are much injured ; prospect discouraging. August, crop in bad condition—fired at bottom. Dissatisfied with results. Acid phosphate and cotton-seed meal act well on land. PER FOUR- FIFTH ACRE. [Net gam and net loss show comparison with average of three unfertilized plots, after subtracting cost of application]. APPLICATION IN POUNDS. YIELD. INCREASE. Acid Phos-phate. C. S. Meal. Kainit. Ears of Corn. Pounds of Tobacco Ears of Corn. Pounds of Tobacco 4 * o • 200 80 170 tf 1 400 % 3.70 .00 5.07 1960 820 1700 1140 110 2 3 300 150 70 880 80 4 500 6.00 1740 160 920 70 5 400 2.30 1800 190 980 100 6 300 200 5.18 1840 195 1020 - 105 7' 300 200 4.18 1760 160 940 70 8 20 2-horse loads stab le man're 15.00 1720 150 900 60 9 _. 250 250 4.75 1580 140 760 50 10 200 200 200 5.65 2060 210 1240 120 11 12 .00 2.78 3.40 780 1200 1^0 90 120 180 "380 " 960 30 90 300 * 13 200 100 50 14 400 4.80 1640 170 820 80 15 300 2.10 1660 170 840 80 16 200 100 3.05 1720 170 900 80 17 18 .00 2.90 860 1540 100 200 150 160 720 70 19 200 200 3.80 1660 170 840 80 20 100 100 100 2.82 1700 170 880 80 21 10 2-horse loads stab le man're 7.50 1000 110 180 20 22 500 N. C. Ammoni ated Fer-tilizer, 5.00 1740 170 920 80 [Phosp hate not s oluble bv labor atory met hods.] Approximate deductions from the results : 1. No weights of corn are given, and a value can scarcely be placed on the tobacco. No just comparison can be made. 2. Applications appear to be beneficial. 58 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889. Summary of Experiments with Corn, Season op 1889. In the following table is given a summary of results of the field tests with corn in the counties of Bladen and Gates in the Eastern section, in Chatham in the Central, in Macon in the Western section. Comparison is made not entirely on the basis of increased yield due to the various applications, but to the increased yield taken in con-nection with the cost of the application necessary to produce this increase. In other words, the financial consideration is made to predominate—the question being, What application pays best? In the table the heavy type expresses the net gain, and ordinary type the net loss, in money value, as compared with unfe
|Title||Annual report of the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station|
|Other Title||Twelfth annual report of the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station|
|Publisher||[Raleigh, N.C.?]: Board of Agriculture,1879-1944.|
|Rights||State Document see http://digital.ncdcr.gov/u?/p249901coll22,63754|
|Collection||North Carolina State Documents Collection. State Library of North Carolina|
|Digital Characteristics-A||194 p.; 15.99 MB|
|Digital Collection||North Carolina Digital State Documents Collection|
|Pres File Name-M||pubs_ag_aragriculturalexperiment18881889.pdf|
|Pres Local File Path-M||Preservation_content\StatePubs\pubs_ag\images_master|
/\i\i\Ual Report for 1&&9
F'nd. Guar't'd. F'nd. Guar't'd. F'nd.
70 15.89 1.98 7.41 9.19 9 2.41 2.93 2 $24.81
71 11.93 1.55 6.15 2.85 9.00 8 1.91 2.32 2 2.33 2 23.28
11.65 1.70 8.30 .62 8.92 8 1.73 2.10 2 2.25 2 22.33
73 2.61 3.17 2.50 23.47
14.45 2.84 6.10 2.91 9.01 8 2.46 2.99 2.50 1.64 1 24.75
74 13.19 0.92 7.47 1.24 8.71 8 3.06 3.71 4 3.51 H 29.02
75 16.86 1.84 6.79 2.01 8.80 9 1.80 2.19 2i 2.03 n 22.20
77 13.22 2.60 7.52 2.08 9.60 9 1.81 2.20 2i 1.85 ii 23.14
78 14.03 1.07 12.18 2.09 14.27 13 19.98
79 2.04 2.48 2i 2.24 2 22.14
11.14 3.53 4.32 3.63 7.95 8 1.92 2.33 2i 2.79 2 22.40
80 14.04 5.04 6.41 1.27 7.68 8 1.78 2.16 2 1.71 1 20.15
13.85 4.86 6.68 .46 7.14 8 1.95 2.37 2 1.95 1 20.39
36 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FOR 1889.
TOBACCO PRODUCTS FOR FERTILIZING PURPOSES.
The following analyses are given to show the relative value of the
various tobacco products which may be useful for fertilizing pur-poses.
It is interesting to observe the variation between the tobacco
stems of this and other States. The large content of potash in the
Western stems prove that this crop in those States must be much
more exhaustive to the soil than the tobacco grown here. It is
noteworthy also that so large a quantity of the potash present is
soluble in water. Occurring in an organic material, it would hardly
be expected that from DO to 98 per cent, of the total potash present
is soluble in water. Yet such is the case.
The samples were kindly furnished by the Durham Fertilizer
Company, Durham, N O, who are responsible for the samples and
marks given to each.
59©0. Missouri stems, White Burley Tobacco, used for manufacturing chewing
5901. Kentucky stems, White Burley Tobacco, used for manufacturing chew-ing
5902. Ohio stems, White Burley Tobacco, used for manufacturing chewing
5903. Virginia stems, dark heavy shipping, or '• Export Tobacco."
5904. Virginia stems, dark heavy shipping, or ''Export Tobacco."
5905. North Carolina stems, " Bright Lugs." for cigarettes.
5906. North Carolina stems, " Bright Lugs," for cigarettes short.
5907. Stalk of bright North Carolina bright tobacco.
5923. North Carolina, u-^ed for chewing tobacco, before casing.
5924. North Carolina stems, used for chewing tobacco, after casing.
5925. North Carolina stems from smoking tobacco.
5926. Dust from smoking tobacco factory—poor sample, as it contains a larger
quantity of sand than usual.
CHEMICAL DIVISION. 37
TOBACCO PRODUCTS FOR FERTILIZING PURPOSES.
Missouri stems for chewing tobacco
Kentucky stems for chewing to-bacco
Ohio stems for chewing tobacco.
Virginia stems for shipping or ex-port
tobacco. . .-
Virginia stems for shipping or ex-port
tobacco . . .
North Carolina stems for cigarettes
North Carolina stems for cigarettes-short
Stalk of Bright N. C. Tobacco
North Carol na stems for chewTing
tobacco before casing,
North Carolina stems, for chewing
tobacco after casing*.
North Carolina stems, short, from
North Carolina dust from Smoking
Tobacco Factory, poor sample .
16.56 OS t-
CO CD CO —
C<) T-H T-H C7i CO '-h CO T-H o
c> os t- oo os • OWH H T—< piouiranqry T—( O O tH O "
a) GO 00 ^ JO co CO cc> CQ TJH CO C3 CO CO
ps n •muommv t- •—l OS O O CO H t-> 00 JO J> CO os o
•^ § *
t- «C5HO • • c) O O T-H o o I—i
Ph 09.TJ c> OC> rH •
j; 9:reuoq c oo oo ^ T-\ tH O O O CO CO
GO -.ieq oq. 'Ainbg IC o o o o -i—i 1—
o O CO CO CO