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AtJ* North Carolina State Library Raleigh The E. S. C. Quarterly VOLUME 16, NO. 1-2 WINTER-SPRING, 1958 DUPONT AND AMERICAN ENKA MANUFACTURE CHEMICAL FIBERS IN NORTH CAROLINA In four eight-hour shifts employees of the Kinston Dupont "Dacron" Plant carry on the continuous process around the clock. The huge plant is shown above as it appears at night, in operation. Superimposed is Dupont Business Machine Operator June Wilson of Kinston and Tarboro wearing a black and white satin ensemble made of "Dacron" and silk and fashioned by Pierre Belmain in Paris, France. This was one of 19 creations by famous French designers shown in the "Paris to Kinston" Spring Fashion Show commemorating Dupont's fifth anniversary of operations for the Kinston plant. PUBLISHED BY Employment Security Commission of North Carolina RALEIGH, N. C. PAGE 2 THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY WINTER-SPRING, 1951 The E. S. C. Quarterly (Formerly The TJ.C.C. Quarterly) Vol. 16, No. 1-2 Winter-Spring, 1958 Issued at Raleigh, N. C. by the EMPLOYMENT SECURITY COMMISSION OF NORTH CAROLINA Commissioners: Mrs. Quentin Gregory, Halifax; Dr. Maurice Van Hecke, Chapel Hill: R. Dave Hall, Belmont; W. Benton Pipkin, Reidsville; Bruce E. Davis, Charlotte; Crayon C. Efird, Albemarle. State Advisory Council: Public representatives: James A. Brid-ger, Bladenboro, Chairman; Sherwood Roberson, Roberson-ville; W. B. Horton, Yanceyville; Mrs. R. C. Lewellyn, Dob-son, and Dr. J. W. Seabrook, Fayetteville; Employer repre-sentatives: A. L. Tait, Lincolnton, and W. A. Egerton, Enka; Employee representatives: Melvin Ward, Spencer, AFL, and H. D. Lisk, Charlotte, CIO. HENRY E. KENDALL Chairman R. FULLER MARTIN Director Unemployment Insurance Division JOSEPH W. BEACH Director North Carolina State Employment Service Division TED DAVIS Editor Public Information Officer Sent free upon request to responsible individuals, agencies, organizations and libraries. Address: E. S. C. Informational service. P. O. Box ~>S!>. Raleigh. N. C. TABLE OF CONTENTS WILL BE FOUND ON PAGE 39 SOME CHANGES HAVE BEEN MADE With this issue of "The E. S. C. Quarterly" you will note several changes. Roy Brantley who so ably edited this magazine for the last couple of years has moved on to a Public Relations position with the State Personnel Department. In his place is Ted Davis, who was selected in February to fill the office of Public Information Offi-cer for the Commission. The most obvious change is in the format of "The E. S. C. Quarterly." The magazine has for many years been printed in ten point type, two columns to the page, one of the most "readable" of type sizes and faces. However, the new style featured this issue will enable us to get more information into the same amount of space. The three narrow columns, although in smaller, eight point type, almost triples the reading matter per page. Pictures may now be published in one, two or three-column widths with a degree of standardization which will eliminate "odd-sized" engravings requir-ing special type setting. The last change is in the Table of Contents. Here-tofore we have not listed in the index all articles by name. All industries of a certain type have some-times been "lumped" under one set of page numbers. We hope that this change will enable you to use the "Quarterly" to greater advantage.—td KENDALL Henry E. Kendall, Chairman Employment Security Commission A matter causing constant amazement is the larg number of manufacturing firms within the variou industries which are covered by the work of th Employment Security Commission. And yet, in fast growing economy such a we have here in these Unite States, and more specificall here in North Carolina, w should hold few things, such a industrial growth, in awe. In the chemical field alont which is featured in this issu of THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY there are almost 200 plants o varying sizes manufacturin chemical products in this Stat* These range in size from con panies with the minimum d four employees to the large te> tile chemical plants employin thousands. Perhaps we'd not be astonished if we knew moi about the types of plants accomplishing chemic? work in this state. For instance, how many of u knew that in Waynesville, North Carolina, is or of the two chemical plants in the United State manufacturing Epsom Salt? My curiosity we aroused when I learned that Epsom Salt can also t extracted from Olivine, a substance which is foun in the western part of our state. In fact the Balsai Gap Company, affiliated with the Giles Chemic; Company, owns an entire mountain of the materi; a few miles from Waynesville. Another odd fact about North Carolina's Epsoi Salt industry is that the Waynesville plant ca: within a matter of a few hours, switch from Epso: Salt to Milk of Magnesia, using the same Olivir substance. The production of Nylon, Rayon, and Dacron North Carolina is a multi-million dollar busines In Kinston, North Carolina, Dupont's Dacron plar operates around the clock as does the America; Enka plant at Enka, just outside Asheville. Th processes by which these materials are chemical! manufactured are as closely guarded as are tlji secrets of the atomic age. A study by the Manufacturing Chemists' Associji tion, Washington, D. C, points out that in 1958 arj! 1959 approximately $79 million will be invested f<f construction of new chemical producing facilities lj North Carolina. The figure includes $54 million f< nine projects already begun and $25 million for oi project definitely planned and scheduled for cor pletion before 1960. In the survey for a three-year period, 1957-5 $82 million is the combined estimated expenditu for 14 privately-financed projects in 10 commur ties, and accounts for three percent of the Unit* States domestic chemical construction for that pel od. North Carolina ranks 21st in chemical products and 13th in the MCA construction survey. Dout less the fabulous Research Triangle will increa these figures as more industrialists become inte ested in its development and expansion. WINTER-SPRING, 1958 THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY PAGE 3 Manpower In The Chemical Industry NOTE Ruth Rosenwald was primarily responsible for the preparation of numerous industry man-power studies in her long service as labor econ-omic with the Bureau of Employment Security. A graduate of Wellesiey College, she went ;o Washington. D. C. in 1933 and joined the staff of the Bureau of Employment Security in 1940. Her analyses, based largely on data collected by local offices of the State employment security agencies throughout the country, were widely used by industry, labor unions and government agencies. The article reprinted here, prepared shortly before Miss Rosenwald's death in April, 1958, reviews current and anticipated employ-ment developments in the chemical industry. The Bureau of Employment Security has recently completed a pilot survey of engineering and scientific occupations in major segments of the chemical indus-try, undertaken at the request of the National Science Foundation and the President's Committee on Scientists and Engineers. It was one of a series of studies of scientific and engineering manpower sponsored hy the National Science Foundation, in which several government and private agencies were engaged. In conjunction with the regular col-lection of industry data (through indivi-dual employer report Form ES-211 ) in April and May 19 57, local offices of State agencies affiliated with the BES gathered a special supplementary form and narrative information designed to supply manpower information on the following occupations: chemists, chemi-cal engineers, engineers other than chemical, medical scientists, biological scientists, and other natural and physi-cal scientists. Segments of the chemical industry from which reports were collected were industrial organic chemicals, industrial inorganic chemicals, drugs and medi-cines, and paints and varnishes. To-gether, these four segments employ 71.5 percent of all workers engaged in the chemical industry. The BES received manpower reports from 98 4 establish-ments whose aggregate employment re-presented 8 3.5 percent of total employ-ment in the surveyed industries, and the requested supplementary data on the selected scientific and engineering occupations from 8 90 establishments whose aggregate employment represent-ed 71.3 percent of total employment in the surveyed industries. These reports are analyzed in Indus-j| try Manpower Survey No. 84, "Scientific and Engineering Occupations in the Chemical Industry," which is available upon request to the BES. Major find-ings are summarized in the article be-low. The chemical industry, with a payroll of more than 800,000 workers, employs large numbers of scientific and engineer-ing personnel. During the past 10 years the industry has expanded rapidly, with production, stimulated by new product development, increasing at about twice the rate of the average of all manufac-turing industries. This expansion has been accompanied by heavy and increas-ing expenditures for new plant and equipment and relatively moderate em-ployment gains. Most of the industry's employment By Ruth Rosenwald rise during the past 10 years occurred between 19 47 and 1953; since 1953 the rise has been less rapid. Total employ-ment of 8 41,800 workers in April 1957 was only 6,000 higher than a year ear-lier. The proportion of nonproduction workers employed in the chemical in-dustry has been rising. This has been true of manufacturing industries gener-ally, but the ratio of nonproduction workers to total employment to the chemical industry is higher and has risen faster during the past year. Overall Employment Steady But Drug- Medicine Segment Gains Total employment in the establish-ments covered by the BES April-May survey changed very little in the preced-ing year, execpt for a 2.8-percent in-crease in drug and medicine establish-ments. Relatively few additional work-ers were expected to be needed in the year following the survey, the estimated required net increase of 1.3 percent only slightly exceeding the 1.0 percent employment rise that had actually oc-curred during the previous year. Overall, employers seemed to have had little difficulty filling their needs for nonprofessional workers, though there were occasional reports of diffi-culty in securing a few skilled workers. Most of the estimated employment increase required by May 19 58 was for surveyed engineering and scientific oc-cupations, but there seemed to be few urgent operating problems arising from any lack of such personnel. While re-cruitment for engineers and scientists was active, hiring standards were selec-tive and the emphasis seemed to be on preparing for future needs. The vast majority of surveyed estab-lishments employed at least one indivi-dual in one or another of the selected occupations. A few of the smaller es-tablishments employed none, either con-tracting such work outside the establish-ment or having no need of it. Alto-gether, personnel employed in engineer-ing and scientific jobs in the surveyed industries constituted 9.6 percent of the total work force. Chemists and chemi-cal engineers constituted almost two-thirds of all engineering and scientific personnel. The next most numerous group was engineers other than chemi-cal engineers, accounting for 23 per-cent of employment in the surveyed occupations. Moderate Need for Additional Personnel The trend toward more nonproduction workers in relation to total employment is pointed up by the selected occupa-tions. While total employment in the surveyed establishments was expected to increase only 1.3 percent within a year, reporting employers estimated they would need 9.3 percent more workers in the specified engineering and scien-tific occupations. One-third of the reporting establish-ments had current vacancies in the selected occupations. The proportion was highest (45 percent) among indus-trial inorganic chemicals plants and lowest (18 percent) among paint and varnish establishments. Size of estab-lishment is a major factor in this differ-ence, the larger ones being more likely to have at least one vacancy at any point in time (the average surveyed in-dustrial inorganic chemical plant em-ployed 670 and the average paint and varnish plant employed 180). Altogether, 2,661 current vacancies for engineers and scientists were report-ed in the surveyed establishments. This represented 6.5 percent as many as were currently employed in those occu-pations, and 10.7 percent as many as those employed in the surveyed occupa-tions in the establishments where there were vacancies. The ratio of vacancies to current employment in the surveyed occupations was highest in the indus-trial organic chemicals industry and lowest in the paint and varnish indus-try. In the aggregate, establishments with vacancies employed a proportionately higher number of engineers and scien-tists than did those with no vacancies (10.7 percent as compared with 8.5 per-cent). Well over one-half (54.2 per-cent) of the total employment in sur-veyed establishments and three-fifths (60.4 percent) of engineering and scien-tific employment was in establishments which had current vacancies. Occupational Distribution of Dabor Needs Most of the job vacancies were for chemists and chemical engineers, the occupations which comprise the bulk of the engineering and scientific employ-ment total. There were differences in the occupational composition of labor demand in the four industry segments, however. In the industrial organic chemicals group, for instance, vacancies for engineers numbered almost as many as those for chemists and were seven times the combined number of vacancies for medical, biological, and other scien-tists. In drugs and medicines, on the other hand, vacancies for engineers other than chemical engineers were only 7.4 percent of all vacancies, while open-ings for medical, biological, and other scientists were four times as many, ac-counting for 30 percent of the total. The greatest demand, both as mea-sured by number of vacancies and in relation to current employment, was in the occupation of chemical engineer, where the 8 94 vacancies were 8.5 per-cent as many as the number currently employed. Even though the number of vacancies (70) for medical scientists was small in absolute terms, in relation to the number employed it was compara-tively high. Urgency of Demand More than 80 percent of all vacancies in the surveyed occupations had been open over 30 days. In the industrial organic chemicals industry, the corre-sponding proportion was nearly 90 per-cent, while in the drugs and medicines segment it was 63 percent. Neverthe-less, there were few reports of operating difficulty due to lack of the sought-after workers. For the most part, recruit-ment seemed to be aimed at developing See MANPOWER, page 13 PAGE 4 THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY WINTER-SPRING, 1958 hts Of Wilmington's Industry And Employment BRADLEY Earle L. Bradley, State Labor Market Analyst, Bureau of Research and Statis-tics, Employment Security Commission of 'North Carolina Wilmington is located in New Hanover County in the southeastern coastal sec-tion of North Carolina. It is the largest city in the eastern portion of the State, and according to the 1950 Census it ranks seventh population wise. It missed being listed with the six standard metro-politan areas in North Carolina, having 50,000 or more people, since its population of 45,043 fell short by less than 5,000 individuals. Its population growth rate in the ten year period, 1940- 1950, was 34.8 per cent. This com-pares very favorably with the state-wide urban growth rate of 27.1 per cent and with the total growth rate for the State of only 13.7 per cent. New Hanover County experienced a growth rate of 32 per cent over the same period, 1940-1950. The 1950 Census shows the median age of the residents of Wilmington is a little higher than the whole of the State. The State's population has a median age of 25 years while the inhabitants of Wil-mington has a median age of 28.9. The New Hanover County population median age is 28.3. Since employment data is to be develop-ed in terms of the whole of New Hanover County, we believe that some interesting-facts about the county's relationship to the State would be worthwhile. Popula-tionwise, it has 63,272 people according to the Census of 1950. Although less than an average county in terms of land area with its 194 square miles, the aver-age is 491 square miles, its population density of 326.1 persons per square mile ranks it fourth among the State's coun-ties. This leaves only three of the metro-politan areas, Durham, Forsyth, and Mecklenburg, with a higher population concentration. 15,600 Insured The Employment Security Law insures more than 15,600 workers in over 730 different firms reporting from New Han-over County. Total earnings paid to in-sured employed workers in 1956 amounted to more than $42.8 million. This ac-counted for 1.65 per cent of the State's insured pay roll total. Employment in manufacturing is re-sponsible for approximately 6,240 (40 per cent) wage earners of the 15,600 insured employed group. In the non-manufactur-ing segment of the economy: Construction provides jobs for almost 1,150 (7.4 per cent) workers; Transportation and Com-munication employs over 1,575 (10.1 per cent); Trade has over 4,630 (30.0 per cent); and Finance and Service employs over 2,000 (12.8 per cent). According to the recent study, Personal Income Estimates for North Carolina Counties by B. C. Jones, New Hanover County inhabitants per capita current dollar personal income per year increased from $456. in 1939 to $1464. in 1954; the Constant dollar for the same period in-creased from $768. to $1275. In compar-ing these data with the other counties of the State, New Hanover ranked number 6 in 1939 and 8 in 1954. Current dollar income is the raw estimate of income re-ceived in the period measuring the value of the monetary unit in the particular period. The constant dollar is to provide an indication of real income change. The principal products produced by the manufacturing establishments are: Food; Textile-mill products; Apparel; Chemi-cals, and Allied Products; and Fabricated Metals. Among other manufacturing in-dustries are firms producing: Lumber and Wood; Paperboard Products; Ship and Boatbuilding; and Products of Petro-leum and Coal. The basic dominating manufacturing are Apparel, Chemicals and Fabricated Metals; however, all of the different products add to the diversi-fication of the economy. If a comparison of covered employment is made with 1948, a steady growth is seen in both the manufacturing and non-manufacturing segments of the economy, in 1948 in manufacturing, there was a monthly average of 4136 workers covered by the Employment Security program as compared with a 1956 average of 5,446. In nonmanufacturing, there were 7,114 in 1948 as compared with 9,344 in 1956. Per-centagewise, there were no changes in the two segments for the two years 1948 and 1956. In 1948 manufacturing had in its employment 36.7 per cent of the covered workers in the county and nonmanufac-turing employed 63.2 per cent; the same percentages applied in 1956. Agricultural Changes While the nonagricultural segments of the economy were experiencing a numer-ical change the agricultural economy was also changing. By the 1954 Census of Agriculture there was in evidence a de-cline in number of farms with 400 farms in 1950 and only 376 in 1954. This repre-sents a drop of 6.2 per cent. As might be expected from this drop there was a decline in the cropland acreage for the same period; from 7,655 in 1950 to 7,031 in 1954, a decrease of 624 (8.2 per cent) acres. There was also a drop of farm operators residing on farms for the same period, 355 to 336. The principal prod-ucts in terms of acreage devoted to them are corn, soy beans, and land used only as pastureland. Current labor data indicates that 2,950 workers are recruitable for industrial jobs in New Hanover County. Of this number 775 are either skilled or semi-skilled, while there is a total of 1,750 persons under forty-five years of age deemed train-able for jobs requiring skills. An indus-try locating in the area would be able to recruit workers from portions of adja-cent counties and the plant staffing could be done from approximately 6,000 indi-viduals. The recruitable worker is not necessarily unemployed, but would be available were an industrial job oppor-tunity attainable in the area. In this coastal county of North Carolina, for the third quarter of 1957, the average weekly earning of workers covered by the Em-ployment Security Law were a little be-low the average weekly earnings of workers for the other areas of the State. Average weekly earnings of workers in New Hanover County was $58.79 as com-pared with the State average of $59.83. Total wages paid to insured workers in the County for this particular period was $11,920,568. Wilmington has much to offer industry seeking to expand or relocate. Some of the advantages are: (1) Transportation —there are two railroad lines; waterways for overseas shipping; a large airport with almost unlimited tonnage capacity; and several major highways leading into this area. (2) Climate—there is extremely mild temperature both winter and summer. (3) Recruitable Labor—there is a read-ily available supply of labor both train-able and skilled from which a prospective employer could staff a plant of almost any size. "NEW LOOK AT MATURE WORKER" PROVING POPULAR By James S. Massenburg Counseling Supervisoi% ESD, ESC Governor Luther H. Hodges, in a state-ment issued June 26, 1958, set aside the week of July 13-19 for special attention to be given to the health, happiness and welfare of the State's aging citi zens. More than 286, 000 North Carolin ians are 65 years of age or oldei and this numbei is increasing bj some 7,000 persons each year. This trend puts i heavy responsibil ity on the State county and munic ipal and privati agencies that mus meet the growing need for housing economic oppor tunity, medical and health care, welfan service and recreation. In cooperation with the Governor's Co ordinating Committee on Aging, whiclj was created in 1956 to study and evaluat* the problems confronting these senior ci<| izens, the Employment Security Commia sion early this year published a pamphlej entitled "A New Look At The Matur Worker". The four-page folder has been requestei from employers in other states and pai ticularly from those firms having subsic iaries in North Carolina. It may be ot tained in limited quantities by writing t Informational Services, Employment S< curity Commission, Box 589, Raleigl North Carolina. Concisely it points up the many advar tages of hiring mature workers, an points up the tremendous number of pe( pie still gainfully employed who are 1 the "older" group. In compiling the trac I have in every instance tried to keep i mind the advantages to the employe] since the advantages of full employmer of the older citizen is obvious. MASSENBURG WINTER-SPRING, 1958 THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY PAGE 5 Industrial Chemicals - - Materials Suppliers By Mrs. Grace Z. Moen, Research Analyst, Bureau of Research and Statistics, ESC The chemical industry provides the larg-est field for employment in the natural sciences, with industrial chemicals as one of its major components. Millions of tons of industrial chemicals are pro-duced yearly; but the public is scarce-ly aware of the products, because these chemicals never reach the con-sumer in the same form in which they leave the factory. The i n d u s tr y is known as materials suppliers. Its prod-ucts are purchased by other chemical manufacturers or by industrial plants which make use of them in the manufac-ture of other products. For example, its products are used as raw materials and as processing agents by almost every man-ufacturing industry and by some non-manufacturing activities. The industrial chemical industry in North Carolina in-cludes establishments engaged in the man-ufacturing of chemicals ranging from sul-furic acid and chlorine to synthetic fibers. The synthetic fibers industry is an exam- MOEN pie of that industrial chemical group which often overflows its boundaries into other industrial fields, i.e., rayon, nylon, and dacron may be considered either a chemical or a textile. The textile industry, which constitutes a large segment of the manufacturing in-dustry in this State, is a heavy user of the industrial chemicals manufactured here, such as bleaches, solvents, softeners, wilting and penetrating agents, warp siz-ing compounds, dyes, elastomers, plastics, synthetic rubber, and man made fibers, etc. Other industrial customers include furniture manufacturers and leather tan-neries. Access to markets, as well as location of raw materials, has influenced the loca-tion of the industrial chemical industry. North Carolina had only a small portion, between 1 and 2.5 percent, of the national employment in the industry in 1956. Dis-covery and development of new combina-tions of basic ingredients have created new markets for the industry, and North Carolina is an attractive market. It is not surprising that the dynamic man-made fiber industry, in early development, pen-etrated the well established textile in-dustry in this State. Products developed from the synthetic fibers have competed successfully in mar-kets previously dominated by natural fibers—cotton, silk, wool-—and are expect-ed to continue to make inroads in these markets. In the late thirties industrial chemical operations in North Carolina opened new avenues for manufacturing, with Ameri-can Enka in Asheville taking the lead. By 1950 employment in the industrial chemical group reached 4,000. And as may be seen from the accompanying chart, employment held between 3,500 and 4,000 through 1951. Since the industrial chem-ical industry is affected by the general industrial activity, employment in 1952 was rather sluggish, as it was influenced by the economic adjustments in the tex-tile industry; but still it maintained a level above 3,000. The end of the third quarter 1953 marked new entrants to the industry in the State, the most significant of which was E. I. duPont de Nemours & Company in Kinston. Employment in the industrial chemical group in North Caro-lina has been remarkably stable over a long period of time. Seasonality does not enter into the activity such as is evidenc-ed in the employment peaks and valleys of highly seasonal activities in fertilizer manufacturing, which is reflected in the employment trend in the chemical indus-try as a whole, as is shown in the upper line trend of the chart. Employment in industrial chemicals in 1957 was curtailed slightly the first half of the year, but it turned upward in Au-gust. During 1956, the latest annual data available, there were 20 establishments in North Carolina operating with a monthly See SUPPLIERS, page 9 Thousands of Workers 15 COMPARISON OF EMPLOYMENT TREND IN INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS WITH TOTAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRY (19 5 - 195 7 Thousands of Workers 15 PAGE 6 THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY WINTER-SPRING, 1958 Union Carbide Has Three Plants In North Carolina Union Carbide is one of the ten largest corporations in the world and has three plants in North Carolina. Sales of this organization during last year totalled 1 billion. 395 million dollars. 1957 was the third straight year that sales exceeded the billion-dollar figure. Chemicals and plastics accounted for approximately one-half of the total sales last year. National Carbon Company, a division of Union Carbide Corporation has three plants in North Carolina located in Green-ville, Charlotte and Asheboro. They em-ploy about 1,200 people. The plant at Greenville has an outstanding safety rec-ord with no lost time accidents since it opened in 1945. Other National Carbon plants in this state also have excellent safety records. Indicative of this huge company's pol-icies toward employees is the manager of the Asheboro plant. F. W. Poulton has been with the company in excess of 30 years and has been with the Asheboro plant since 1951, having been transferred from Bennington, Vermont. The lunch room is furnished with rook and cribbage cards and boards. At coffee breaks and lunch employees play card games. "When they are busy with card games, they're usually happy," commented Mr. Poulton. North Carolina plants make batteries under the "Eveready" trade name. They also make batteries to other manufac-turers' specifications who use their trade names. The "chemical" part of battery making comes into being with the reac-tion of amanganese ore and zinc. Plants are highly mechanized and true "automa-tion" has been standard procedure for years in these factories. The Asheboro plant, formerly a plastics plant in World War II, began operations under the Union Carbide banner in 1948 when it was purchased from the former owners. At Siler City Union Carbide also had a plant which manufactured military items out of plastics during the war. All three plants now in this state have been running full time since 1948. Manager of the Greenville plant is Mr. F. P. Preissle and of the Charlotte branch Mr. E. D. Carr. All plants make bat-teries. Charlotte began operation in 1946 and Greenville in 1945. Dial's Report In his annual report to the stockhold-ers April 15th this year, M. G. Dial, presi-dent of the company said, "Net income for the year 1957, after charges and taxes, amounted to 134 million dollars." In an excellent delineation of the com-pany's activities, Mr. Dial continued: "This Corporation is predominantly a producer of basic raw materials for other industries. We work with the elementary building blocks of nature. So far, scien-tists have isolated and named more than 100 of what are considered the basic chemical elements. Our people work with nearly half of these elements, separating and combining them in endless ways to create thousands of products. To capture these elements, we take apart minerals, coal, gas, oil and even air, then by re-arranging atoms and molecules, create new chemical patterns. These are made available to industry in the form of met-als, carbon products, gases, chemicals and Walter Beddings, engineer, and E. V. Williamson, general foreman of Union Carbide's Asheboro plant check the quality of two Eveready cells. Arro Mae West, top right, runs a constant inspection test as batteries pass her position. Battery jackets, riding one conveyor, meet battery cells that come in on another. Cells are automatically inserted into jackets, and bottoms set in place. plastics, which are used in making many of the familiar things in our daily life. As a supplier of basic raw materials to almost all important industries, we par-ticipate in the growth of those industries. Not only do we have among our own prod-ucts many fast-growing ones such as chemicals, plastics, and oxygen, but many of our products are used as raw materials in the production by other com-panies of fast-growing products such as synthetic fibers, plastics, supersonic planes, missiles, atomic energy, deter-gents, oil and gasoline additives, drugs, latex paints, and other newer surface coat-ings. The advantages that accrue to us from being a supplier of raw materials to these industries also impose upon us cer-tain obligations. If we are to participate in their growth and expansion, then we must equip to take care of such growth and expansion. Half Sales from "Non-Chemicals" "There is another important character-istic of our business. One-half of our sales come from products not generally thought of as chemicals, yet Union Car-bide, together with a number of other companies, is classified as a Chemical company. This is a broad, general classi-fication, and does not imply we are all in the same businesses, although operating within the same broad industrial field. For exemple, no one other company in our industry has the same five major divisions that we have, and conversely, we are not directly a large factor in tex-tiles, fertilizers, or drugs, which are ma-jor lines of some other chemical com-panies. It, therefore, follows that with a different product mix, different condi-tions will affect different companies in this same industry in a different manner and to a different degree. This also ex-plains why the Chemical Industry itself is one of our largest customers since it takes our products as raw materials and converts them into other products which make up their sales. New Products Important "Now as to our plans for the future— I think these can best be illustrated by our plans for expansion of our productive facilities. "Last year our total construction ex-penditures were 190% million dollars. This is the largest in our history, and was about 45 million dollars more than we spent in 1956. More than half of this— 101 million dollars—was for Chemicals and Plastics. "Following a complete review of all ma-jor construction projects in the light of present-day volumes, we have decided to proceed with plant expansion totalling ap-proximately 150 million dollars during 1958. "As was the case last year, we antici-pate that more than half—possibly over 60%—of this expenditure will be in the Plastics and Chemicals groups, and a sub-stantial amount will be in the Industrial Gas group for adidtional on-site oxygen plants where we have firm contracts with our customers for the output of these plants. "It is from the development of new products through Research that our high rate of growth comes. We used to say some years ago that we developed a new product per month from our laboratories, See UNION, page 9 WINTER-SPRING, 1958 THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY PAGE 7 Financing Unemployment Insurance in Chemical Industry By Robert G. Kellogg, Research and Methods Specialist, Bureau of Research and Statistics, Employment Security Commission of North Carolina If workers are to receive benefits dur-ing periods of unemployment, someone, naturally, has to underwrite the cost. Employers do this by contributing annual-ly from 0.2 to 3.7 per cent of their taxable pay rolls. The contributions are held in re-serve for weekly payments of from $11.00 to $32.00 to eligible workers. Unemployment is almost inevitable, but industry, through carefully planned utiliza-tion of the work force, endeavors to maintain a min-imum incidence of unemployment; thereby reducing costs to themselves. For example, let's assume a new firm with 100 employees engages in the pro-duction of chemicals. During the first two years of operation the firm must con-tribute at a 2.7 rate. Only the first $3,000 of worker earnings is taxed, so, if each worker earned a minimum of $3,000, the taxable pay roll would be $300,000. This means the firm would contribute $8,100 in each of the first two years. After several years, if unemployment has been negli- KELLOGG gible, the firm may qualify for a reduced rate and eventually earn the minimum 0.2 per cent rate, or an annual contribu-tion of $600. If unemployment is severe, and reserve funds depleted, a penalty rate of from 2.8 to 3.7 per cent can be assessed. How does the chemical industry com-pare with other manufacturing? Suppose we compare the contribution rates of the ten major industries based on experience with unemployment. Benefits Paid Each Contribution Dollar Contributed Rate Fiscal 1956-1957 Manufacturing (All Industries) 1.46 $ .94 Taper 91 .37 Food Products 1.08 .64 Machinery (Non-electrical) 1.14 .53 Furniture : 1.39 .55 Lumber and Wood 1.39 .95 Tobacco 1.41 2.30 Chemicals 1.44 .68 Machinery (Electrical) 1.50 .41 Textiles 1.54 .99 Apparel 1.98 1.03 We can see chemicals contribute at a slightly lower rate than over-all manufac-turing. Also, in fiscal 1956-57 only $.68 was paid in benefits for each dollar con-tributed. Tobacco was the only industry with benefits in excess of contributions, but the accumulation of a sizeable reserve fund by the greater, and generally stable, cigarette segment of the industry over a period of several years enabled the reten-tion of a favorable contribution rate. In relation to all manufacturing during fiscal 1956-57, chemical industry pay rolls rep-resented 2.8 per cent of the total taxable pay roll; 2.7 per cent of contributions; and, 2.0 per cent of benefit changes. Within the chemical industry rates vary between the major divisions. The two larger divisions, industrial organic chemicals (synthetic fibers) and fertiliz-ers, account for over 70 per cent of total taxable pay rolls within the industry. Industrial organic chemicals with 49.2 per cent of contributions had only 13.4 per cent of benefit charges. Fertilizer, a seasonal activity, was charged with 41.2 per cent of benefits paid while contribut-ing only 17.5 per cent of taxable pay roll. SELECTED DATA, CHEMICAL INDUSTRY Per Cent Taxable Pay Roll Chemicals 100.0 Industrial Organic Chem 54.7 Fertilizers '.... 16.2 Vegetable & Animal Oil 11.8 Drugs 5.5 Miscellaneous Chemicals 5.4 Paints, etc. 4.3 Detergents 1.4 Industrial Inorg. Chem 5 Gum & Wood Chem. .2 Per Cent Per Cent Benefits Contribution Contri- Benefits Paid Each Rate 1958 butions Charges $ Contrib. Computation 100.0 100.0 $ .68 1.44 49.2 13.4 .18 1.30 17.5 41.2 1.61 1.56 18.9 37.5 1.35 2.30 3.8 1.6 .29 1.00 5.7 4.5 .55 1.51 3.0 .6 .13 .99 .9 .4 .30 .95 .6 .8 .96 1.55 .4 .0 .00 2.24 Estimates WorkerTraits, Requirements By Blanche R. Lancaster Occupational Analyst, ESC A new occupational information tool has been developed by the Bureau of Em-ployment Security to resolve some of the problems of shortages and surpluses in the labor market created by rapid change-over in mlanuf acturing processes and equipment. This new tool is called "Estima t e s of Worker Traits Requirements." It has been found that similar worker traits are needed in jobs which carry wide-ly differing job titles. By use of the refined classi-fication technique of the Estimates, the Employment Security Commission will be able to include worker traits as well as acquired skills in classifying ap-plicants for jobs. Use of this technique will also necessitate obtaining more de-tailed information on the nature of the job and its requirements. This will re- LANCASTER suit in a more precise matching of the worker qualifications to the job require-ments. As a result, the employer will obtain a worker more completely suited to his job. The initial coverage of the Estimates is a group of 4000 jobs selected from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Each job is rated by experienced job analysts in terms of the amount of certain worker traits required for standard job perform-ance. The worker trait components selected for inclusion in the Estimates are: Train-ing Time, Aptitudes, Temperaments, In-terests, Physical Capacities, Working Con-ditions, and Industries where the job is found. The Training Time component is defin-ed as the amount of general education required in terms of reasoning ability and acquisition of "tool" knowledges such as mathematical and language skills, and vocational preparation in terms of specific techniques acquired. This component carries a graduated rating scale to reflect increasing development in the two phases of training. Aptitudes refer to specific capacities and abilities required of an individual in order to learn or to perform the duties of the job adequately. Eleven aptitudes are used—Intelligence, Verbal, Numerical, Spatial, Form Perception, Clerical Percep-tion, Motor Coordination, Finger and Man-ual Dexterities, Eye-Hand-Foot Coordina-tion, and Color Perception. Five levels are used in estimating aptitudinal re-quirements of a job. These levels cover percentage distributions of the aptitudes as found in the general working popula-tion. For example, an accountant re-quires numerical ability to the degree found in the upper 10% of the working population; whereas, a newspaper report-er would need only an average amount of numerical aptitude but would require a high degree of verbal ability. Temperament—This component consists of 12 different types of occupational sit-uations to which workers might adjust, such as variety and change, repetitive short cycle, working under direct super-vision, or having control and planning of work, dealing with people or working in isolation. Evaluation of a worker's abil-ity to meet these situations is made in terms of his adjustments to similar sit-uations in other areas, as in school, in leisure time activities, or in previous work experience. Interests—This component is defined as a preference for certain types of work or experiences and rejection of opposite types. Only the two most characteristic interest factors (out of 10 listed) are in-dicated for any one job. Some of the in-terest patterns are for: things and ob-jects; people, ideas; routine, concrete; abstract, creative; scientific, technical. See TRAITS, page 12 PAGE 8 THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY WINTER-SPRING, 1958 Nation's Chemical Industry Shows Rapid Growth By Hugh M. Raper, Director, in our mortality rates. One might con- and fat products, related products of the Bureau of Research and Statistics, ESC tinue to enumerate countless other prod- denned industry. Very few chemical products reach the ucts' I aryinS from t + he luxury items like The State's insured employment in the T^hiir a* an item for consimmtion in Pertumes and cosmetics to such everyday chemical manufacture increased more puDiic as ioi consu npuon m materials as our vegetable and animal oils than 27.7 per cent between 1950 and 1955 + i,f ! th mZ.faPt vp nf ntw or even such useful industrial products as and was more than double the 12.3 per materials in tne manuiactuie oi ouiei giues, plastics, and synthetic rubber which cent employment growth rate experienced pioaucis ccou are alg0 outgrowths of chemical produc- by manufacturing as a whole. When cur-tor tne iact mat __ tion rent employment data is available, it most the chemical in- j^ In North Carolina, employment in the likely will show further significant dustrys contriDu- ^ 200 chemical establishments exceeded 13,- growth, even though the rise may not be tion to our pres- 250 workers in December, 1957, and wage nearly as rapid. ent-day economy . payments to these workers exceeded $50,- Another striking measure of the chem-is so little under-wf^-^^^ g^T^ 000,000 in 1957. Less than one per cent ical industry's growth in North Carolina stood and general- JV« fT i of the State's employment in chemical is found in the fact that for the nation lyunappieciated. ^f manufactures was in the production of this industry had only a 19.5 per cent Historically, in v , inorganic chemicals. In 1957, roughly employment growth between 1950 and the I nited States fifty per cent of the State's chemical em- 1955 which was considerably less than the the beginnings of ployment was in the production of organic State's growth rate. industrial cheinis- industrial chemicals, particularly synthet- Data on the national employment level try date back to | j c organic fibers. Another forty per cenl of the chemical Industry, as well as the 1831 when uses for was divided between fertilizer production growth rate of the major divisions of the some heavy mo. and extracted vegetable and animal oils industry, for the 1950-1955 period follow: ganic chemicals j!r such as sulphuric '"•' Industry Group Employment Average Monthly % Change Between and nitric acid '• *** and Industry Code 1950 1955 1950 & 1955 and caustic soda RAPER Chemicals — Total 670,550 801,350 + 19.5 were developed Actually, the demands 281 Industrial Inorganic Chemicals 76,700 116,800 -j- 52 -3 of World War I for added chemical pro- 282 Industrial Organic Chemicals 215,100 292,650 + 36.1 duction to match the progress made by 283 Drugs and Medicines 85,650 91,700 + 7.1 European countries provided the impetus 284 Soaps, glycerin, mineral oils __ _ 49,450 47,550 — 3.8 to the chemical industry's real develop- 285 Paints, varnishes & lacquers.- 69,725 74,500 + 6.8 ment in America, The demands of the 287 Fertilizers 33,725 37,000 + 9.7 World War I period encouraged large 288 Vegetable and animal oils.... ..... 46,700 41,050 — 12.1 scale research, which has been character- All other chemicals .. 93,500 100,100 + 7.1 istic of the industry's progress, particu- Other articles in this issue analyze North Carolina's chemical manufacturers larly of the organic chemical program. more completely. The chemical industry differs greatly — from manufacturing as a whole, primarily SS.jyro/r^Toaucts'aS'S1 - American Cyanamid Celebrating 50th Anniversary tained which, in turn, become the subject of research and further development. By M. N. Gadboury, Mgr. tinuous research, product development Rather than attempt to introduce a Organic Chemicals Division and diversification, the company today technical definition of chemicals, it seems A _ . . „ ... makes over 6,00 products in more than better to suggest the wide range and , J^e"can Cyanamid Company m its 40 plants in the United States and variety of products produced by the more '.'Fiftieth Anniversary year, is the pro- abroad. We employ more than 27,000 than 840,000 workers in the nation's chem- 3 ected shadow of four men three of pe0 ple and have approximately 60,000 ical establishments as of April 1, 1957. whom have been Southerners. Our foun- stockholders. Last year Cyanamid sales Some concept of the range and variety of dei\ ^rank Sherman Washburn, who were more than half billion dollars. We products coming from the nation's chem- s T tarte d the company 50 years ago on i GOk for a modest increase over that ical industry can be seen in the diversity July 22 ' 1907> was a natlve of Tennes- figure in 1957. of products and in the contradictory ap-see " Equally important in our history Cyanamid plants and mines are locat-plications of these products in our Indus- was n James Buchanan Duke — North e d m 11 Southern states and 13 of its trial economy Carolina's own giant of industry and major sales offices may be found in ' . philanthropy—who in 1916 acquired a Southern cities. Greater Variety substantial position in Cyanamid's com- Here in North Carolina, the company Workers in our chemical firms produce mon stock. While Mr. Duke brought currently has two major sales offices, pigments, lacquers, paints and dyes to financial support to the company, his is operating two plants and is in the give color and attractiveness to textile greatest contribution came out of his process of building a third, goods, papers, and other materials; while extraordinary ability to appraise and The Charlotte plant, managed by other workers produce soaps, bleaches, select men with executive ability. It Carle Mason, is operated by the Organic and other neutralizing acids to produce was he who selected William Brown Chemicals Division. While it isn't the colorlessness or yield whiteness in some Bell to become president of Cyanamid largest compared with many Charlotte textiles, papers, and other products. Our in 1922. Mr. Bell controlled the destiny industries, it does employ more than chemical factories make fertilizers to pro- of our company for 28 years during 100 people and adds more than a half-mote increased fiber growth, while other which time it grew from a small com- million dollars annually to your busi chemical factories are engaged in pro- pany, dependent almost entirely on agri- ness community. We are now in the ducing competing man-made fibers of ray- culture, to the well-diversified institu- process of adding a new manufacturing on, nylon, dacron and other synthetic tion that it is my privilege to represent. unit to cost better than $100,000 on fibers. Chlorine is a destructive chemical The fourth man who has had a profound which construction is underway. Among constituent of military poison gases; but effect on our success and growth has its products are: textile finishes, soften it likewise is a very useful material for been Kenneth C. Towe, who has been ers and sizes; acids and urea formalde sterilization of our drinking water, treat- president of Cyanamid since 1952. A hyde resins. It became part of our com ment of sewage, recovering of metals from native tarheeler, Mr. Towe was born in pany in 1937. Our Plymouth plant, ores, bleaching of textiles and papers, and Elizabeth City and received his school- which went into operation last year for related uses. Currently, we associate fis- ing at Duke (then known as Trinity Col- the Industrial Chemicals Division, manu-sionable materials, a chemical develop- lege). factures commercial alum and services ment, with our most advanced destructive American Cyanamid began in 190 7 at the paper industry in North Carolina weapons, but on the other hand our mir- Niagara Falls, New York, as the first and Virginia. It is managed by Earl acle drugs, products of the chemical in- manufacturer of synthetic nitrogen fer- Walsh, dustry, too, have yielded a decided drop tilizer in this hemisphere. Through con- See CYANAMID, page 9 WINTER-SPRING, 1958 THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY PAGE 9 CYANAMID (Cont. from Page 8) CARBIDE (Cont. from Page 6) SUPPLIERS (Cont. from Page 5) As for our sales offices, Henry G. Keziah is branch manager of our unit here in Charlotte which is the sales out-let in this area for five of our manu-facturing divisions. His group services the sales managed by Messrs. J. E. Moore, Hugh Puckett, R. W. Angstadt, E. J. Adams, G. H. Melvin, R. S. Meade and F. S. Kuester. The Lederle group is represented by E. E. Thomison and E. D. Jackson. W. J. Page heads up our sales branch in Raleigh. Ground has been broken and con-struction is underway at Farmville on a new Cyanamid plant to be operated by the Formica Corporation, a wholly-own-ed Cyanamid subsidiary. When com-pleted it will be our 17th facility in the South and our 3rd in North Carolina. American Cyanamid Company was among the first of the large chemical companies to make use of the South's wealth of resources and labor. Within the past five years we have built a plant in New Orleans to produce acrylonitrile; a pigments plant in Savannah (which is currently being expanded), and the alum plant in Plymouth. A triple super-phosphate plant is now being added to our manufacturing facilities in Brew-ster, Florida. In addition, construction of a plant near Pensacola, Florida to produce Creslan, the company's new acrylic synthetic fiber, got under way this summer. The question is sometimes asked: "Just what is Cyanamid?" To the chem-ist, Cyanamid is calcium cyanamide which is nitrogen extracted from the air and combined with lime and coke. To almost any American farmer, Cyan-amid is known as one of the rich sources of fertilizer nitrogen. For many years, the market for Cyanamid was confined almost entirely to its use as a plant food, but through continuous research it is now finding its way into a variety of new products and uses, among which are the sulfa drugs, melamine plastics; insecticides; and metallurgical and rub-ber chemicals. Cyanamid's business in pharmaceuti-cals and biologicals compares now with that of the large independent companies in the field. Though they are drugs that are available only by prescription from a licensed member of the medical pro-fession, our Aureomycin (first of the broad spectrum antibiotics), its deriva-tive, Achromycin, and our Diamox an excellent diuretic, have become house-hold words in recent years. We make and sell a wide range of industrial chemicals, including acids and alums, dyes and their intermediates; organic and inorganic pigments, synthetic re-sins, melamine plastics (which include Formica laminated plastic) and other plastics; industrial explosives, chemical specialties for the mining, rubber and textile industries; fertilizers, weed-kill-ers, insecticides, and fumigants. 'Davis and Geek" sutures are well known to the surgeon, and to housewives all over the world Formica is a synonym for quality in kitchen counters and table tops. Cyanamid's process using Acronize (by which relatively minute quantities of Aureomycin are used to retain the freshness of food) was approved on November 30, 1955 by the Federal Food and Drug Administration and the United States Department of Agriculture for then a few years ago we changed that to two new products per month. Today the number has increased substantially. "In the Chemicals Company alone dur-ing 1957, 35 new products—nearly 3 per month—were shipped for the first time in drum quantities. These new products found use in polyurethane foams, phar-maceutical intermediates, metal-refining chemicals, detergent bases, plastic raw materials, agricultural chemicals, and gasoline- and oil-treating compounds. In addition, another 23 of our newer chem-icals were shipped in carload or tank-car lots for the first time. These were used by our customers to purify uranium, formulate latex paints, synthesize drugs, process foodstuffs, manufacture lubri-cants, and treat asphalt for road-building. Several million dollars of these new chem-icals were sold in 1957, and we look for-ward to their continued growth during the next few years. Water Solubles Important "One of the most important additions to our new chemicals in 1957 was water-soluble resins which have been introduced as Polyox Resins. They are based on ethylene oxide as a raw material. This development represents a significant broadening of the uses for ethylene oxide derivatives. Also, the Carbon group has invented a new fuel cell in which hydro-gen and oxygen—2 gases—are directly converted into electrical energy. This cell has been in operation over 16 months without a sign of deterioration, and was selected by Chemical Engineering maga-zine as one of the top 10 technological achievements for the year 1957." Mr. Dial summed up the feeling of everyone employed in the North Carolina plants of Union Carbide when he said: ". . . there is little that we alone can do to change the current level of industrial activity—aside from continuing to run our business in a prudent manner, with confidence in the future—yet I have the belief that our Organization has the will, the ability and the ingenuity to adjust it-self to the current operating conditions in a manner that will meet with the ap-proval of our Stockholders. We have an organization that is vigorous, it has high morale, it is resourceful, and it is ambi-tious; and it is ready to take advantage of any improvement that occurs in our economy. For these reasons, I have every confidence that the business of Union Car-bide will continue healthy, that we will capitalize on the upturn in the business level when it comes, and will fully realize the great future growth potentialities of this Corporation." application to poultry. In addition to our own company ac-tivities, we are associated with other companies as partners—with the Pitts-burgh Plate Glass Company, we jointly own Southern Minerals Corporation, a large independent producer of oil and gas in Texas; with the Texas Company, we are joint-owners of Jefferson Chem-ical Company, Inc., which was formed to exploit processes for making chemi-cals from petroleum gases and oily re-finery residues; and with the Interna-tional Paper Company, we are associ-ated in the ownership of Arizona Chemi-cal Company, which produces chemicals from residues of kraft paper operations. average employment of 6,070. Employers paid $29,159,160 to these workers during the year, which amounted to an average earning of $4,800 per worker or $92.36 a week. The relative contribution this in-dustry makes to the State's economy is readily comprehended when these worker earnings are compared with those for other groups. For example, the average annual worker earnings in total manufac-turing was slightly "over $3,000, a weekly average of $56.74; and in the over-all chemical industry, $4,200 annual earnings or a weekly average of $81.56; but in in-dustrial chemicals $4,800 annual earning or $92.36 weekly. The industrial chemicals industry in North Carolina contributes to the total chemical industry as follows: 10 per cent of the total number of establishments; 52 per cent of the employment; and 59 per cent of the wages. Nationally, earnings of workers in the industrial chemical in-dustry are among the highest for factory workers in American industry. In 1956 the national average for this industrial group was $98.12 a week or $3.13 more than the average weekly earnings for all manufacturing industries; and North Carolina was only $6 under this national weekly average. The outlook for increased employment at favorable wages is very bright. To encourage new markets, chemical plants employ a high proportion of professional workers for laboratory research to de-velop new products and new methods of production. The greater complexity of products and processes are expected to result in a greater need for chemical en-gineers and technicians. The advance of instrumentation and automatic equipment in processing and control operations will increase the demand in maintenance and repair occupations. The increase in em-ployment, however, is expected to be at a much slower pace than increase in pro-duction, because the output per worker increases with increased and improved automation. Despite the tecnological progress which is anticipated in the industrial chemical industry, the expansion of output is ex-pected to result in employment above the 1956 level. Processing equipment opera-tors will continue to be the largest occu-pational group in the industry, but the industry also employs a wide variety of administrative, clerical, and other "white collar" personnel. Many of the adminis-trative and management positions are fill-ed by technically trained men, many of whom are chemists or chemical engineers. Many of the job opportunities will result from the expansion of the industry, the future growth of which is directly related to the general expansion of the economy which determines the market for the ma-terials this industry supplies for further manufacturing. CAROLINA AND SOUTHERN PROCESSING COMPANY, GASTONIA This company, known as Carolina and Southern Processing Company, is lo-cated in Gastonia and employs 88 peo-ple. It began operation in 1947. The firm collects and processes waste animal products and produces refined animal fats and proteins for industry. President of the firm is Stanley Frank. PAGE 10 THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY WINTER-SPRING, 1958 Du Pont's Kinston Plant And "Dacron"* Polyester Fiber By Neil Gabbert Publications Editor, Kinston Plant E. I. du Pont de Nemours <% Co. The Du Pont Company's Kinston Plant for the manufacture of "Dacron"* poly-ester fiber celebrated its fifth anniversary of operations in March. A review of progress at this ^SKr,,s ,,.,«» Eastern North ft Carolina in d us- ; trial site since l . "Dacron" made its debut is a suc-cess story about a plant, its product and the communi-ties where its em- GABBERT ployees live. The Kinston Plant's location is no coincidence. The plant site, formerly a 635- acre tract of farm-land seven miles north of Kinston, was selected from among 87 possible locations after an in-tensive 13-month search for the best place to produce the new miracle fiber Du Pont scientists had developed. The chosen location scored 93 out of a possible 100 on the so-called "pinball scoreboard" established by Du Pont to weigh various factors in selection of plant sites. These factors include proximity to customers; ease of obtaining raw mate-rials; labor supply; water and power available; transportation facilities; op-portunity for housing developments; churches, hospitals and recreational facil-ities available; climate, and many others. Definite plans for building the plant near Kinston were first announced in September, 1950, and called for facilities to cost an estimated $33,000,000, creating jobs for about 1200 employees with an annual payroll exceeding $4,000,000. To-day, the plant employs about 2,000 resi-dents of 11 counties in Eastern North Carolina, and the monthly payroll is ap-proximately $1,000,000. On April 20, 1951, various dignitaries of Kinston, Grifton and Greenville gathered at the site of the plant for groundbreaking ceremonies. Construction began a few days later. The culmination of slow, careful and expensive work by scientists to develop "Dacron" actually came when the first staple was produced at the new Kinston Plant in March, 1953, followed by pro-duction of the first continuous filament yarn in July, 1953. Those days marking the birth of the new man-made fiber made good a bet of some $80,000,000—the amount Du Pont had invested in construc-tion of the Kinston Plant and an inter-mediate plant in New Jersey. Original plans of the Kinston Plant pro-vided for production of 37,000,000 pounds of "Dacron". The construction of addi-tional facilities to increase production capacity of staple and tow by about 25 per cent began in the fall of 1956. Expan-sion plans of the plant at that time in-cluded an increase in staple spinning capacity, minor changes in chemical proc-essing equipment and enlargement of storage and shipping facilities. Part of that program and several other projects are now under way at the plant. Mean-while, Du Pont has begun construction of a second plant to produce "Dacron" at the site of the Company's rayon plant at Old Hickory, Tenn. Kinston Construction Began 1953 In December, 1952, plans were announc-ed for a $3,000,000 laboratory for research and development work on "Dacron" at the Kinston Plant site. Construction began in the summer of 1953, and the lab was completed in the summer of 1954. The importance of scientific work in the high-ly technical processes of making "Dacron" is illustrated by the fact that more than 200 engineers, chemists and other tech-nically trained men are now employed at the "Dacron" Research Laboratory and in the Technical and Process Sections of the Kinston Plant. These technical men are in addition to those members of manufac-turing supervision with technical train-ing. Registered Du Pont trademark. William Bryce "Bill" Rhue, a Draw Machine Op-erator in the Staple Finishing Area of the Kinston Plant, is typical of Kinston area residents whose lives changed when they joined Du Pont. A former painter, he has praised the wages, working condi-tions, employee benefits, fair treatment by manage-ment and safety philosophy he found at the plant. The manufacture of '"Dacron"* is a highly tech-nical process, requiring skill and strict adherence to standard procedures by operators. The full economic impact of a large in-dustrial plant is not revealed by the pay-rolls and purchases of the plant, but the amount spent for these purposes provides an indication of the boost such a plant gives to the local economy. Figures on the Kinston Plant's payrolls and pur-chases in 1957 are not yet available. How-ever, Plant Manager W. E. Gladding an-nounced last year that the plant spent more than $11,600,000 for payrolls and purchases in North Carolina in 1956. Wages and salaries at the plant in 1956 totaled $10,836,010. Goods and services purchased for the plant from 171 Kinston suppliers cost $268,965. An additional $544,380 in goods and services was pur-chased for the plant from 356 other firms located in North Carolina. Approximately 2,700 salesmen called on the plant to sell supplies that ranged from heavy machin-ery for manufacturing to bicycle spokes for use in tests. Business Boosted Among businesses boosted by the plant's operations also are those involved in transportation of raw materials and bi-products to and from the plant, including railroads, ports and motor carriers. The two basic raw materials of "Dacron"—di-methylterephthalate (D. M. T.) and ethy-lene glycol—are shipped to the plant by rail. Pellets of DMT above the size and shape of peach seeds are delivered from Du Pont's Repauno Works at Gibbstown, N. J., by hopper cars; while glycol follows one of three different rail routes which have been set up for its journey to Kin-ston from a plant of the Dow Chemical Company at Freeport, Tex. One bi-product, methanol, is transport-ed by tank trucks from Kinston to New Bern, where it is stored until shipment to Gibbstown, N. J., by barge. Another bi-product, contaminated glycol, travels by rail from Kinston to Morehead City, where it is stored until an ocean-going tanker transports it back to Freeport, Tex. It is also significant that so much of the "Dacron" produced at Kinston is proc essed and converted to consumer products by mills in North Carolina. Du Pont has sold "Dacron" to about 1600 different cus-tomers throughout the nation since the Kinston Plant started producing it. How-ever, 40 to 60 per cent of the plant's out-put goes to some 80 mills of North Caro-lina firms and other North Carolina mills of companies with headquarters in other states. About 125 locations in this state are familiar to personnel at the plant as shipping points for "Dacron". The Kinston Plant produces only "Dacron" staple and continuous filament yarn. The staple and yarn are dyed, spun, woven and put through other proc-esses necessary to produce end products by various textile mills. In tow form "Dacron" is rope-like and fluffy. Most textile mills have the plant cut the strands of tow into lengths only a few inches long. In this form, it looks much like cotton and is known as "Dacron" staple A special type of staple particularly adapted for use as filling material is call ed fiberfill. As products of "Dacron" have growi in popularity and end uses of "Dacron' have multiplied, communities where tht people live who make "Dacron" havi grown, too. They have grown not only ii population and economically, but in th scope of social, cultural, recreational an< religious activities. The City of Kinstoi is an example. It is impossible to say, o course, how much of Kinston's growth i a direct result of the Kinston Plant; bu it is no secret that the city's progress ha been remarkable since the plant was built The U. S. census revealed a populatioi of 18,336 for Kinston in 1950. The presen estimate by the Kinston Chamber of Com merce is 26,300. Since 1951, the area o the City has doubled, with four extension WiNTER-SPRING, 1958 THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY PAGE 1 1 of the City limits. More than 125 new business firms, mostly small businesses, have been established. More than 1,300 new homes, 11 new church buildings and three new schools' have been built. More than 40 men and women in professions — doctors, lawyers, accountants, architects and others—have set up practice in Kin-ston. Kinston Budget Increased The City's budget increased from $1,- 513,234 in 1951 to $2,557,286 in 1957, in-cluding $107,464 for the Recreation De-partment last year compared with $70,000 in 1951. Assets of two Kinston savings and loan associations had jumped from $3,002,883 in 1951 to more than $17,000,- 000 in 1957. School enrollment has in-creased to 5,737 last year, compared with 4,258 in 1951; and the number of tele-phones in the city had advanced from 4,258 to 5,737. Figures do not tell the human side of the story—the change in the lives and outlooks of people directly involved in the business of an industrial plant. Per-haps the best way to express this is to briefly describe one case. A typical em-ployee of the Kinston Plant is William Bryce "Bill" Rhue, a Draw Machine Op-erator in the plant's Staple Finishing Area. A native of Kinston, Bill is mar-ried and has a one-year-old son. Before joining- Du Pont in 1954, he worked as a painter. "I like my work much better now," Bill said recently. "My job is more in-teresting, and I am always learning." He added that "working conditions are a lot better, too." Joining the conversation, his wife Frances commented that the cleanliness of his job appealed to her, as well as the fact that "Bill gets home earli-er." Recalling former days, she said, "He used to come home late in the evening. He would be real tired and would have paint all over him." Various tests and inspections of "Dacron"* are made throughout the processes of manufacturing both staple and yarn. Here Barbara Smith, an Inspectress at the Kinston Plant, observes a tube of yarn thor-oughly to be sure no defect or error has been overlooked. After this final inspection, the tubes of yarn are wrapped in cellophane and placed in cardboard cases for packing and shipment. Dr. E. D. "Bud" Hall, Research Chemist at the "Dacron"* Research Laboratory, is among more than 200 engineers, chemists and other technical men at the Laboratory and the Kinston Plant, where "Dacron" is made. Here he is using an infra-red spectrophotometer to determine molecular structure of polymer for making "Dacron". Dr. Hall is typical of Du Pont scientists from large northern cities who have become active in civic, cultural and edu-cational programs of communities in the Kinston area of Eastern North Carolina. Bill explained that his former job us-ually required at least 50 hours a week. At the Kinston Plant, he is normally on his job 40 hours a week. He receives one and one-half times his normal pay for overtime or two and one-half times his regular pay if he works on a holiday. Bill and Frances moved into a new home and acquired a new automobile in 1955; and they completed paying for the car last year. The combination of Bill's income and leisure time is one aspect of his working for Du Pont especially appre-ciated by the Rhues, who enjoy trips on long weekends. When Bill completes a week on the 12 a.m. to 8 a.m. shift he is off from 8 a.m. Friday until he begins the day shift at 8 a.m. Tuesday. If Tues-day happens to be one of his scheduled days of rest, his weekend continues until Wednesday. Stock for Employees Benefits the Rhues receive through the Du Pont Company's Industrial Relations Plans include eight holidays with pay per year; two weeks of vacation with pay annually; and savings through the Du Point Thrift Plan, which provides a con-tribution of 25 cents from the Company toward the purchase of Du Pont common stock for every dollar the employee in-vests in U. S. Savings bonds. All employees with at least one year of Du Pont service are eligible for bene-fits of the Disability Wage Plan if non-occupational illness or injury makes them unable to work. This plan provides full wages for as long as three months, less a two-day waiting period while an employee is absent because of disability. Other Du Pont employee benefits include the Pen-sion and Retirement Plan, Contributory and Non-Contributory Group Life Insur-ance Plans, Hospital-Surgical Coverage and the Salary Allotment Insurance Plan. The contributions of Kinston Plant Du Ponters to the social, cultural and re-ligious life of Eastern Carolina commun-ities provide another human side of the story- More than 600 of the plant's em-ployees live in Kinston alone, with about 385 children in the City's schools. Many Du Pont parents take leading roles in educational activities as officers of Par-ent- Teacher groups. Principals of Grain-ger High School and the two elementary schools attended by the majority of the children of Du Ponters living in Kinston say that almost all Du Pont parents are active in the work of the Parent-Teacher Association. Impetus also is added to educational advancement by active par-ticipation of Du Pont technical men in science symposiums and plant tours for high school students and teachers; talks on scientific subjects at schools and civic clubs; and a well-planned program of activities during annual Chemical Prog-ress Week observed in April. Employees Civic Minded Du Ponters are active in every phase of work in churches of all faiths at Kinston. All of the city's civic clubs also have Du Pont representatives. In both the Kinston Community Theater and the Toastmasters Club, the majority of offi-cers are Du Pont personnel; and the active membership of each is predominat-ed by Du Ponters. About 20 young men of the Kinston Plant are busy in the Jun-ior Chamber of Commerce, which conducts at least 20 major civic and youth welfare projects in the community each year. Many members of management at the plant are officers and committee chair-men of the United Community Fund, the American Red Cross and other charitable groups. Technical men on all levels take active roles in projects of the East Caro- PAGE 12 THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY WINTER-SPRING, 1958 lina Section of the American Chemical Society. About 100 Kinston Plant em-ployees are active leaders in all phases of work in the Caswell and Pitt Districts of the Eastern Carolina Council of Boy Scouts of America, and scores of others spend much of their leisure time in the summer working with small fry on Little League baseball teams. It is easy to see why natives of com-munities in the Kinston area know trans-planted Du Pont employees better as energetic citizens than as scientists and production men. Meanwhile, back at the plant, the highly technical process of manufacturing "Dacron" continues around the clock. It requires strict adherence to standard procedures by operators and other hourly roll employees in mainten-ance and other auxiliary groups; applica-tion of latest methods by supervision, both in personnel relations and in manu-facturing techniques; and constant search by technical men for quality improve-ment, better processes and new end uses for "Dacron". 2,200 Scientists, 30 Laboratories The Du Pont Company as a whole spent $80,000,000 on research and development in 1957, not including laboratory construc-tion and technical assistance to manufac-turing and sales. This work was carried forward by 2,200 scientists in 30 labora-tory locations. No better example of the reasons for such heavy expenditures of time, money and effort in seeking new products could be cited than the develop-ment of "Dacron". Since this miracle fiber made its debut, hundreds of new and improved uses have been developed for it in clothing, home furnishings and indus-trial materials. In clothing, "Dacon" is favored for its durability, wrinkle resistance, wash-and-wear qualities and shape retention. It is found now in all types of garments for men, women and children. Among newest developments are "automatic wash and wear" suits, dresses and sportswear of "Dacron" blended with rayon or cotton that need absolutely no ironing. Others include lightweight tropical uniforms of "Dacron" and rayon for truck drivers and delivery men that withstand rough weather yet remain neat. "Dacron" has gradually become a by-word of Americans shopping for clothes ranging all the way from lingerie to raincoats. In home furnishings, uses of "Dacron" include filling for comforters and pillows, washable curtains and tapestries and a variety of fabrics for other uses—all noted for long wear and ease of care. Industrial materials of "Dacron" include upholstery, fire hose, conveyer belts, laundry nets, sewing threads, tapes, fishing lines, sails, sleeping bags and many others. Quality and Cost Control Quality, cost reduction, and productivity are terms well known by Kinston Plant employees. Rigid standards, numerous tests and regular inspections to insure the built-in qualities of Du Pont's "Dacron" have been routine practices at the plant since it began operating five years ago. Operating efficiency is not only normal but necessary in a plant com-peting with manufacturers of numerous new man-made fibers, not to mention the Cartons of "Dacron"* polyester fiber in yarn form are loaded on a conveyor which carries them to scales for weighing and final check of quality, then to equipment for strapping them before shipment to customers. "Dacron" staple, which is fluffy and looks somewhat like cotton, is shipped in bales. natural fibers. Increases in output and reductions in operating costs have been musts in the plant's operations to offset forces that keep the margin of profit low on "Dacron". Factors in this race include the extremely high costs of manufactur-ing "Dacron", compared with other fibers, and increases in the wages and benefits of employees. Despite the stiff competition "Dacron" faces in the fast-moving textile fibers field, coupled with the recent slump in the mar-ket for all man-made fibers, Kinston Plant people and the Du Pont Company are optimistic about the future of their young but famous product. Du Pont's second plant for manufacturing "Dacron" is now under construction at Old Hickory, Tenn. In the Spring of 1958, W. E. Gladding, Plant Manager at Kinston, said, "Plans of the Company to build the new plant reflect its confidence that the market for 'Dacron' will continue to grow, even though the current textile industry reces-sion has made a cutback in production necessary here." Registered Du Pont trademark. TRUMBULL ASPHALT CO., MOREHEAD CITY The Trumbull Asphalt Company, Morehead City, is a subsidy of the Dela-ware company of the same name and is a part of the largest independent com-pany producing asphalts in the United States. It was established in 1935 and opened the Morehead City plant in 1950. The unit was opened to provide North Carolina with prompt service on asphalts both industrial and street types. The company employs 500 employees in all, and officers are: Robert H. Ga-skill, manager of the Morehead City Plant, 10 7 Arendell Avenue; J. Aikens Miller, president and Milton A. Toskey, vice-president. WICA CHEMICALS, INC., CHARLOTTE Wica Chemicals, Inc. began opera-tions in Charlotte in 1947. Services of the plant include sales, sales engineer-ing, laboratory application of various chemicals for the textile, paper-pulp industry, paint and adhesive manufac-turers. Products are designated as specialty chemicals to the above mentioned in-dustries and include, but not limited to, surfacants, detergents, thermoplastic and thermosetting resins, synthetic lat-ices, wetting agents, dye fixatives, and numerous others. Thirty-seven people are employed by the plant which is an increase of 100% in personnel during the last four years. Of Wica Mr. R. O. Simpson proudly says, "We believe that we are the fast-est growing native-owned chemical com-pany in the state. Our sales coverage is extensive over the entire eastern sea-board states and our products and com-pany name is recognized quite well throughout the rest of the nation. William C. Caldwell is president and treasurer of the corporation and John C. Boesch is vice-president. AIR REDUCTION SALES COMPANY, CHARLOTTE Employing forty-five regular employ-ees the Air Reduction Sales Company, 2300 South Boulevard, Charlotte, began operations in 1927. Products either made or distributed by the firm are oxygen, acetylene, nitrogen, argon, heli-um, rare gases, and carbide. Also manu-factured and/or distributed are welding and cutting apparatus and supplies; arc welding machines and electrodes; and inert gas arc welding equipment. N. H. Hobbie is the Charlotte plant manager. TRAITS (Cont. from Page 7) Physical Capacities—include a 5-point rating scale for requirements of strength, whether sedentary, light, medium, heavy, or very heavy. Other factors are includ-ed when pertinent. Working Conditions—This component reflects physical surroundings of the job. All jobs are rated for inside or outside and for other factors, such as heat, cold, humidity, noise, fumes, hazards, etc., when these are present. In North Carolina this technique is be-ing tested in one pilot office. Results ob-tained to date indicate an early installa-tion in other Employment Security offices in the State. KIRBY CHEMICAL COMPANY, INC., SEVERN Employing twenty workers the year around the Kirby Chemical Company, Inc., Severn, began operations in 1947. The firm, with an investment of $200,- 000, is headed by owners W. H. Jen-nings and M. D. Jennings. Kirby Chemical manufactures crude tall oil and refined tall oil for industry. Other plants of the corporation are lo-cated in Jacksonville, Florida and Vir-ginia Beach, Virginia. WINTER-SPRING, 1958 THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY PAGE 13 Radiator Specialty Co. 30 Years Old (Note: This article was furnished by the company and was originally publish-ed in "Trucking".) Charlotte's I. D. Blumenthal has al-ways been a man with ideas. And ideas, as everyone knows, make the world go around—and forward. One of his very best ones struck him about 30 years ago. And ever since, it has been paying dividends for President Blumenthal and his Radiator Specialty Company. Things were a lot different back in the 19 20's, but even then it was a me-chanical world. It was while consider-ing that whirring, clanking scene about him that Mr. Blumenthal felt the first stirrings of his idea. He observed that all machinery, no matter how well tended, was plagued by enemies as old as the metals they attacked. The culprits were rust and corrosion. Thirty years ago a common victim of the pair was the automobile radiator. To Blumenthal, the family jitney seem-ed a likely place to engage the enemy in battle. With his knowledge of chem-istry as a background, he learned every-thing he could about the causes of rust and corrosion. Then began to fashion the first of his "chemical tools" to com-bat them. The original product was a chemical radiator repair powder, to seal radiator leaks and prevent further ones. To in-troduce it to the world, he drove his Packard car to the center of Charlotte one morning, drummed up a crowd, and to the astonishment of all, punctured the core of his radiator. As water pour-ed from the hole, Blumenthal confident-ly dumped some of his powder into the radiator. The stream of water from the puncture dwindled to a trickle, then stopped. The crowd, sold, shouted for some of the "Magic" powder, and its voice was heard across the land . . . and Radiator Specialty Company was on the move. Since then, the story of the company is one of a continuing warfare against rust and corrosion. A growing number of products have been added to the orig-inal one, and almost all that is made in what now is a huge combination chemi-cal and rubber plant has something to do with the correction or disarming of the two malefactors. After the radiator sealer came a "tool" for leaking steam and water boilers, a cleaner for car radiators, a motor block seal, an anti-rust chemical for both auto radiators and factory boil-ers. Then followed development of chemical sealants for gaskets and joints that also are used in automobiles and steam and water boilers. The sealants now are manufactured in special densi-ties for all industrial application—for railroads, aircraft, factories, gas and oil lines, L-P gas and others. Today, the list of products carrying the Solder Seal name is long: truck and car cooling system cleaners, rust inhibi-tors, a fuel oil additive to ward off rust and corrosion in oil tanks — a plastic spray that protects against dampness as well as the rust and corrosion it brings. Probably the most widely used chemi-cal product made by Radiator Specialty is its Liquid Wrench — an amazing, super-penerating rust solvent that loos-ens rust-frozen joints when all other means fail. It is known and used every-where, but particularly in garages, service stations, factories and on farms. In addition to its chemical tools and protectors, President Blumenthal's plant manufactures rubber products for all kinds of automotive, plumbing and hardware outlets. For the plumbing trade alone, more than 600 rubber items are producted, ranging from washers to tank balls and gaskets of every type. Motorists everywhere are familiar with the company's Safe-T-Cone rubber traffic markers, those all-rubber cones used throughout the U. S. in guiding motorists through congested areas, pro-tecting dangerous areas, protecting freshly painted lines on highways, or indicating dangerous areas under repair or construction. Constantly at work checking the quality and performance of products — as well as developing new ones—is the company's modern, completely equipped and staffed laboratory. Long a national organization, the Radiator Specialty Company has a sales organization that is directed by four division sales managers and 45 top notch salesmen, who blanket the U. S. It maintains an affiliate in Canada and foreign export agents, also. All sales are made through wholesalers to the trade. Because of motor transport's flexible, fast service to every American city, the bulk of the Charlotte plant's raw mate-rials and products moves by truck. It has been Great Southern's privilege for many years to serve the constantly ex-panding company that grew from a thought in its founder's mind. MANPOWER (Cont. from Page 3) adequate staff for future needs rather than to fill current demands. In the larger companies (and many of the smaller ones, too) staffing needs are set up on a long-range basis. Va-cancies were apparently established for a fiscal year and personnel hired when-ever suitable applicants became avail-able. At the time of the survey, current vacancies equalled 70 percent of the net increase planned during the entire year in the engineering and scientific occupa-tions. Even allowing for the fact that some recruiting was being done for anti-cipated replacement needs, the bulk of all hiring expected to be done during the year showed up as job openings at the time of the survey. Numerous comments indicated that vacancies open more than 3 days were not necessarily a reflection of shortage. In many cases, openings were being held for college students who were al-ready committed to jobs after their June graduation. Occasionally a plant reported that there was no pressing need to fill its vacancies and that a worker would be hired when one with the precise qualifications desired came along. Difficulties in filling vacancies were frequently attributed to something other than absolute supply and demand in the occupations. Some small firms in iso-lated communities found it difficult to attract workers. Occasionally a plant was unable or unwilling to meet the high salaries offered by competing em-ployers. Or specialized training was re-quired; e. g. chemical engineers experi-enced in viscose rayon or in the paint industry. The paint and varnish indus-try, as a matter of fact, seemed more interested than other surveyed segments of the chemical industry in hiring more mature workers with specialized train-ing or experience rather than inexperi-enced young workers to be developed in their own plants. Utilization of Personnel There appeared to be a general effort to use fully qualified professional per-sonnel at their maximum skill and to delegate to technicians the less demand-ing tasks. Altogether, 14 percent of reporting establishments said they had increased their ratio of technical aides to professional staff within the last year. Such increases were more wide-spread in the industries characterized by large establishments than in those with characteristically smaller establish-ments. In the industrial organic chemi-cals segment, 21 percent of the report-ing establishments had increased the aide ratio; in the drugs and medicines industry, only 7.6 percent had done so; in industrial inorganic chemicals, 17.6 percent; and in paints and varnishes, 8.9 percent. Very little overtime was reported for the surveyed occupations, though it was frequently noted that laboratory experi-ments sometimes required long and ir-regular hours. Part-time workers were a rare excep-tion. Occasionally students (in a junior capacity) or teachers were employed on a part-time basis in the selected occupa-tions, usually with the prospect that they would become full-time workers when circumstances warranted. This full-time employment of students and teach-ers during the summer was widespread. This, too, was generally in the hope that they would become regular em-ployees at some future date. Hiring Practices Hiring specifications and methods are varied. The large companies with wide-ly scattered plants generally have a central personnel organization that con-ducts aggressive recruitment in the scientific and engineering occupations, though local installations also have some authority to hire. Recent college graduates seemed to be the expected source of most needed personnel in the selected occupations. There was a general and very definite preference for young male college grad-uates. However, many establishments indicated a willingness to hire excep-tionally well-qualified females or experi-enced workers. A considerable number of companies set no age or sex restric-tion, stating that they would hire any fully-qualified worker. They were in the minority, however. The paint indus-try differed slightly from the other sur-veyed segments of the chemical indus-try in its hiring specifications: the re-striction against females in engineering and scientific occupations was almost universal, and the demand for workers See MANPOWER, page 18 PAGE 14 THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY WINTER-SPRING, 1958 American Enka Corporation One Of Few Companies 4 AYERS By Wilson Ayeks, Editor, Enka Voice The morning of September 23, 1928 crept silently, as Sunday mornings do, in-to Asheville, North Carolina. Shortly, as the city stretched, shouts of "Extra! Extra!" pierced the quiet. Newsboys sudden-ly were pouring over the streets hawking a special edition of the Asheville Citizen- Times—an edition carrying the news that Asheville and Western North Carolina were re-ceiving a giant new industry. Their imagina-tion astir, towns-people read the front page stream-er: CITY GETS $10,000,000 RAYON PLANT. This was important to Asheville, vitally important. This meant hundreds of people would be employed—would go on an anticipated payroll of one and one-half million dol-lars per year. It was important also to the merchants of the area, to textile manufacturers of the South, and important generally to a section economically wobbly from a re-cent real estate boom-and-bust. On the day before this dynamic an-nouncement, officials of a Dutch rayon manufacturer, The Netherlands Artificial Silk Company of Arnheim,—and of the Central Bank and Trust Company, Ashe-ville, had signed papers transferring to newly-established American Enka Corpo-ration 2100 acres of land in Hominy Val-ley— a slumberous, creek-notched meadow seven miles west of Asheville. "Best" In U. S. The site chosen had to be the best avail-able in the United States—one that met these requirements: an abundant supply of pure water; accessibility to raw mate-rials and markets; an excellent climate; and an ample supply of capable labor. For months, representatives of the cor-poration investigated more than 50 pros-pective locations in Eastern America. Finally they de-termined on Hom-iny Valley, an ac-tion that convert-ed the mountain valley into one of the nation's im-portant centers for textile fibers. On May 2, 1928, in Delaware, the Dutch company created American Enka Corporation with a capitaliza-tion of about $16,- Dr. w R Berry js shown 000,000. working with the electron The decision to microscope in the Enka Re-oiwt the hno-o search Center. This is the eletl Lue uuge on |y microscope of this type rayon plant in in western North Carolina Hominy Valley and 'J ,**?"** times more .. * powerful than the most came at a time powerful light microscope. The strongest rayon tire cord yet developed—a product of American Enka Corporation—is designated "Super-Suprenka" and is said to be 45 percent stronger than regular grades, is examined by Dr. C. L. Henry, the company's senior research chemist (left), F. B. Breazeale, assistant director of research in charge of rayon research and development (center), and Dr. Forestier Walker, head of Enka's applied chemical research section. when this community was struggling to recover from the dismal burst that fol-lowed the great real estate boom of the middle Twenties. It brought encouragement, revived hope, and bolstered the economy to such an extent that it eased the great shock of the depression years of the Thirties. This September will mark the 30th an-niversary of the coming of Enka to Bun-combe County. Enka has become a true friend of the community and through its investments, payroll, taxes and other ex-penditures, it has poured over the years more than $200,000,000 into the economic lifestream of the Asheville area, and its leaders have made constructive contribu-tions in many ways to the welfare of Asheville and its religious, civic and cul-tural life. On June 10, 1929, the first boiler was fired at the plant and the first unit began operation. On July 1 of the same year, the first of what became a continuous out-put of viscose rayon was started. Some 1900 persons were employed, and the orig-inal plant reached full production in Au-gust, 1930. As part of a dynamic new in-dustry, Enka prospered and grew. The company now ranks as the nation's second largest producer of rayon with production capacity for more than 150 million pounds of rayon annually. It operates under 50 roofed acres at Enka, employs more than 5000 people at its two plant locations, and the annual payroll is more than $22,000,000. Financially strong, Enka is owned jointly by the par-ent company in Holland, and by thousands of investors who have purchased shares on the New York Stock Exchange. The company is American managed and staff-ed. More than 43 per cent of Enka's stock-holders are North Carolinians. Enka's rayon textile yarns are used ex-tensively in the manufacture of dresses, suits and linings, sportswear, under gar-ments, curtains, shirtings, tie fabrics, rib-bons, laces, braids, and broad and narrow woven fabrics. Draperies, carpets, and upholstery fabrics made of rayon have also gained wide acceptance. Pushing out from traditional markets in the textile industry, Enka developed and produced a variety of high-tenacity yarns with the pound-for-pound strength of steel. In addition to automotive and truck-tire uses, a growing number of newer applications have been found for this type of yarn, such as power and con-veyor belting, high-pressure industrial hose, wire-covering, and rope. Through the years, Enka's share of the rayon market has increased and it has won recognition as a pacesetter in the field of quality. As a producer of defense materials such as tire cord and other heavy-duty yarns, Enka became a key company in war production during World War II. Growing to meet expanded post-war needs, the company built a second plant at Lowland, near Morristown, Ten-nessee, in 1947. The Lowland plant, chiefly a producer of rayon tire cord, has 1700 employees and is this year observ-ing its 10th year of operation. New Nylon Plant Looking toward the future of the newer synthetic fibers, Enka completed a nylon plant at its Enka, North Carolina location in 1954, and with an eye to the need for preparing for the coming years and for protecting the company's competitive po- WINTER-SPRING, 1958 THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY PAGE 15 In The United States Manufacturing Chemical Fibers sition, Enka built a two million dollar Re-search Center in 1955 at Enka. The Research Center, one of the most modern in the textile industry, symbolizes Enka's faith in research as the corner-stone of growth and progress. The re-search staff, numbering more than 200, is equipped with facilities to meet the chal-lenge of a highly-competitive industry in which success depends on keeping abreast of new developments, improving present products and developing new products. All the achievements of rayon research, impressive as they have been, are not in the past. The rayon researchers are con-stantly looking to the future. Research, the painstaking accumulation of usable knowledge, and the versatility of rayon have made it one of the world's great fibers. For rayon, born a half century ago of scientific research, depends more than ever on research for its continued demand. What men have made, men can make still better. The pioneering research to make rayon better and still better led in time to a growing body of scientific knowledge and a growing curiosity about a diversity of chemical materials, apart from cellulose that possessed fiber-forming properties. It was thus in rayon research the chem-ical companies moved forward into the work that has brought into being a host of new products such as plastics, cello-phane synthetic fibers, and synthetic coatings. A large number of synthetic fibers of various types have reached the market since late 1930's. Like rayon and natural fibers, each of the new synthetics has cer-tain desirable qualities. Significantly, the consumption of rayon is still more than three times the total of all other man-made fibers—and since 1940, when the new fibers began to be available in quantity, rayon's share of the total textile market, far from declining, has actually more than doubled. Production of Nylon was begun in June in the multi-million-dollar plant expansion by American Enka Corporation. The enlarged facilities will nearly triple Enka's production of nylon yarns for the textile industry. Inspecting pirns of the first production were (L-R) Horace Sentelle, shift foreman; Paul W. Markwood, nylon operation manager; R. M. Hart, project engineer; W. M. Sessler, quality control and production planning manager; Dr. R. L. Parks, chief chemist; C. W. Rice, engineering services manager; and Ernest C. Moore, production superintendent. Products for Daily Living A large number of products used in daily living are made from Enka rayon and nylon. Many well known companies buy the company's yarns and fibers for subsequent processing into finished prod-ucts which are distributed on a national scale. Enka is one of the three leading rayon tire cord manufacturers in the country, and last year produced approximately 20 per cent of all rayon cord used in this country. Sales of tire cord amounted to more than 50 per cent of the firm's total business during 1957. Rayon cord has gone into more than 700,000,000 tires since 1947. This year, tire manufacturers will use over 300,000,- 000 pounds of rayon cord. When you buy a new car chances are almost certain that you will ride on rayon cord tires. Auto manufacturers used them as standard equipment on 99.2 per cent of their 1957 models, and they are on all production models in 1958. During the years that Enka has been making rayon tire yarn, it has maintained a research program to develop stronger and stronger fiber. Its efforts and those of other rayon manufacturers have been highly successful. Since 1950, rayon has been increased over 50 per cent in strength, and 60 per cent in flex resist- See ENKA, page 28 m:m : (L-R) Nick Floros and Robert Smith, two of Enka's large staff of highly-trained scientists at work developing new products and seeking new ways to improve the properties of existing cellulose and synthetic fibers. • •' 4* American Enka's plant is shown above. In the background may be seen the man-made lake which fronts on the company club house. The multi-million-dollar Nylon building had not been built at the time this picture was taken. The Nylon unit went into production in June. PAGE 16 THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY WINTER-SPRING, 1958 Hauling chemicals to textile manufacturers is big business for Ryder Tank Line, Inc., Greensboro. Here Driver J. T. Andrews steps into his cab to make a run with a stainless steel tanker. Trucks Play Big Part In Moving Chemicals Specialized chemicals are becoming in-creasingly important to North Carolina's textile industry, with the result that there is an increasing demand for the special-ized transportation of these raw materials by tank trucks. One of the major highway carriers serv-ing the textile mills of the Southeast is Ryder Tank Line, Inc., of Greensboro, N. C, which recently completed a new $70,000 terminal at Nitro, W. Va., in the heart of the Kanawha Valley area that accounts for five per cent of the entire U. S. chemical production. For example. Union Carbide Chemicals Co., which has three plants in North Caro-lina, manufactures more than 400 differ-ent chemicals, many of which go to tex-tile mills—acids used in the production of textile sizes, ketones used in the pro-duction of textile sizes, ketones used in stripping dyestuffs from fabrics, chlorine compounds that go into dyestuffs and dyeing assistants, metallic salts, solvents, and surface-active agents. "Traffic statistics show that the trend is toward tank trucks," said W. Reid Fit-chett, vice president and general manager of Ryder Tank Line. "Many textile mills are demanding liquid chemicals that must be delivered within precise temperature ranges on exact schedules. Fast, flexible tank truck service is the only answer to transportation problems of this kind." The Greensboro company was founded in 1949 as Miller Motor Line of North Carolina. It is now a member of the Common Carrier Division of Ryder Sys-tem, Inc., with a modern fleet of 150 trac-tors and tank trailers, and also a member of the N. C. Motor Carriers Association, Inc. First With Sleepers "We were the first tank line in the Southeast to transport liquid glues, resins, acid, white phosphorus—and all products other than petroleum derivatives," said the general manager. "We also were the first tank line to use sleeper cabs and specialize in long-haul deliveries of spe-cialized liquids." The Ryder fleet includes compartmented trailers that can handle as many as five different liquids on one haul. Operating in 20 states and the District of Columbia, Ryder Tank Line piled up a total of 4,164,199 miles of inter-city travel during 1957. "Our tank trucks have contributed to the growth of many small and middle-sized textile mills," Fitchett said. "In the transportation of specialized material, we are delivering to the small manufacturer bulk commodities which allow his busi-ness to be on an equal basis with the larger user who consumes many, many tank cars in a year. We render him the same service . . . save him labor, save him freight charges." CHAMPION MANUFACTURING COMPANY, CHARLOTTE By J. L. Goines, Manager The Champion Manufacturing Com-pany, 80 North Brevard Street, Char-lotte, started from scratch in 193 9. The owners worked out formulas for Cham- PADco Padding Cement and began manufacturing the product at that time. ChamPADco is used by printers in mak-ing tablets or to pad printed sheets into tablet form. The product is wholesaled to fine paper merchants who retail it to the printing industry. World War II completely halted operations of the firm when raw mate-rials could not be purchased. Follow-ing the war operations were resumed and today the original formula is used to manufacture the cement which is sold through the United States and sev-eral foreign countries. Other products of the company are: Champ Wood Glue, Champ Book Back Glue and Tipping Glue. The latter are used by the graphic arts industry while the wood glue is used by cabinet shops and millwork plants. Six employees work full time at the plant with equipment which was built by the owners with a small investment. The payroll runs about $27,000 annual-ly. Officers of the firm are: John L. Goines, president; Albert C. Goines, vice-president; Charlie S. Goines, secre-tary; and Paul W. Goines, treasurer. WIKOFF COLOR CORP., CHARLOTTE Wikoff Color Corporation, 410 South Gardner Avenue, Charlotte are manufac-turers of printing inks for letterpress, offset, flexograph and gravure. It also makes special coatings for the graphic arts industry. There are nine employees in the company which was started in May of 195 6. Officers of the corporation are: Fred C. Wikoff, Jr., president and Robert S. Stiteler, vice-president. Mrs. Faye Stro-upe is office manager. INTERCHEMICAL CORP., CHARLOTTE Robert L. Phillips, Jr., is the manager of the Charlotte Branch of Interchemi-cal Corporation which began operation in 1951. The corporation is engaged in the manufacture and servicing of print-ing inks which are sold to commercial printers, carton plants and newspapers. Fifteen people are employed in the Charlotte plant. BLACK PANTHER COMPANY, INC., SANFORD The Black Panther Company, Inc. of Sanford was organized in 19 48 and in addition to charcoal, manufactures in-secticides, fungicides, rodenticides and charcoal products. The products are merchandised through wholesale gro-cers, hardware, drug, feed and seed chains. Total investment for the plant employing 50 to 100 people seasonally amounts to $500,000. President of the firm is B. D. Smith, Jr. S. J. Smith is vice-president in charge of sales and C. M. McBryde is vice-president in charge of production and is treasurer of the corporation. Lucille Gross is secretary and assistant treasurer. WINTER-SPRING, 1958 THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY fclprth Carolina Stele Library Raleigh PAGE 17 Morton -Withers "On The Grow99 By Joseph R. Morton, President The business was started in Novem-ber 1931 as Textile Chemical Prod-ucts Company, with a small plant lo-cated on West Lee Street in Greensboro. The business was originally a partner-ship consisting of Joseph R. Morton, who at that time was Southeastern sales manager for Tubize-Chatillon Corp., and J. D. Fell (originally of Raleigh), who was general manager of Angle Silk Mills at Rocky Mount, Virginia. On last August 1, Morton-Withers Chemical Company was acquired by Chas. Pfizer & Co., Inc. of Brooklyn, N. Y., and on January 1 of this year, merged and since that time has operated as a divi-sion of the parent company. In September 1938, it was changed to Morton-Chemical Company and the busi-ness was incorporated. Early in 19 50, the company name was changed to Morton-Withers Chemical Company up-on the entry of John P. Withers, who had been raised in Raleigh and who had been working for ESSO Standard Oil Company in their chemical business. The plant is located at 2110 High Point Road, Greensboro, directly across the High Point Road from the location for the new auditorium-coliseum. The company is built on an 8-acre tract of ground served by siding from the South-ern Railway yards and comprises six buildings. Some High Vacuum Equipment generally consists of a series of reaction vessels, mostly of glasslined or stainless steel construc-tion, with heat provided by either steam or circulating Dowtherm and with some of the reactors being provided for at-mospheric and others for high vacuum operation. Two new items have been added within the past year, one of these being a new high-temperature, high-vacuum stainless steel polymer reactor with the necessary Dowthern heating and cooling equipment, and the other a complete new continuous unit for the production of high molecular weight oil soluble sulfonates by a new synthe-sis. Complete laboratories are available for research, control, product evaluation and technical sales service, together with a well-equipped technical library- The company's operations currently are divided pretty well into four fields, as follows: Plasticizers for vinyl resins as well as other synthetic resins and rubbers—A complete line of plasticizers is manufactured for this usage, these comprising phthalate, sebacate, adipate, azelate, citrate and other acid esters in both monomeric and polymeric forms. Polyester resins — A line of special polyester resins for use in the produc-tion of the new type polyurethane foams and rubbers that have been receiving so much prominence over the past few years. Synthetic lubricants—A line of mo-nomeric and complex esters for use in the formulation and fabrication of syn-thetic lubricants for usage in turbojet and turboprop engines. Synthetic sulfonates—A line of synthe-sized petroleum sulfonates of both high and low molecular weights, produced by a new synthesis and the first continuous process for the production of such mate-rials, with the products being utilized as bases for lubricating oily additives, cutting oils for metals, textile soluble oils, ore flotation agents, fat splitting catalysts and the like. The plant has a value of approximate-ly 1 % million dollars. Currently addi-tional employees are being added, with the present number being between 80 and 8 5. Annual payroll approximates $400,000. Division officers are Joseph R. Mor-ton, President, and John P. Withers, Vice-President, but as mentioned above, the company is now a division of Chas. Pfizer & Co., Inc., who have world-wide operations in the drug, antibiotic, phar-maceutical and chemical businesses. The company is headed by John E. McKeen, who is president and chairman of the board, and the annual report for 19 57 operations was recently published as a supplement to the Sunday New York Times of March 23, this report showing a steady, continued growth and success-ful operation. Sales for 19 57 were al-most 20 8 million dollars, and the com-pany presently has production plants in 14 foreign countries. The acquisition of Morton-Withers Chemical marked their entry into the petrochemical field and should result in expanded opera-tions both here at Greensboro and pos-sibly in the Gulf Coast area. FULBRIGHT LABORATORIES, INC., CHARLOTTE By C. O. Fctlbeight, President Fulbright Laboratories, Inc., 213 East Tremont Ave., Charlotte began opera-tion in 19 40. The entire plant, labora-tory and production unit, as well as the general offices is located at the above address. Services consist of chemical engineer-ing, specializing in industrial water treatment and corrosion engineering. Chemical formulas are designed to individual specifications, according to the quality of the water being treated and to the operating conditions. These formulas are easily adjusted to meet fluctuation and evaporation, thus main-taining top efficiency of heat transfer surfaces at all times. Power plant supplies for boiler treat-ment are FUL-O-FOS, FULKOLLOID and OXY-CIDE. Products for steam and return line treatment are FULAFILM and FULA-MINE. Products for air conditioning and re-frigeration equipment include RUSTI-SOL and FUL-O-CIDE. Twenty-three people are employed by F^ulbright Laboratories, three of which are female. The officers and executive personnel of the corporation are: C. O. Fulbright, president and treasurer; J. Lewis Car-ter, vice-president; Lois E. Sasser, sec-retary and assistant treasurer; J. A. Huff, general manager and J. M. Reitzes, technical director. ROME CHARCOAL CORP., SANFORD In the village of Colon, population 300, located a few miles from Sanford is the Rome Charcoal Corporation. Sev-eral years ago the state of North Caro-lina had no company producing char-coal, today it is one of the leading states in production. While the industry does not employ a great number of people to produce the charcoal (Rome Corporation has 25 em-ployees ) , it does furnish employment for many indirectly. Farmers and wood haulers use spare time to add to their income by hauling wood to the plants. Unlike most wood-using industries Rome Charcoal manufacturers uses only "waste" woods. The company purchases hardwood slabs that have no other com-mercial value and low grade round wood that would never develop into commer-cial timber. When Rome's Lillington plant, now being built, goes into full production, that firm will produce 10 million pounds of hardwood charcoal each year. The Colon plant is one year old and has as its officers Sidney A. Rome, president; Milton Rome, vice-president; and Robert Noneman, general manager. REICHHOLD CHEMICALS, INC., CHARLOTTE Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. began Charlotte operations in 19 52. The plant is located on New Pineville Road. The company offers technical sales service and industrial resins and chemicals to industry. The plant employs about forty people full time. T. R. Johnson is general manager of the Charlotte operation. President of the company is Henry H. Reichhold who was born in a Berlin, Germany, suburb. He received his tech-nical education in German Universities and came to the United States when he was twenty-two to study automobile surfacing techniques. He took a job in the Ford Motor Company paint depart-ment. Within a short time he began experi-menting with synthetic resins in order to perfect a faster drying, more durable auto finish. He conducted these trials in the garage of a friend of his, Charles J. O'Connor, today Chairman of the Board and a Director of RCI. The finish he developed dried satisfactorily in a few hours as against the two weeks time required for the finishes then in use. In 19 27, Mr. Reichhold gave up his job with Ford—soon to be an RCI cus-tomer— and bought a paint factory in Ferndale, just outside Detroit, where he founded his first plant. Today the com-pany has fourteen vice-presidents. CONSOS, INCORPORATED, CHARLOTTE With an investment of $100,000, Con-sos, Incorporated has, since 1943, been manufacturing specialty products for textile plants in the south. These prod-ucts are softeners, penetrants, coning oils and wetting agents. The firm also offers, in the way of services, a commer-cial laboratory and personal assistance in textile plants in the southeast. The plant is located on Statesville Road in Charlotte and its president is Charles J. Wolhar. PAGE 18 THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY WINTER-SPRING, 1958 Labor Turnover Program And 1957 Turnover Data For The Chemical Industry By Arleene A. Holloway Research Analyst, Bureau of Research and Statistics, ESC The North Carolina Cooperative Labor Turnover Program is operated jointly by the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Bureau of Employment Security. This Program in-volves collecting, processing, and publishing labor turnover statistics based on informa-tion reported monthly by a sam-ple of establish-ments engaged in manufacturing and mining activi-ties. In seeking to make the original survey of national labor turnover fig-ures more mean-ingful for the North Carolina employers, the North Carolina Employ-ment Security Commission in May 1956 undertook the responsibility for carrying out and expanding the program. At the outset there were around 350 participat-ing employers, which number has now in-creased to more than 1,200. The purpose of enlarging the sample was to improve the coverage in terms of industry seg-ments and to insure that the industry rates for North Carolina would be repre-sentative of the industry's experience in North Carolina. Labor turnover statistics are beneficial when used to compare the turnover rates for an establishment with the over-all rates for that industry in the State or possibly in the area in which the estab-lishment is located. These data are help-ful to those seeking a better understand-ing of labor mobility and desiring to utilize the existing labor force to the high- HOLLOWAY Accessions Year's Monthly Industry Total Average State-wide—All Manufacturing.... 35.7 3.0 Chemicals and Allied Products.. 44.1 3.7 Fertilizers „... 96.9 8.1 Vegetable & Animal Oils and Fats 118.4 9.9 Other Chemical Products 18.2 1.5 est degree by reducing unnecessary and costly movement. By having a clear pic-ture of conditions and grasping the ex-tent of wastefulness incurred by exces-sive turnover, the employer can improve his productivity record and can evaluate the success of his personnel policies. The following review of the turnover experi-ence in the Chemical Industry during 1957 illustrates how turnover data can be used to point up any excessive turnover that may need corrective measures in order to insure more efficient operations. Participating establishments in the La-bor Turnover Program employ more than 83 per cent of the employees in the chem-ical industry covered by the Employment Security Program. These firms are locat-ed in all sections of the State with the greatest concentration (64 per cent) in the Piedmont section. Even though par-ticipating employers in the manufacture of fertilizer and vegetable and animal oils and fats are greater numerically than the employers engaged in manufacturing all other chemicals, they comprise only 13 per cent of the employment for the entire industry. Since the fertilizer and vege-table and animal oil groups are so highly seasonal, they impart a definite seasonal movement to the chemical industry's over-all rates. Nevertheless, despite the high rates for accessions and separations, the industry's quit rate is relatively low. The table below shows the full year 1957 rates and also the average monthly rates for accessions and separations, including quits and layoffs which are the most im-portant segments of separations. These data show the State turnover experience for total manufacturing as well as for the chemical industry, including a break-down of certain sub-divisions within the industry. Notice the wide variation in turnover experience between the fertilizer and veg-etable and animal oil groups on the one hand and the "other chemical products" group. During 1957 there was an over 100 per cent turnover in the first two groups, 1957 TURNOVER Separations Year's Monthly Total Average 39.4 3.3 47.6 4.0 115.5 9.6 Quits Year's Monthly Total Average 17.2 1.4 9.5 .8 23.4 1.9 Layoffs Year's Monthly Total Average 17.6 1.5 34.8 2.9 85.8 7.2 107.3 20.1 8.9 1.7 3.7 7.3 101.8 10.1 8.5 Layoffs N.C. U.S. MONTHLY ACCESSION AND SEPARATION RATES Total Ace. Total Sep. Quits Discharges Month N.C. U.S. N.C. U.S. N.C. U.S. N.C. U.S. January 2.1 1.8 2.5 1.5 .5 .8 .2 .1 1.6 .4 February 3.1 1.6 2.1 1.5 .7 .7 .2 .1 1.1 .5 March 4.1 1.5 4.7 1.7 .8 .8 .1 .1 3.7 .6 April 3.4 1.4 7.0 1.5 1.1 .7 .2 .1 5.6 .5 May 1.3 1.5 11.8 1.7 1.4 .9 .2 .1 10.0 .5 June _ 1.3 3.1 6.2 1.4 .9 .8 .0 .1 5.2 .3 July 4.0 2.0 4.2 1.7 .7 .8 .1 .1 3.3 .7 August 2.9 1.8 1.6 2.3 .8 1.3 .2 .1 .5 .6 Sept. 6.8 1.8 1.9 2.9 1.2 1.9 .1 .1 .5 .6 October 5.6 1.5 1.2 1.6 .4 .7 .1 .1 .5 .7 November 6.6 1.0 2.0 1.8 .6 .5 .1 .1 1.2 1.0 December 2.9 .9 2.4 1.8 .4 .4 .2 .1 1.6 1.2 National data for December are preliminary. but the balance of the chemical group ex-perienced only about one-fifth of that turnover; i.e., about 20 per cent. This latter turnover rate, incidentally, was ap-proximately half the turnover experienced by all manufacturing in the State as re-vealed by the turnover sample. The effects of the seasonality is also evident as one compares the turnover rates for North Carolina with those for the nation. In most cases the national accession and separation rates were low-ed than the rates for the State. This was due in part to the composition of the national sample which has more non-seasonal segments of the industry such as synthetic fibers; drugs and medicines; soap and cleaning preparations; paints; and other miscellaneous chemicals. The smaller seasonal impact makes for a more stabilizing effect on the national rates. The accompanying table shows the over-all chemical accession and separation monthly average rates per 100 workers for the State and nation for the calendar year 1957. Manpower (Cont. from Page 13) thoroughly experienced in the paint in-dustry was more widespread. The larger companies maintain regu-lar recruiting groups that keep in con-tact with colleges the year 'round. En-trance salaries are high. Prospective employees are invited to visit the plant and be interviewed with all expenses paid. If the applicant decides to accept employment, usually his moving expen-ses are paid and assistance is offered in finding suitable housing. If an under-graduate looks promising and is willing to commit himself to work for the com-pany after graduation, the company will frequently help defray the cost of his education and welcome him as a tem-porary employee during summer vaca-tions. In addition, many companies offer scholarships to engineering and scientif-ic students. Though colleges are the main source of supply, other sources are also used. Nearly all companies advertise in news-papers and trade and professional jour-nals. They also use both private and public employment agencies. Turnover Once the engineer or scientist had been hired, there did not appear to be much of a problem keeping him on the job. The vast majority of establish-ments reported that turnover was no problem—that separations in the select-ed occupations were no higher and usu-ally lower than among the total work force. Higher salaries elsewhere, a desire for more scope, or the wish to move to another area were the most frequently cited reasons for quits. CAROLINA BY-PRODUCTS CO., INC., GREENSBORO Organized in 19 28 and headed by President Stanley Frank, the firm col-lects and processes for industrial use, animal wastes. Employing seventy-one people the company's products are ani-mal fats and proteins. WINTER-SPRING, 1958 THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY PAGE 19 Impact Of Unemployment Insurance On The Community By Dr. Frank T. deVyver, Chairman Economics and Business Administration Department Duke University This speech was delivered before the 195S Annual Convention, North Caro-lina Chapter, International Association of Personnel In Employment Security Durham, N. C, on May 3, 1958. I propose this morning to discuss with you briefly the possible impact of unem-ployment insurance on the community. This subject has its positive aspects, namely, the impact on the community of taxes and benefits. It also has its nega-tive aspects because there are many peo-ple who have mistaken ideas on the im-pact of the program. Therefore, I shall want to give you my conclusions on these mistaken ideas as well as on taxes and benefits. For the examination both of the posi-tive and negative sides of the subject, let's refer to the law. Here we find what the legislature thought to be the purpose of unemployment insurance. "Economic insecurity due to unemploy-ment," said the legislature, "is a serious menace to the health, morals, and welfare of the people of this state. Involuntary unemployment is therefore a subject of general interest and concern which re- Quires appropriate action by the legisla-ture to prevent its spread and to lighten its burden which now so often falls with crushing force upon the unemployed worker and his family. The achievement of social security requires protection against this greatest hazard of our eco-nomic life. This can be provided by en-couraging employers to provide more stable employment and by the systematic accumulation of funds during periods of employment to provide benefits for periods of unemployment, thus maintaining pur-chasing power and limiting the serious social consequences of poor relief assist-ance." Note, please, that the legislature set up an insurance scheme to collect funds from employers and pay those funds out to workers who become unemployed through no fault of their own. Note also that, like so many other types of insurance, the unemployment insurance rates might vary to "encourage employers to provide more stable employment." Any one of you who pays automobile liability insurance knows that if you have a teen-age driver in the family your insurance costs more. In the light of this legislative declara-tion of purpose, let us examine some of the positive impacts of this program upon the community. Community Impact In the first place, the unemployment insurance program has an impact on the community because of the tax which is collected. In the twenty-year period 1937- 57 North Carolina employers have con-tributed nearly $388 million to the unem-ployment insurance program. In 1957 alone these employers contributed $30,- 518,934. That, I submit, is a sizable chunk of cash to take out of the North Carolina economy. This tax is probably borne chiefly by consumers in higher prices. Just how much of the tax will be eventually shifted to workers in lower wages or remain on the employers in the form of lower profits is difficult to say because there are so many economic vari-ables to be considered in each case. But the tax has been paid. You know about the tax system here in North Carolina. The base taxable wage is up to $3,000. The tax itself may range from 0.1 to 3.7%, depending upon indi-vidual employer experience and the gen-eral condition of the unemployment insur-ance trust fund itself. On the average, North Carolina employers paid a tax in 1957 of 1.45 on taxable wage payments and the projected rate for 1958 is 1.43%. Tax rates, of course, vary with the type of industry. Thus, in 1956 tax rates paid by utilities was .94%, in finance 1.07% and in construction 1.59%. In manufac-turing, which employs the largest number of workers covered by the program, the average rate was 1.39%. The impact of the tax on the community will therefore vary according to the principal activities of its covered industries. This will per-haps explain in part the fact that the average contribution rate for Mecklenburg County in 1956 was 1.16%, whereas the rate in Wake County was 1.10%—
|Publisher||Raleigh, N.C.: Employment Security Commission of North Carolina,1947-1975.|
|Rights||State Document see http://digital.ncdcr.gov/u?/p249901coll22,63754|
|Digital Characteristics-A||40 p.; 7.83 MB|
|Digital Collection||North Carolina Digital State Documents Collection|
|Title Replaces||U.C.C. quarterly**|
|Pres File Name-M||pubs_serial_escquarterly19581960.pdf|
|Pres Local File Path-M||Preservation_content\StatePubs\pubs_serial_escquarterly|
North Carolina State Library
The E. S. C. Quarterly
VOLUME 16, NO. 1-2 WINTER-SPRING, 1958
DUPONT AND AMERICAN ENKA MANUFACTURE CHEMICAL FIBERS IN NORTH CAROLINA
In four eight-hour shifts employees of the Kinston Dupont "Dacron" Plant carry on the continuous process around the clock. The huge plant is shown
above as it appears at night, in operation. Superimposed is Dupont Business Machine Operator June Wilson of Kinston and Tarboro wearing a black and white
satin ensemble made of "Dacron" and silk and fashioned by Pierre Belmain in Paris, France. This was one of 19 creations by famous French designers
shown in the "Paris to Kinston" Spring Fashion Show commemorating Dupont's fifth anniversary of operations for the Kinston plant.
Employment Security Commission of North Carolina
RALEIGH, N. C.
PAGE 2 THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY WINTER-SPRING, 1951
The E. S. C. Quarterly
(Formerly The TJ.C.C. Quarterly)
Vol. 16, No. 1-2 Winter-Spring, 1958
Issued at Raleigh, N. C. by the
EMPLOYMENT SECURITY COMMISSION OF
Commissioners: Mrs. Quentin Gregory, Halifax; Dr. Maurice
Van Hecke, Chapel Hill: R. Dave Hall, Belmont; W. Benton
Pipkin, Reidsville; Bruce E. Davis, Charlotte; Crayon C.
State Advisory Council: Public representatives: James A. Brid-ger,
Bladenboro, Chairman; Sherwood Roberson, Roberson-ville;
W. B. Horton, Yanceyville; Mrs. R. C. Lewellyn, Dob-son,
and Dr. J. W. Seabrook, Fayetteville; Employer repre-sentatives:
A. L. Tait, Lincolnton, and W. A. Egerton, Enka;
Employee representatives: Melvin Ward, Spencer, AFL, and
H. D. Lisk, Charlotte, CIO.
HENRY E. KENDALL Chairman
R. FULLER MARTIN Director
Unemployment Insurance Division
JOSEPH W. BEACH Director
North Carolina State Employment Service Division
TED DAVIS Editor
Public Information Officer
Sent free upon request to responsible individuals, agencies,
organizations and libraries. Address: E. S. C. Informational
service. P. O. Box ~>S!>. Raleigh. N. C.
TABLE OF CONTENTS WILL BE FOUND ON PAGE 39
SOME CHANGES HAVE BEEN MADE
With this issue of "The E. S. C. Quarterly" you
will note several changes. Roy Brantley who so ably
edited this magazine for the last couple of years has
moved on to a Public Relations position with the
State Personnel Department.
In his place is Ted Davis, who was selected in
February to fill the office of Public Information Offi-cer
for the Commission.
The most obvious change is in the format of "The
E. S. C. Quarterly." The magazine has for many
years been printed in ten point type, two columns to
the page, one of the most "readable" of type sizes
and faces. However, the new style featured this
issue will enable us to get more information into the
same amount of space. The three narrow columns,
although in smaller, eight point type, almost triples
the reading matter per page.
Pictures may now be published in one, two or three-column
widths with a degree of standardization
which will eliminate "odd-sized" engravings requir-ing
special type setting.
The last change is in the Table of Contents. Here-tofore
we have not listed in the index all articles by
name. All industries of a certain type have some-times
been "lumped" under one set of page numbers.
We hope that this change will enable you to use the
"Quarterly" to greater advantage.—td
Henry E. Kendall, Chairman
Employment Security Commission
A matter causing constant amazement is the larg
number of manufacturing firms within the variou
industries which are covered by the work of th
Employment Security Commission. And yet, in
fast growing economy such a
we have here in these Unite
States, and more specificall
here in North Carolina, w
should hold few things, such a
industrial growth, in awe.
In the chemical field alont
which is featured in this issu
of THE E. S. C. QUARTERLY
there are almost 200 plants o
varying sizes manufacturin
chemical products in this Stat*
These range in size from con
panies with the minimum d
four employees to the large te>
tile chemical plants employin
Perhaps we'd not be astonished if we knew moi
about the types of plants accomplishing chemic?
work in this state. For instance, how many of u
knew that in Waynesville, North Carolina, is or
of the two chemical plants in the United State
manufacturing Epsom Salt? My curiosity we
aroused when I learned that Epsom Salt can also t
extracted from Olivine, a substance which is foun
in the western part of our state. In fact the Balsai
Gap Company, affiliated with the Giles Chemic;
Company, owns an entire mountain of the materi;
a few miles from Waynesville.
Another odd fact about North Carolina's Epsoi
Salt industry is that the Waynesville plant ca:
within a matter of a few hours, switch from Epso:
Salt to Milk of Magnesia, using the same Olivir
The production of Nylon, Rayon, and Dacron
North Carolina is a multi-million dollar busines
In Kinston, North Carolina, Dupont's Dacron plar
operates around the clock as does the America;
Enka plant at Enka, just outside Asheville. Th
processes by which these materials are chemical!
manufactured are as closely guarded as are tlji
secrets of the atomic age.
A study by the Manufacturing Chemists' Associji
tion, Washington, D. C, points out that in 1958 arj!
1959 approximately $79 million will be invested f