Course of study for the elementary schools of North Carolina: reading, language, spelling, health, elementary science, citizenship
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®ije Htbrarp of tfje Collection of Mmty Caroliniatta Cnbotueb &$> 5ofjtt &prunt TfyiW of tfje Class oU889 C375".ol r 00034026152 This book must not be taken from the Library building l6JuJ'3ft. 12Mv34J0 14Jul ; *-; . Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2011 with funding from Ensuring Democracy through Digital Access (NC-LSTA) http://www.archive.org/details/courseofstudyfor1930nort Educational Publication No. 154 Division of Publications No. 47 COURSE OF STUDY FOR THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF NORTH CAROLINA READING LANGUAGE SPELLING HEALTH ELEMENTARY SCIENCE CITIZENSHIP published by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction Raleigh, N. C. PRESS OP Observer Printing House charlotte, n. c. CONTENTS Page Introduction 5 General Statement 7 Reading 1 1 Introductory Statement 12 Part One: The Needs of the Teacher 12 Part Two: The Program of Reading Instruction Within the Classroom . 21 General Discussions of Important Factors in the Reading Program 22 Suggested Outline for the Reading Program in: Grades I to VII, Inclusive . 38 The First Grade 38 The Second and Third Grades 72 The Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Grades 101 The Seventh Grade 111 Part Three: Further Steps in Unifying and Broadening the Reading Course Through the Grades 117 Language 119 Part One: Basic Principles Underlying the Making of the Course of Study in Language 119 Part Two: General Suggestions Concerning Language Instruction 122 Part Three: Language in the Primary Grades 133 Introduction 133 First Grade 139 Second Grade 1 46 Th ird Grade 156 Part Four: Language in the Grammar Grades, Four to Seven 166 Introduction 166 Fourth Grade 178 Fifth Grade 185 Sixth Grade 192 Seventh Grade 205 Part Five: Language Forms According to Grade 211 Part Six: Follow-up Work in Course of Study Making 221 Spelling 223 The Course in Spelling 223 First Grade Spelling 236 Second Grade Spelling 238 Third Grade Spelling 241 Fourth Grade Spelling 247 Fifth Grade Spelling 249 Sixth Grade Spelling 251 Seventh Grade Spelling . 253 Bibliography 255 Health 257 Part One: Introduction 257 Part Two: Health Education Procedures 271 Analyses of Some Factors and Situations Which Influence Health Study 271 Outline of Work by Grades for Period to be Given to Definite Instruction 278 Grades One, Two and Three 278 Grade Four 318 Grade Five 337 Grade Six 353 Grade Seven 365 How May Health Achievements be Measured 378 Part Three: Reference Materials 386 Page ELEMENTARY SCIENCE 395 Introduction 395 The Subject Denned 395 Aims of Teaching Elementary Science 396 Methods of Teaching Elementary Science 399 Science Concepts to be Gained 414 The Curriculum 415 Utilize Nature Material of Local Environment 421 Restricted Lists of Nature Phenomena Common to North Carolina 422 General Information 424 Citizenship 429 Meaning of Citizenship 429 General Objectives of the Course in Citizenship 429 Specific Objectives of the Course in Citizenship 430 Some Suggestions for Reaching These Objectives 439 General Procedure 439 Materials and Period for Definite Instruction in Civic Information 439 Remedial Work With Problem Cases 448 Grades One, Two and Three 449 Grades Four ad Five 460 Grades Six and Seven 464 Teaching Units Illustrating Phases of Citizenship Training in the Intermediate and Upper Elementary Grades 470 Measuring Growth in Citizenship 485 Bibliography and References 490 Addresses of Publishers . 493 INTRODUCTION Only a few elementary texts can now be changed in any one year. This makes necessary the division of the course of study into two or more parts. The present volume treats the subjects in which new texts have been adopted since the last course of study was published, and two subjects in which no text is required. A special committee from the staff of the State Department of Public Instruction has had direct responsibility for this work. This committee consisted of James E. Hillman, Chairman; Juanita McDougald, Secretary; L. C. Brogden, Nancy O. Devers, G. H. Ferguson, Susan Fulghum, M. C. S. Noble, Jr., and Hattie S. Parrott. Associated with this central committee were school people in this State and elsewhere who assisted directly in the study of the various subjects. Acknowledgment is given to these friends and students of education who have rendered this help. FOR READING: P/" J?.1?? W' Carr' Associate Professor of Education, Duke University, Durham, N. C. Miss Sibyl Henry, Graduate Student, Duke University, Durham, N. C. Miss Annie M. Cherry, Supervisor Halifax County Schools, Roanoke Rapids, N. C. leachers, supervisors and other educators who read and evaluated the course. The Curriculum Committee preparing the Elementary School Curriculum for the public schools in the State of Minnesota. The Curriculum Committee preparing the Course of Study in Reading for Fresno, Cali-fornia, public schools. Other State Courses of Study used for checking on present-day trends in curriculum making and contents of courses of study. Charles E. Merrill Company, Publishers, New York, N. Y. Johnson Publishing Company, Richmond, Va. FOR LANGUAGE: Dr. Carl Adams, Director of Instruction in Education and Psychology, E. C. T. C. Greenville, N. C. Dr. John W. Carr, Associate Professor of Education, Duke University, Durham, N. C. Miss Frances Whitney, Department of Education, Lenoir Rhyne College, Hickory, N C. Miss Evelyn Weaver. Critic Teacher, Appalachian State Teachers College, Boone, N C. Miss Nora Beust, Specialist in Children's Literature, Chapel Hill, N C. Miss Annie Ray, Critic Teacher, Western Carolina Teachers College, Cullowhee, N. C. Miss Annie Cherry, Supervisor Halifax County Schools, Roanoke Rapids, N. C. Miss Myrla Morris, Critic Teacher, N. C. C. W., Greensboro, N C Miss Nan Lacy, Primary Teacher, Raleigh, N. C. Mrs. A. E. Gouge, Instructor in Teacher Training, Bakersville, N. C. Miss Mary Johns, Grammar Grade Teacher, Raleigh, N C. Miss Nannie Mae Tilley, Grade Teacher, Bahama, N. C. Miss Bettie Aiken Land, Critic Teacher in Primary Grades, N. C. C. W., Greensboro, N. C. Miss . Salhe B Marks, Associate Professor of Elementary Education, U. N. C, Chapel Hill, N. C. Miss Martha Ray, Grade Teacher, Concord, N. C. Miss Mary Hyman, Supervisor Orange County Schools, Hillsboro, N. C. Miss Miriam MacFadyen, Critic Teacher in Primary Grades, N. C. C. W., Greensboro, Miss Ida Seidel, Supervisor Pitt County Schools, Greenville, N. C. Dr. L. R. Meadows, Head of English Department, E. C. T. C, Greenville, N. C. FOR SPELLING: Miss Mary Blackstock, Supervisor Buncombe County Schools, Asheville, N. C Miss Clyde Fields, East Elementary School, Statesville, N. C. Miss Margaret Gustin, Supervisor Carteret County Schools. Beaufort, N. C. Miss Ruth Heilig, Principal Innes Elementary School, Salisbury, N. C Miss Mamie Howard, Principal Elementary School, Candor. N. C Miss Vera Keech, Supervisor Perquimans County Schools, Hertford, N. C. Miss Ethel McNairy, Primary Supervisor City Schools, Statesville, N. C Miss Edna Morgenthaler, Supervisor Elementary Schools, High Point, N. C Dr. K. C. Garrison, N. C. State College of Agriculture and Engineering, Raleigh, N. C. Dr. h. H. Koos, Assistant Superintendent City Schools, Winston-Salem, N. C. FOR HEALTH: Consultant—C. E. Turner, Professor of Health Education, Institute of Technology. Cambridge, Mass. Miss Nettie Brogden, Rural Supervisor Guilford County, Greensboro, N. C. Miss Helen Burch, Instructor Teacher Training, Franklin, N. C. Miss Berta Coltrane, Instructor Teacher Training, Whiteville, N. C FOR HEALTH (Continued): Miss Nena DeBerry, Principal Frank B. John School, Salisbury, N. C. Mr. J. H. Epperson, Superintendent of County Health Department, Durham, N. C. Miss Ruth Gunter, Supervisor Lee County, Sanford, N. C. Miss Emily Johnson, Instructor Teacher Training, Grassy Creek, N. C. Miss Mary Moyle, Instructor Teacher Training, Linwood, N. C. Mrs. Hildred E. Wessel, Instructor Teacher Training, Murphy, N. C. Miss Carrie Wilson, Supervisor Nash County, Nashville, N. C. Miss Helen Dunlap, Supervisor Edgecombe County, Tarboro, N. C. Dr. C. O'H. Laughinghouse, State Board of Health, Raleigh, N. C. Dr. G. M. Cooper, State Board of Health, Raleigh, N. C. FOR ELEMENTARY SCIENCE: Mrs. M. Louise Bullard, Grammar Grade Teacher, Raleigh, N. C. Dr. J'>hn W. Carr, Associate Professor of Education, Duke University, Durham, N. C. Dr. Bert Cunningham, Professor of Biology, Duke University, Durham, N. C. Miss Flossie Martin, Science Teacher, Winston-Salem, N. C. Dr. C. E. Preston, Associate* Professor of the Teaching of Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. Dr. R. J. Slay, Director of Science Instruction, East Carolina Teachers College, Green-ville, N. C. Dr. L. H. Snyder, Associate Professor of Zoology, N. C. State College, Raleigh, N. C. Dr. B. W. Wells, Professor of Botany, N. C. State College, Raleigh, N. C. FOR CITIZENSHIP: Miss Gladys Boyington, Teacher Social Studies, N. C. C. W., Greensboro, N. C. Mr. LS. D. Bunn, Superintendent Puolic Schools, Lillington, N. C. Mi<s l.elia Cobb. Supervisor Wayne County Schools, Goldsboro, N. C. Miss Virginia Eldridge, Teacher Raleigh Public Schools, Raleigh, N. C. Miss Hattie R. Fowler, Instructor Teacher Training, Taylorsville, N. C. Prnf Holland Holton, Department ot Education, Duke University, Durham, N. C. Miss Louise Gill, Instructor T<-acher Training, Shelby, N. C. Miss Clara Lanier. Auditorium Teacher Kmston Public Schools, Kinston, N. C. Mrs. T. E. Johnston, Teacher Social Studies, Salisbury, N. C. Miss Bonte Loftin, Teacher Social Studies, Concord. N. C. Miss Hilda McCurdy, Instructor Teacher Training, Yancey County, Burnsville, N. C. Mr. K. A. McDonald, Superintendent Public Schools, Hope Mills, N. C. Miss Dell Pnpe. Teacher Raleigh Public Schools, Raleigh, N. C. Dr. M. R. Trabue, Department of Education, U. N. C, Chapel Hill, N. C. Miss Selma Webb. Principal Elemeniary Schools. Shelby, N. C. Prof. M. L. Wright E. C. T. C, Greenville, N. C. Mr. O. E. Michie, Graduate Student, U. N. C, Chapel Hill, N. C. This course of study has been prepared within a year by people who were extremely busy with other important and pressing duties. A year does not offer one sufficient time to translate his best experience into a written course of study even when it is possible to give it undivided atten-tion. The people doing this work, therefore, labored under two very severe handicaps: (1) A limited time in which to do the work, and (2) the pres-sure of other duties. In spite of all this, however, it is believed that this bulletin represents an accurate expression of the best current thought on these subjects. We are well aware that the making of a course of study is not a static thing, but represents a dynamic and a continuous effort. The work of today may be entirely discarded on the morrow. It is hoped that teachers using this bulletin will find the treatments contained herein stimulating and helpful, and that all teachers, principals, supervisory and administrative officers will cooperate with us to the end that the next effort may be an improvement on this. I wish here to express my appreciation to the several members of this department for their unstinted and willing effort in this great undertaking, as well as to the many friends of elementary education outside of this department who have given freely of their time and effort, without reward or compensation of any kind, in the preparation of this course of study. La A State Superintendent of Public Instruction. September S, 1930—25M. COURSE OF STUDY GENERAL STATEMENT This volume of the Course of Study for the Elementary Schools in-cludes the following subjects: Reading Language Spelling Health Elementary Science Citizenship Each subject is treated quite fully and in detail. There is little need, therefore, for an extended statement of a general nature. Attention is called very briefly to some conceptions and purposes of education and certain underlying principles which are embodied in this Course of Study, so that the teacher may more effectively interpret the suggestions given to meet the needs of her children. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION Education seeks to promote the satisfying of the needs of humanity as a whole. It strives for the advancement of mankind. Education is con-cerned with the discovery of the most satisfactory adjustments of an indi-vidual to the people, things and conditions in the world. It is concerned not only with understanding, controlling, and effecting changes in the out-side world which promote the general welfare, but in bringing about the changes in human nature which result in the desired adjustments—thus producing changes in human knowledge, skills, feelings, emotions, morals, in habits of every type. Education seeks to increase human happiness. It means happy and fruitful living here and now in all periods of life for the child and the adult. That education is desirable which promotes the expanding, adopt-ing, and enriching of the child's present life so that he lives most profitably to himself and society. As the child develops, his experiences should be con-stantly reorganized, so that his wants become increasingly those which by promoting the welfare of others rebound to satisfy his own desires. He must grow, too, in power to fulfill his constantly improving wants. The ^school seeks to provide those experiences which contribute to the child's growth and which are his means of adjusting himself to the life around him and of aiding society in the reconstruction of its experiences to further its progress and development. Objectives of Elementary Education.—For about a decade now the Seven Cardinal Objectives of Education have been generally accepted as the aims or principles of education, especially in the secondary field. These aims or objectives are: 1. Sound health. 2. Worthy home membership. 3. Mastery of the tools, techniques and spirit of learning. 4. Faithful citizenship. 5. Vocational effectiveness. 6. Wise use of leisure. 7. Ethical character. 8 Course op Study for the With varying degrees of emphasis these aims would be the general aims of elementary education. With slight variations, modifications, and adaptations they are now accepted. The Committee on Elementary Educa-tion of the New York Council of Superintendents* in its report on October 1, 1929, proposes that the function of the elementary school is to help every child: 1. To understand and practice desirable social relationships. 2. To discover and develop his own desirable individual aptitudes. 3. To cultivate the habit of critical thinking. 4. To appreciate and desire worthwhile activities. 5. To gain command of the common integrating knowledge and skills. 6. To develop a sound body and normal mental attitudes. An analysis of these aims or this function of the elementary school shows how completely they are embodied in the Seven Cardinal Principles of sound health, worthy home membership, etc. In still a little different manner, Thorndike and Gates in their Ele-mentary Principles of Education, discuss these aims under "The Major Present Needs of Education." There are two classes of five groups each. The first class deals with the need of proper adjustments to phases of the present-day environment; the second class has to do with several types of equipment needs to every individual. They are classified as: I. Needed Adjustments to Situations in Modern Life: 1. Adjustments to the physical world. 2. Adjustments to economic situations. 3. Adjustments to family situations. 4. Adjustments to social situations. 5. Adjustments to civic situations. II. Needed Types of Personal Equipment: 1. Physical health. 2. Mental health and balance. 3. Recreational resources. 4. Ethical and religious resources. There is nothing contradictory in these aims as presented from these different sources. They supplement, interpret and reinforce each other. They should make more real and more intelligible the aims as expressed in the language of a single authority. With that understanding, the dis-cussion of aims or objectives of Elementary Education takes this form rather than one set of generalized statements. SOME PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING THE COURSE OF STUDY The child is the center of the educational endeavor. The course of study, the experiences which go to make up the curriculum, the methods to be employed, all should contribute toward bringing about desirable out-comes in habits, skills, knowledges, understandings, abilities, apprecia-tions, attitudes and ideals which will help the child effectively to meet situations in life. The selection and organization of the content of these * Cardinal Objectives in Elementary Education, Committee on Elementary Education of the New York Council of Superintendents, The University of the State of New York, Albany. Elementary Schools of North Carolina 9 experiences, the materials, activities and situations should be adjusted to the period of development, the capacities, attainments, needs, interests and enrichment of the child's life. The importance of psychology in education and learning should find reflection in a course of study. The psychology of learning; child nature and his needs; the significance of individual differences; the place and value of method, these and other phases of psychology and its application entered into the development of this course of study. Every teacher should become thoroughly acquainted with these laws and principles and should make them a part of her professional equipment. Earnest efforts have been made to work out the Course of Study in the different subjects with the contributions of these experiences to the child's growth and development in mind and to show the teacher that provision for the organization of these experiences is to be determined in the light of the child's needs and interests. In those subjects in which there are State-adopted texts the effort has been made to indicate how these may be used and adapted in meeting the needs and interests of the children and in organizing the work. Function of the Course of Study.—The course of study is understood to be a working guide to assist teachers in helping each child achieve those educative experiences which will bring about the outcomes agreed upon as most desirable. In general these outcomes would be the realization of the aims and objectives of education, and of elementary education in particular. SUGGESTIVE TIME DISTRIBUTION TABLE The suggested weekly time allotments which follow are offered as ten-tative bases for the work. Manifestly, the distribution of time should be determined by the needs of the children. The use of large units of work with provision for children's interests and enriched experiences will often call for a combination of subjects and the reorganization of the materials of instruction necessary to carry these on. Directed or supervised study is regarded as a vital part of the classroom work. The suggested weekly time table here presented has grown out of a careful study of investigations in this field. These studies and references include : t Ayer: Time Allotments in the Elementary School Subjects—-United States Department of the Interior, 1925. Covert: Time Allotments in Selected Consolidated Schools—United States Department of the Interior, 1930. Glass: Curriculum Practices in the Junior High School and Grades 5 and 6—University of Chicago, 1924. Kyte: A Study of Time Allotments in the Elementary School Subjects—California Cur-riculum Study Bulletin No. 1, University of California, 1925. Woody: The Amount of Time Devoted to Recitation and Study in the Elementary Schools of Michigan, University of Michigan, 1927. Teachers will find a study of these references stimulating and helpful. The importance of a schedule of work can not be too strongly emphasized. The State Department of Public Instruction will render direct assistance to those who make their wishes known. 10 Course of Study for the SUBJECTS Grades—Minutes per Week English: Reading, Literature*, Library Language Spelling Handwriting^ Arithmetic History and Citizenship§ Geography Nature Study and Elementary Sciences Health and Physical Education+ ,.__. Arts: Fine Art and Industrial Arts Music 550 110 501 75 50 150 II 525 125 75 100 150 III 400 150 75 150 100 150 IV 300 175 75 75 200 60 150 60 150 225 200 75 75 200 120 160 60 150 VI 200 200 75 75 160 175 60 150 VII 450 45 240 225 225 60 150 "Literature is a part of both the reading and language courses and is provided for in the total time given to these subjects. Additional time as needed should be given. tLatter part of term, if formal work is given. JLess time may be given by students measuring up to grade standard on a standard writing scale. §Ideals and responsibilities of citizenship with a study of home life, community life, and relation-ships with other peoples and countries, should be emphasized. Related experiences are frequently included in large unit work, activities, other subjects, especially reading, language, health work, history and geography, and in opening exercises. At other times special periods are used. HThe nature study and science work are frequently included in large unit work, activities, or other subjects, especially reading and language, health, geography and history. At other times special periods are used. In grades 4 to 7, it is suggested that approximately an hour a week be given to elementary science as defined in this course of study. +At least an hour a week should be given to health instruction and training, and an hour a week to physical education. Additional time (IY2 to 2 hours) should be added if industrial and practical arts are taught. READING Introductory Statement This outline is planned to serve the teacher as a working guide in her efforts to prepare for, to initiate and to develop a course in reading in-struction based upon the general and specific needs of the pupils in their growth and progress through the grades. The trend in educational method today justifies the daily, consistent and continuous participation of the classroom teacher in the constructive development of the course of study. Therefore, the needs of the teacher from this point of view in course of study making are an important consideration. Only by the continuous study of the literature in this field; by modi-fying objectives, methods, and techniques; and, by maintaining constantly the critical attitude and the spirit of research can the classroom teacher hope to succeed in the development of a satisfactory and adequate program of reading instruction. Careful records of strengths, weaknesses, and sug-gestions for changes or additions, should be made by the teacher. These data are valuable (1) in evaluating the program as it proceeds and (2) for revising the course from time to time. The value of this outline course in reading will be determined, in large measure, by the extent to which each teacher recognizes the inherent worth of the principles underlying the suggestions herein contained, and by each teacher's willingness to participate in the work of initiating and develop-ing a well-organized, adequate, and appropriate curriculum involving read-ing as the most important subject. The outline contains statements and suggestions concerning the objec-tives in reading, materials of instruction, activities and methods of pro-cedure, outcomes by grades, promotion standards, and general problems and principles involved in a program of reading instruction. It presents suggestions for adapting the program to pupil needs and grade situations and indicates methods to be used for checking the degree of progress made. It must be understood, however, that these statements and suggestions are designed to guide and not to limit the teacher in her efforts to work out an adequate program of reading instruction based upon the immediate and ultimate needs of the pupils to be taught. The underlying principles laid down in the Twenty-fourth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education which represents the most modern, progressive, and authoritative ideas on the subject of read-ing furnish the bases for the suggested program within the school as developed in Part Two of this chapter. The references listed at the close of each section contain supporting arguments for the discussions of the various phases of reading dealt with in the entire course. The values to accrue in the study of these references will be appreciated by each teacher studying this outline course. 12 Course of Study for the PART ONE: THE NEEDS OF THE TEACHER In order to be successful in her work, the teacher needs to know and to understand thoroughly certain fundamentally important and highly essential factors which are present in any well-planned and well-organized program of reading instruction. Because of the limitations of. this bulletin, only brief and concise statements concerning these factors can be given here, but carefully selected references follow which present helpful dis-cussions of each factor. These professional texts should be available for the teacher's use in her efforts to prepare for satisfactory and efficient service in the schools. For some teachers, this means merely a review; for others, whose specific grade or subject preparation is limited, a real study; and for all teachers working together in one school system, an aid in unifying the course from the first through the seventh grade. The teacher may expect success in her work if she is reasonably familiar with, and able to interpret in terms of pupil needs, the principles and problems dealt with in the following outline of teacher needs. The teacher should know: 1. The psychological bases underlying reading. 2. General and specific objectives in reading. 3. What to teach, the content and sources of the reading materials. 4. The important divisions of a reading program. 5. How to discover pupil needs and to adapt the program of reading instruction to these needs. 6. The most effective and efficient methods to follow in classroom work. 7. How to plan the program of reading instruction, to evaluate pro-cedures, and to measure achievement and progress at intervals. 8. Outcomes or results to be expected. . To further aid the teacher in her preparation for the teaching of read-ing each of the problems or factors listed above is outlined or discussed briefly. Carefully selected references are suggested for the study of each problem. The total list of references makes up an inclusive, though limited bibliography, on the teaching of reading. I. The Psychological Bases Underlying Reading. Questions which the teacher should be able to answer: What is reading? What are the chief purposes of reading? What is the relative importance of reading as compared with other school subjects? What are the factors involved in the reading process? Why is the reading process complex? In the acquisition of the ability to read what are some of the most vital problems? What is "reading readiness"? How may "reading readiness" differ at school entrance and at the various grade levels beyond the first grade? What are the various types of reading activities of children? How are these related to reading in modern social life? What are the different kinds and types of reading? What are the important elements involved in the different kinds of types of reading? So much of importance is involved in the problems stated here that it is essential that teachers read widely and study carefully the references given, which deal specifically with the problem under consideration. No simple statement will suffice to give the teacher that broad sense of mean-ing which is to be derived from reading quotations from the leading authorities who have made careful and scientific study of reading problems. Elementary Schools of North Carolina 13 references: Garrison and Garrison. The Psychology of Elementary School Subjects. Chapters XIII, XIV. Johnson. Brooks. The Applied Psychology of Reading. Chapters III, IV, V, VI, VII. Appleton. National Committee on Reading. The Twenty-fourth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Part One, Chapter I. Public School Pub. Yoakum. Reading and Study. Chapter II. Macmillan. Burton. The Nature and Direction of Learning. Chapter I, pp. 55-65. Appleton. Storm and Smith, Reading Activities in the Primary Grades. Chapter V. Ginn. II. General and Specific Objectives in the Teaching of Reading. From the standpoint of both the teacher and the pupil, reading is essential to intelligent participation in the activities of modern life. Two factors are involved here: (a) Studies of society to help select subject matter and method with respect to their social utility; (b) Studies of the child to discover his interests and to help base teaching on the laws of learning. Reading investigations have brought to light scientific data on each of these two factors. These data furnish the bases for the main objectives in the teaching of reading. As the realization of the importance of reading has increased, the essential objectives to be attained in the teaching of reading have been proportionally enlarged. A study of these objectives offers a foundation on which to build classroom procedure leading to-individual pupil growth and development through the reading program. A. General objectives in the teaching of reading: 1. To give rich and varied experiences through reading which will extend and make significant the experiences of boys and girls and increase their fund of information and thus secure enlargement of life. 2. To provide reading experiences that will stimulate the pupils' thinking powers. 3. To furnish strong motives for reading and establish perma-nent, varied and desirable interests in reading. 4. To cultivate desirable attitudes and economical and effective habits and skills in reading. 5. To cultivate tastes for good reading material which he selects by acceptable standards he has acquired. 6. To inculcate desirable fundamental behavior, attitudes and ideals through both intensive and extensive reading. 7. To acquaint pupils with sources of the various kinds of de-sirable reading material. Although the broad general objectives, as stated above, are all-inclusive as well as clear, yet a more detailed statement of objectives in reading may prove helpful to the teacher in understanding the chief aims and purposes of reading. The attainment of the specific objectives, as classified here, will in the end bring about the achievement of the general purposes for which reading instruction is carried on. B. Specific objectives in reading. Reading Experience: 1. Contributes desirable and useful knowledge. 2. Provides satisfaction, pleasure and inspiration. Attitudes, Appreciations and Interest: 1. To extend and enrich the experiences of boys and girls, and to develop desirable attitudes toward reading. 2. To cultivate a desire and a love for reading through delight-ful and varied content. 3. To develop a desire to read and own books of many useful and varied types. 14 Course of Study for the 4. To bring about a realization that books are interesting and also valuable for carrying on many kinds of activities. 5. To broaden sympathy toward the experiences of others in all lands and in all times. 6. To stimulate an appreciation of good literature and a desire to make a contribution in this field. 7. To cultivate a sense of humor and correct evaluations on incidents described in reading material. 8. To develop high ideals of character and conduct. 9. To provide for the wholesome use of leisure time. 10. To create a wholesome and permanent attitude of friendship toward books. Habits, Skills and Abilities: 1. Content a. To increase the appreciative participation in the thought life of society according to the ability of each individual. b. To cultivate the imagination, to increase the power of reflection, and to develop desirable study habits in general. c. To develop discrimination in selection of reading materials. d. To enrich and extend the vocabulary, thereby improving the individual's use of language, especially in the inter-pretation and use of what is read. e. To train pupils to comprehend meaning of word, phrase, sentence, paragraph, and longer units with accuracy and reasonable speed. f. To grasp the organization of a selection with regard for major and minor ideas in order of importance and chro-nological sequence. g. To develop the ability to solve a problem, using reading material as a basis for reasoning; to evaluate the worth of ideas presented and to retain the important ideas. h. To determine the general nature of material by scanning, and to find specific information by following definitely stated directions. i. To have a knowledge of sources of reading materials of all types. j. To be able to use library facilities efficiently and effec-tively. 2. Mechanics of reading a. To recognize units larger than a word at each eye-fixa-tion (the child is to read in groups of words and in phrases) . b. To avoid physical reactions which retard progress, such as, finger pointing, head-movement, reading aloud. c. To use a well-modulated and expressive voice in reading, with clear enunciation, correct pronunciation and proper phrasing. d. Correct posture in standing or sitting with due regard for proper light that will assure optical hygiene. e. To develop the ability to attack new words and phrases independently. f. To cultivate rapid silent reading. 3. Care and use of books and materials a. To stimulate the right use and the proper care of books and other source materials. b. To develop the proper use of the table of contents, in-dexes, page references and glossaries. c. To develop an appreciation of the beauty of the me-chanical make-up of the book, and its general aesthetic values. Elementary Schools of North Carolina 15 The general and specific objectives in reading are discussed more fully in the following references, especially as they are interpreted in terms of definite grade activities: National Committee on Reading. The Twenty-fourth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Part One, Chapter II. Public School Pub. Yoakum. Reading and Study. Pages 257-291. Macmillan. The Classroom Teacher, Vol. II, pp. 45-49. Volume VI, Chapter II. The Classroom Teacher, Inc. Gist and King. The Teaching and Supervision of Reading. Chapter II. Scribners. Anderson and Davidson. Reading Objectives. Chapters 1 and II. Laurel. Mossman. Teaching and Learning in the Elementary School. Chapter IX. Houghton. III. What to Teach. It is essential that the teacher have an intimate knowledge of the con-tents of the texts, basal and supplementary, to be used in the reading program. In addition to these, a wide acquaintance with other books con-taining children's literature, prose and poetry, of the age and grade level needed is most desirable. Knowledge of the contents of the basal and supplementary texts is most usable when classified as to type and scope of content (listing under head-ings according to form, nature and use), and as to extent, gradation, and difficulty of the vocabulary. Extra materials not included in the texts but nevertheless equally essential should be studied. Among these are the materials suitable for making the proper approach to reading, as pictures and the commercial equipment (charts and practice materials) related to the reading books. Materials of incidental reading situations which make up a big part of the day's reading program, and reading materials from other school subjects should be investigated. These should be understood, with reference to individual pupil, and class needs. The manuals for the basal texts and for some of the supplementary readers offer a very definite and valuable help to teachers in the use of the texts. These manuals should first be studied in connection with the analysis of the texts, and next, in their relation to the reading program for the grade as outlined and suggested in the course of study. The purpose of the manuals, in the main, is to assist the teacher in a better understanding of the organization of the content and vocabulary of the texts, and to offer a suggested method of procedure in reading in-struction. These aids should be studied carefully with a view to adapting the suggestions to the needs of a much broader plan or course, as worked out by the classroom teacher, using this course of study in reading as a guide. REFERENCES: Basal and Supplementary Texts adopted for Use in North Carolina. (See list by grades.) Manuals for Basal and Supplementary Readers. (See list by grades.) Equipment for teacher and pupil use in the reading program. (See list by grades.) National Committee on Reading. The Twenty-fourth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Part I, Chapter VII. The Classroom Teacher, Vol. II, Chapter IX. Vol. VI, pp. 425-432. The Classroom Teacher, Inc. Yoakum. Reading and Study. Chapter VII. Macmillan. Gardner and Ramsey. A Handbook of Children's Literature. Scott. Mossman. Teaching and Learning in the Elementary School. Chapter IX, pp. 206-227. Houghton. IV. The Important Divisions of a Reading Program. Children pass through different stages of development in acquiring mature reading habits. Good instruction recognizes the importance of these periods and provides appropriate training at each stage of development. 16 Course op Study for the Growth periods in the fundamental reading habits should be given careful consideration in planning a reading program. Intelligent interpretation of what is read, speed in silent reading, and fluent, accurate oral reading are specific phases of reading in which there is an increase in ability. The rate of increase in ability in these specific phases of reading at the various growth periods will be valuable information for the teacher. The organization of a reading program into five important periods or divisions helps the teacher to understand the normal progress of children in fundamental reading habits. While these divisions may or may not exactly coincide with the separate grade divisions of the work in reading, an adjustment of the two programs is easily workable and understood. A detailed statement of the types of progress appropriate during each period, the purposes and organization of instruction, and the desirable forms of achievement may be found in the references and should be studied by the teacher. A brief statement concerning each period is given here. A. The period of preparation for reading includes the pre-school age, the kindergarten, and frequently the early part of the first grade. Provision for training and experience, which prepares pupils for instruction in reading, is the main purpose of the work in this period. B. The initial period of reading instruction, which takes place in the first grade, introduces the pupils to reading as a thought-getting process. Through careful planning the teacher seeks to develop ability to read independently and intelligently, simple material such as that found in primers, first readers, and library materials for use in the first grade. C. The period of rapid progress in fundamental attitudes, habits and skills upon which satisfactory silent and oral reading depend in-cludes the second and third grades and sometimes the fourth grade. D. The period of wide reading, including the fourth, fifth and sixth grades, has two problems which should receive special emphasis: 1. Perfecting the skills started in the previous grades, and bring-ing to a high state of efficiency the speed and comprehension of silent reading. 2. Increase in the experiences of pupils by extensive reading in varied fields. E. The period of refinement of specific reading attitudes, habits and tastes for grades beyond the sixth. Appropriate instruction is pro-vided in the seventh grade for the refinement of reading and study habits. There is provision also for the further development of (1) wholesome interests in reading; (2) the habit of reading current events; and (3) the proper selection and use of books and magazines of real worth. These general statements concerning the important periods of a reading program simply indicate the main characteristic of each of the several periods. From the study of the references given, especially The Twenty-fourth Yearbook, the teacher will gain an understanding of the values to be derived from the organization of a reading program on the basis of these five periods. The suggested divisions should not be used as a basis for rigid classification but should serve the teacher as an aid in recognizing and defining the larger problems of teaching with reference to individual pupils or groups of pupils. Provision should be made for over-lapping from one period to another of the needs of pupils. REFERENCES: XT „ _ Gist and King. Teaching and Supervision of Reading. Chapter II. Scribners. The Classroom Teacher. Volume II, pp. 49-50. Volume VI, pp. 92-93. The Classroom Teacher, Inc. , , „ . , _ . The National Committee on Reading. The Twenty-fourth Yearbook of the National bociety for the Study of Education. Part I, Chapter III. Public School Pub. Elementary Schools op North Carolina 17 V. How to Discover Pupil Needs and to Adapt the Program of Reading Instruction to These Needs. The classroom teacher must be familiar with the construction and use of informal tests in reading. She must possess a reasonable knowledge of standardized tests and have a clear understanding of their uses and values in classroom practice. Information concerning reading tests, the construc-tion and use of informal tests, and the selection and use of standardized tests is given in the next section of this outline. (See Standard Tests.) Pupil records and graphs showing results of standardized tests should re-veal the present status and achievement of the pupils in reading. The formal or standardized tests, given two or three times a year, show the ability of a class in comparison with the achievement norms of thousands of children. They also indicate comparative ratings of general ability within a grade. The informal test, based on materials used in the par-ticular grade, does not show the rating of the class in comparison with other classes, but is most useful in indicating specific abilities and dis-abilities. Through the effective use of these materials and by careful study of the results of tests, the teacher may discover: 1. Pupil abilities in reading. 2. Individual differences in pupils. 3. Pupil progress and attainments. 4. Pupil needs and problems. 5. Causes of deficiencies. By observation and study of pupils engaged in classroom activities of various types, especially those which involve experiences in reading, the teacher may recognize wrong tendencies, undesirable habits and attitudes, and adjust the reading program to the correction of these. The complexity of the reading process itself, and the variety of abilities found among the members of a class make it necessary to analyze to some extent the needs of the whole group as well as the problems of individuals who have special difficulties. By the use of informal and standardized tests (both intelligence and achievement tests) fairly accurate data may be secured. The interpretation of these data will furnish a partial basis for determining the tentative grouping of pupils, and will aid in the solution of the major problems of better comprehension, word recognition, increased speed and fluency, and independence in work and study. The cases which present unusual difficulties will need more careful study and special adapta-tion of the reading materials and methods to their specific needs. In addition to the use of tests and periods of observation and study, the teacher will gain in the understanding of pupil needs, capacities and abilities by planning carefully and by providing situations in which the child has successful and satisfactory reading experiences. This gives oppor-tunity to discover the child's present level of success in reading from which point the program for him or his group should begin. REFERENCES: The Classroom Teacher. Vol. II, pp. 3-36. Vol. VI, pp. 3-32. Chapter IX. The Class-room Teacher, Inc. Stone. Silent and Oral Reading. Chapters IX, X. Houghton. Brooks. The Applied Psychology of Reading. Chapters XII, XIII, XIV, XV. Appleton. The National Committee on Reading. The Twenty-fourth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Part I. Chapters IX, X. Palmer. Progressive Practices in Directing Learning. Chapters IX. X. XI, XII, XIII. Macmillan. Russell. Classroom Tests. Ginn. Burton. The Nature and Direction of Learning, pp. 481-574. 18 Course of Study for the VI. The Most Effective and Efficient Methods to Follow in Class-room Work. Because of the many problems and complexities of classroom work it is very essential that the teacher discover the best method of procedure for the teaching of reading. How to secure the maximum amount of pupil participation in the classroom activities is the chief consideration. Pro-gressive education points the way to success for the teacher and pupil by advocating "teacher guidance rather than teacher direction" of each and all classroom activities. Pupil participation in the planning, initiating, organizing and carrying through various classroom projects leads to greater effort, because it arouses greater interest, and brings more satis-faction through success on the part of the pupils. It is difficult to separate or differentiate subject matter and method since we regard the ways of doing things and the behavior or conduct of the learner essentially a part of the subject matter involved in the situ-ation. However, it is clear that whatever the pupil does, his reaction or response, behavior or achievement, it is regarded paramount in classroom work. The teacher guides the experiences of the pupils through worth-while activities. The selecting of these activities, the choosing of materials necessary to carry on the activity, the planning of the lesson procedure and the evaluating and judging the worth of the accomplishments are important factors in the technique of teaching. The needs, capacities and abilities of the child to be taught will, in a large sense, influence or determine the methods to be used. Consistently planning situations offering opportunity and reasonable assurance of suc-cess for the child will result in maximum pupil effort and pupil progress. Satisfactory method of procedure in classroom work always takes into account three things: (1) proper attitudes, (2) the laws of learning, and (3) individual differences. Since provision must be made for each of these factors, the teacher should be familiar with the analysis of each and their relation to the lesson plan, the organization of a unit of work, and the daily schedule or program of reading activities. Whether a child will realize the value of books as contributing to his pleasure and needs, and whether he will be actively interested in reading to the extent of reading widely and buying books will depend as much upon the kind of books with which he comes into contact as upon the actual inspiration and guidance which he receives from the teacher. If children have access to material that is closely related to their pleasure-interests, they will begin to sense the recreational value of reading. If, also, they have been stimulated to go to books for the solution of many actual life problems, they will become conscious of the utility value of reading. Only as books meet an interest- or utility-need will they become vital to children. Attitudu building goes beyond the mere exposing of children to vital material. Application of the psychology of learning has a share in build-ing appreciations. In order that effective reading of any type, with its accompanying attitudes, skills and knowledges may be taught economically, the "laws of learning" must be utilized. These laws, and their operation in reading situations, are as follows: Elementary Schools of North Carolina 19 A. Readiness—The child must be in a state of "wanting to read" the particular material. Such a condition exists when the teacher has — 1. Chosen appropriate material 2. Assembled the child's ideas in the field 3. Related the new experience to the old 4. Brought clearly before the child's mind the purpose of read-ing the selection. The child is then ready to read with enjoyment and also ready to think, for the assembling of ideas and statement of the purpose set up a readiness for thinking. B. Exercise and Effect—These laws require that there shall be practice with satisfaction if learning is to take place successfully. Oppor-tunity should be given for pleasure-attended-use of all the skills and habits to be developed. The pleasure in reading situations may come from intrinsic interest in the material, or from the satisfaction that comes from accomplishing what one sets out to do; namely, solving a problem, answering a question, finding desired infor-mation, measuring up to a class standard, or bettering one's own record in doing effective study. Children within any given grade differ greatly in tastes. They are also likely to differ greatly in abilities, unless particular and careful attention has been given to classification. Consideration for the individual pupil, his equipment and needs, gives the thoughtful teacher great concern. Dif-ferences in tastes are provided for by (1) opportunity for extensive indi-vidual reading, (2) access to a wide variety of materials, and (3) allow-ing individual choice. It is far more difficult to deal with differences in fundamental reading abilities. Some children, for instance, may be able to comprehend facts, yet may lack organizing ability; others may be able to organize facts, yet may be poor in retention; others may be able to organize a sequence of facts chronologically as in telling a story, but can-not properly interpret the thought. Their needs in general may be pro-vided for by grouping within the grades, by giving special assignments to the accelerated group, and by segregating remedial cases. REFERENCES: Yoakum. Reading and Study. Chapters VI. XVI. Macmillan. Gist and King. The Teaching and Supervision of Reading. Chapters VIII, XL Scribners Anderson and Davidson. Reading Objectives. Chapters XII, XIII. Laurel. The Classroom Teacher. Vol. VI. pp. 107-146. The Classroom Teacher, Inc. Pennell and Cusack. How to Teach Reading. Parts II, III. Houghton. Burton. The Nature and Direction of Learning. Chapter V. Appleton. Brooks. The Applied Psychology of Reading. Chapter X. Appleton. Mossman. Teaching and Learning in the Elementary School. Chapter IX. pp 227-229. Houghton. VII. The Importance of Evaluating and Checking Procedures and Activities with Relation to Promotion Standards. One of the most important things for a teacher to know is how to judge or evaluate her own plans and methods of procedure in terms of pupil progress. It is equally important to be able to check on pupil activities and to determine the growth and progress made in attitudes, habits, skills, and knowledges at certain intervals or periods. Projects and large units of work must be checked as the group proceeds in the work from day to day, and especially is this important when the assignment as a whole is completed. Only by doing this in a very detailed way may the teacher be 20 Course of Study for the assured that she is following correct procedures in planning, in developing the program, and in checking to find results in terms of achievement and progress. Measuring achievement and progress at intervals during the year and near the close of the program offers further evidence of the extent of accomplishment of each child in reading. This is also a great help in find-ing out whether or not he is accomplishing what he should according to his capacities and abilities, and whether or not his achievement and rate of progress justifies remaining in his group for further work. Standards of work to be maintained by pupils should be judged always in terms of ability and capacity rather than by a measure of achievement in a definitely outlined and general reading program. A measure of suc-cess according to his ability and capacity is to be regarded in standards of work maintained rather than a "fitting-in process" with a program beyond his reach and in which he more often meets with failure rather than success. Promotion standards may be more easily formulated if regarded as an outgrowth of the program of measuring achievement and progress in read-ing throughout the year, and not as a result of one or more reading tests. The teacher's judgment; the record of daily checks, or the measuring' of success at the close of the units of work, and the results of informal and standardized tests given at intervals and near the close of the year, should be considered important factors in the formulation of promotion standards. In summary, the teacher should know (a) criteria for judging lesson procedures and the value and worth of activities, (b 1 * the essentials of a reading survey that is continuous throughout the year and operating when-ever necessary to check results, (c) minimum and maximum attainments in reading for the grades, (d) promotion standards that take into account the attitudes, appreciations, habits, skills and knowledge of the pupil. REFERENCES: Mossman. Teaching and Learning in the Elementary School. Chapters II, XII. Houghton. Parker. Types of Elementary Teaching and Learning. Chapter X. Ginn. Gist and King. The Teaching and Supervision of Reading. Chapters VIII, XL Scnbners. Garrison and Garrison. The Psychology of Elementary School Subjects. Chapter XV. Johnson. VIII. Outcomes of the Program of Reading Instruction. Of all the essentials in a program of teacher preparation, perhaps a real understanding of the outcomes or results of the reading program is the most important. The types of outcomes worked for determine the pro-cedure in learning. For each of the outcomes expected, there must be a definite program provided, which emphasizes the activities of the learner rather than the activities of the teacher. The changes which have taken place in the learner, because of the reading programs, measure the out-comes in terms of pupil growth and development. The differences in the attitudes, appreciations, habits, skills and knowledges of the learner at the beginning of the program and at the close is indicative of the measure of growth. The following information assembled will present the essential facts which will help the teacher to determine the nature and extent of the outcomes in terms of pupil growth and progress in reading ability. 1. Achievement as shown by standard reading test results. 2. Achievement in standard vocabulary tests. 3. Classification according to reading age. Elementary Schools of North Carolina 21 4. Total amount of content material read satisfactorily. 5. Ability in independent reading and study. 6. Amount of independent reading and study. 7. Achievement of library standards. 8. Ability in pronunciation and enunciation in oral work. 9. Ability in interpretation of various types of content material. 10. Desirable attitudes as revealed in performance. 11. Appreciation and enjoyment of literature. 12. Ability to make use of information acquired. 13. Evidences of desire to read widely and intelligently. REFERENCES: Burton. The Nature and Direction of Learning, pp. 481-537. Appleton. Schmidt. Teaching and Learning the Common Branches. Chapter I. Appleton. Brooks. The Applied Psychology of Reading. Chapters VIII, IX. Appleton. Gates. New Methods in Primary Reading. Chapter XII. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York. Palmer. Progressive Practices in Directing Learning. Chapter IX. Macmillan. Gates. Improvement of Reading. Macmillan. PART TWO: THE PROGRAM OF READING INSTRUC-TION WITHIN THE CLASSROOM With the preparation as suggested in Part One of this outline, the teacher should be fairly well equipped to plan a classroom program of reading instruction. As a further aid to the teacher, the following guiding principles for a satisfactory reading program are suggested: 1. Reading is a process of thought-getting and should never be taught as an end in itself. 2. Materials and methods must change with the developing interests and abilities of the children but the purpose of reading—thought-getting— must always remain. 3. The problem of reading which is the interpretation of written and printed symbols at a rate appropriate to the purpose in mind re-mains the same regardless of grade. 4. Children learn to read by reading in response to a desire to read. Therefore, reading material must be suited to the present needs and tastes of the children for whom it is intended if it-is to stimulate effort and result in giving satisfaction. 5. The teacher should make every effort to see that her pupils are sup-plied with an abundance of material which will meet the following criteria : Of undoubted value At the right level of difficulty Wide and well-balanced in scope Within the child's experience—either actual or vicarious—or within his range of imagination Of a high degree of immediate interest for the pupil The main factors in any school program are the pupils, the materials and equipment for use in the various activities, and the conduct or be-havior of the pupils in achieving desirable attitudes, habits, skills, and knowledges. The first step in the program of reading instruction in any grade is to find out the present equipment of the pupils, their physical, social and mental abilities and especially the degree of readiness of the individual for the work in reading as outlined for the grade. As much time as practicable (at the beginning of the school year) should be given to this initial work. "Finding out where the pupil is in relation to the reading program, and starting from this as a beginning point in his read-ing achievements" is an important and fundamental educational principle. 22 Course op Study for the From a review of test results, school records, and by observation and study of the pupils, the teacher should attempt to determine the readiness for reading and the status of each pupil's reading ability and achievement and upon this basis (1) classify or group the pupils for instructional pur-poses, and (2) plan the reading program. While this study, analysis and diagnosis of the class situation is taking place, the teacher should plan a daily program of vitally interesting experiences in order to obtain a maxi-mum of desirable and interesting responses from the pupils. On this high level of pupil response the reading program should be organized. With a clear-cut notion of the general and specific objectives in reading. a first-hand knowledge of the subject matter to be taught, an initial under-standing of the present equipment, achievements, and specific abilities of the pupils, the teacher is better able to provide classroom situations for the pupil which will afford worth while experiences in reading. In this part of the outline suggestions from the best practices in good elementary schools are offered as information for the teacher in working out the pro-gram of reading instruction for the particular grade or group she is teaching. Note: A coordinated program of reading and language, two subjects so closely related, should be the aim of the teacher. Topics common to both outline courses should be reviewed in the effort to supplement and expand the ideas and plans contained in each. For example: the teaching of poetry in one course offers additional information to that given in the other course. I. General Discussions of Important Factors in the Reading Program. A. Work-type and recreatory reading. It is essential that the teacher understand the two types of reading experiences discussed here. The three series of basal readers to be used in grades one through six furnish material of the work-type variety and the contents of the books are organized on this plan. The recreatory material found to some extent in the basal readers and more largely in the supplementary and library books, offers practice and wide experience in the use of these abilities. It is necessary to differentiate clearly between these two types of reading activities in order to develop the proper atti-tudes, habits and skills outlined in the general and specific objectives of the reading program. The manuals for each series of basal readers offer definite help. Reading activities may be grouped conveniently into two types, work-type and recreational reading. The relationship between the reader and the type of reading depends as much upon his attitude as upon the subject matter. "It is not intended ... to set up any full and complete separation between them (the two types). Not only may almost any selection or book be read with different purposes, by different readers, or by the same reader at different times, but one's attitude or purpose may change in the course of his reading." Work-type reading is that reading which requires the use of certain basic skills and abilities essential to the purposive and accurate interpre-tation of the printed page. It reaches its highest effectiveness in appli-cation in the study of serious subjects. Nevertheless, the more fundamental habits and skills evolved through training in work-type reading are also the foundation for satisfactory reading for appreciation and in reading of Elementary Schools of North Carolina 23 a lighter nature done for recreation or for general information. Efficient work-type reading instruction calls for periods in which one pivotal skill receives the chief emphasis. In these cases, informational or non-informa-tional material is used for practice or drill in such techniques as compre-hension, vocabulary building, outlining. Work-type reading ability becomes useful whenever children apply at will the particular study techniques called for by the material being read or by the situation. The study of history, geography and arithmetic re-. quires such reading, as do also the following situations: Silent reading: (a) solving problems of various kinds; (b) reading items and current events; (c) getting information from maps, folders, signs, advertisements, papers, magazines, books; (d) verifying statements; (e) forming judgments and making decisions; (f) collecting data for discussions, reports. Oral reading: (a) justifying a point in a discussion; (b) reading an-nouncements, reports and news items to others. Units used either for instruction in or. the application of work-type reading are usually shorter than those used in recreatory reading. The lesson procedure involves intensive, detailed work. Recreatory reading includes any reading done chiefly for relaxation, literary appreciation, or for the acquirement of general information. The main types of recreatory reading are: (a) group reading for fun or appreciation; (b) individual library reading for enjoyment and appreci-ation; (c) audience reading (oral). Literary material, such as myths, fables, legends, poetry, drama, stories, should be used for this type of work, although light informational material may be used occasionally. Recreatory reading is usually bound up with the following situations: Silent reading: (a) enjoying humorous writings; (b) re-living hap-penings common to experience; (c) traveling into "make-believe" land; (d) satisfying curiosity about strange regions, nature, people; and (e) sensing adventure and daring. Oral reading: (a) reading to others for entertainment; (b) taking part in dramatizations; (c) enjoying poetry or rhythmic beauty. The units of material in recreatory reading are usually longer than those used in work-type reading and involve less detailed study and dis-cussion. In both work-type and recreatory reading, a variety of activities is possible and desirable. The following procedures suggest means which may be taken to carry out a well-balanced reading program: 1. Directed group silent reading in which children are using the same material, for any one of the following purposes: , a. Finding information b. Following directions c. Solving problems d. Outlining 2. Individual silent reading for the purposes listed under 1 above, using one textbook reference. 3. Individual silent reading for the purposes listed under 1 above, using a number of references on the same topic. 4. Silent reading of recreatory materials for pleasure or interpre-tation. 5. Audience reading of recreatory or informational material. 6. Tests of the pupils' progress and diagnostic and remedial work. 24 Course of Study for the The separation of reading into two types, work-type and recreatory, and the acceptance of the previously stated objectives, call for the use of two types of readers, the work-type reader and the recreatory reader. Each book contains material for both oral and silent reading. In both work-type and recreatory activities, neither oral nor silent reading should be employed entirely to the exclusion of the other. From the basal or work-type reading the child masters the techniques of reading, not only those which have to do with the ability to recognize and pronounce words, but also those which have to do with thought-getting and thought-giving. From its use he develops definite habits and skills such as the correct handling of a book, the use of table of contents, com-prehension of reading habits larger than the word phrase, the ability to follow directions, to analyze and evaluate meanings, to recognize important thoughts or topics, and to make outlines. Through instruction in work-type reading, the teacher can "develop abilities to a point where they can be carried over into such reading as is done orally and silently for recreation, or on the other hand, into the study of all lessons in which work-type reading is involved." Work-type reading material and procedures enable the teacher most quickly to apprehend and to remedy deficiencies on the part of the pupils which, if not corrected, may become fixed as bad habits. Reading books which contain material largely of a literary nature — the so-called "literary readers"—may best, be used for satisfying the pupils' need for enjoyment, for developing and deepening his interest in reading, and for enriching his experience. "It has been definitely as-certained that the pupils who read widely make more progress than the pupils who read a limited amount of material." METHODS: WORK-TYPE READING The need for teaching children to study A growing feeling has, within the last few years, become confirmed that success in straightforward reading does not necessarily insure success in study. The Cleveland Survey revealed the fact that many proficient read-ers of literary material failed in such content subjects as geography, his-tory, and science. Research connected with the preparation of The Twenty-fourth Yearbook and research made by other independent authorities have pointed to the same conclusions. High school and college students, who "pronounce" and "memorize" their way through elementary schools, are handicapped because they possess poor study techniques. Knowledge of these conditions and efforts to correct them have led to differentiation in reading instruction between that of the work-type and that of the recreatory-type. Yoakam says: "Teaching the child to study is involved in the process of teaching him to read and the method of teach-ing reading must be changed if he is to realize the benefit of the teaching process." When to begin work-type reading Good study habits are formed with difficulty if the teaching of children to study is delayed until they reach the upper elementary grades or the secondary school. Children need study techniques in the primary grades and a definite effort should be made to implant such techniques throughout Elementary Schools of North Carolina 25 this early stage. Instruction in work-type reading, therefore, may well start in the first grade. Methods of developing study habits 1. Provision for training in specific study abilities—Ability to study effectively involves a number of specific skills such as, the ability to grasp meaning, the ability to select ideas, the ability to organize ideas in order of importance, the ability to make inferences from given facts, etc. The study of Alderman on "Improving Comprehension Ability in Read-ing," indicates that it is important to find out what abilities are involved in comprehending the printed page, and then to train each specific ability until the whole complex is improved. The best results are obtained when some particular phase of study, such as organization of ideas is subjected to training. A method, then, which groups a series of lessons about any one skill and gives the pupils material of increasing complexity for prac-ticing this skill, is most desirable. 2. Provision for growth from grade to grade—The plan used should provide for systematically bringing each of the skills to higher levels of achievement in each successive grade. For instance, it should train the first grade child to follow one or two simple directions, such as drawing and coloring a cat, and to increase this ability gradually until in the sixth grade the pupil is able to follow a number of involved directions, such as following a recipe, constructing a ship-model. It should train the third grade pupil to select the main idea in a paragraph and should provide practice with increasingly difficult units, until in the sixth grade the pupil is able to grasp the main idea of a whole selection. 3. Giving balanced emphasis to all study abilities—No one study ability should be over-emphasized at the expense of others. In the past, the ability to retain and to reproduce the content of reading matter was exercised at the expense of the other important abilities, such as those of reflective or analytical reading, or following directions, of summarizing, of outlining, of reasoning from given data. 4. Making children conscious of need for study and of techniques in-volved— Although the primary grade teacher plans definitely for the de-velopment of study abilities, it is neither necessary nor desirable that the children in these grades be made conscious of the techniques which they are using. In the intermediate grades, however, a beginning may be made in definite instruction concerning (a) the value of proper study habits, (b) the methods of dealing with various kinds of material, (c) the best ways of improving the study abilities. Certain readers for the intermediate grades present in lesson form (a) a general discussion of good study habits, and (b) with each group of lessons devoted to the development of a given study skill, an intro-ductory lesson in which the habit to be developed is discussed. Such intro-ductory lessons stress (a) the value of the specific ability under consider-ation, and (b) how to improve it. 5. Making progress evident to child and teacher—Pupils make rapid progress if they can see their improvement objectively. Frequent informal tests are indispensable in this connection, especially if results are kept for comparison with succeeding tests by means of class and individual graphs and charts. Work-books containing checking exercises may be so arranged that the child can keep a running record of his progress. 26 Course of Study for the 6. Providing for the transfer or "carry-over" of skills into content subjects—The teacher should see that the abilities learned in the reading-periods are practiced in the periods given to content subjects, such as arithmetic, history, geography, and science. She can best accomplish this "carry-over" by planning carefully the other school work to give addi-tional practice in reading skills which are being emphasized at the time and by providing some sort of check on the child's power to exercise each skill. REFERENCES: National Committee on Reading. The Twenty-fourth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Part I. Chapter VII. Public School Pub. Gist and King. The Teaching and Supervision of Reading. Chapter VI. Scribner's. The Classroom Teacher. Vol. VI. Chapter IV. The Classroom Teacher, Inc. METHODS: RECREATORY READING Value of and ultimate aim It is in the recreatory reading period that the best opportunities are afforded for cultivating habits for the real enjoyment of books. It is here that the habits and skills developed mainly in the work-type reading periods pay dividends in the form of pleasure and in the development of a taste for real literature. This reading gives the children glimpses and visions of a broader life. It varies and increases their experiences and helps them to live richer, fuller lives. "To appreciate means to estimate properly, to set a just value on. Appreciation implies the use of wise judgment or delicate per-ception. It also implies enjoyment, satisfaction, or a feeling of pleasure. . . ." Immediate aim in teaching recreatory reading The immediate aim in the teaching of recreatory reading is to give children a wide experience with good literature, and an active interest in, and appreciation of, the best books. "Appreciation does not concern itself primarily with the dis-covery of new truth or excellence. Rather we aim to understand, and to enjoy . . . the work of the masters. If we can, even in some degree, lead children to think their thoughts, to interpret human activity and human feeling as they have interpreted it, we shall have most signally widened and enrichened their experience, and shall have made available for them for all their lives a source of recre-ation and enjoyment, a storehouse of wisdom. . . ."—Strayer. Choice of material Proper choice of material is a large factor in influencing child tastes. In making selection, the following points should be kept in mind: 1. The importance of quality—An English student, Charles Welsh, has said, "As soon as the child has acquired the power of getting at the sense of the printed page, the taste for the good or the bad in literature may begin to grow, and it may do so even while he is acquiring this power." Therefore, the great problem that confronts parents and teachers is to guide the child's reading until a taste for good literature has been formed. 2. Good books that have been read and enjoyed by children should be chosen. 3. From the list of available material, stories or books suitable for a particular group must be chosen, taking into account the interests and abilities of the child. The sex likes and dislikes are a factor, since it is a Elementary Schools of North Carolina 27 well known fact that books which appeal to girls are not the books (in some cases) that appeal to boys. 4. There should be a wide variety of materials, as experiments have shown that greatly increased interest results from the use of a large num-ber of different books. Below are listed kinds of material suitable for children's reading: a. Picture books. For children of primer level, detailed pictures of trains, airships, automobiles, animals, home scenes, and of play and action. b. Informational material (stories true to life) of the narrative type, read more for its intrinsic interest than for informational value. Examples: "Peeps at Many Lands," Van Loon's "History of Mankind," Nicolay's "Boys' Life of Abraham Lincoln," and Chamberlain's "Home and the World Series." c. Fictional material (could be true to fact), such as DeFoe's "Rob-inson Crusoe," Ramee's "A Dog of Flanders," Dodge's "Hans Brinker, or the Silver Skates," Twain's "Huckleberry Finn." d. Myths, legends, folk tales (fanciful and could not be true to fact) and animal stories. Examples: "Arabian Nights," "The Jungle Books," "Story of Rolf and the Viking's Bow," "The King of the Golden River." e. Poems, all types—nonsense rhymes, and poems of humor, inspi-ration, patriotism, narration and of emotional appeal. Note: Much help may be found in the following: "Children's Reading," Terman and Lima (Appleton) ; "Winnetka Graded List," Washburne and Vogel. Recreatory reading in connection with school activities Recreatory reading may be effectively taught, and should often be used, in connection with the study of community life, the study of the lives and customs of other peoples, and in connection with all sorts of schoolroom activities and experience, such as caring for pets, nature excursions, the bringing of flowers to school, changes in the seasons, etc. Associating literature with any experience enriches and makes it more vivid. The teaching of poetry Poetry should be taught with the ultimate end in view of arousing an active interest in and appreciation of good poetry. The following sug-gestions have proved of value in promoting the growth of appreciations: 1. The teacher must love, and be able to evaluate poetry, as her attitude and choice indirectly affects the child's tastes. 2. The choice of material should include only excellent poetry re-lated to child interests, and within the range of child experience. Various studies have been made to determine what poetry is suitable for children at the respective grade levels. A study by L. V. Cavins indicates the degrees of difficulty of many widely studied poems. This authority is of the opinion that unless 60 per cent of the pupils of a grade are able to find the central thought of a poem without aid, and unless 40 per cent are able to answer simple questions on the thought, the poem is not suited to that grade. 3. The teacher should read poetry well to the children, as much of the appeal of poetry is through the ear. 4. A large amount of poetry should be read to children. 5. The kinds of poetry chosen should have varied appeals, and over-emphasis on any one poem or type of poem should be avoided. 6. Audience reading of poetry by members of the class, allowing children to make their own choice in many cases, is effective in building interest. 28 Course of Study for the 7. Children should be allowed to choose for memorization the poems which appeal to them individually. 8. Making anthologies of favorite poems is a valuable way of stimu-lating interest. 9. Children should be instructed in the qualities of good poetry, and be encouraged to write original verse. 10. Poetry should be read in connection with content material of the curriculum for its value in building a wealth of vivid, color-ful associations, and its influence in extending human sympathies. 11. The ultimate measure of a teacher's ability to teach poetry is the increased amount of voluntary reading, memorization, and creating of original verse in which pupils engage. REFERENCES: Mossman. Teaching and Learning in the Elementary School. Chapter XI. Houghton. The Classroom Teacher. Vol. VI. Chapter V. The Classroom Teacher, Inc. The National Committee on Reading. The Twenty-fourth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Part I. Chapters VI, .VII. Gist and King. The Teaching and Supervision of Reading. Chapter V. Scribner's. B. Oral and silent reading. The relative proportion of oral and silent reading in the grade pro-grams is an important consideration of the grade teacher. Oral reading is very essential for certain purposes. Practice in silent reading for the child is provided in early school experience. In skillful teaching, there is evi-dence that provision is made for oral and silent reading to be used jointly to secure natural responses for various needs. The child should be trained to use in any given situation the kind of reading which will serve him best at any time. Good oral reading depends upon the factors governing good silent reading plus several others, such as distinct enunciation, correct pronunciation, proper voice control and the ability to interpret the author's thought so that it carries over to the listener. Oral Reading should have a place in the well-balanced program for its socializing value, and because there are a number of life situations where good oral reading is desirable. Good oral reading may be stimulated and developed in the following ways: 1. Provide audience situations, where fresh interesting material is read to a class or small group; where either one child may read a selection or several may read parts of a selection. Reading clubs, assemblies, or entertainments furnish such situations. 2. Use proper material, such as narrative, poetic, and dramatic material, anecdote, humor, and interesting information. 3. Discuss with children characteristics of material suitable for audience reading, and allow frequent choice of material by children. 4. Pupils should be made conscious of the characteristics of good oral reading, and should be required to make careful preparation and to judge oral reading performance. Such characteristics in-clude: (a) appropriate selection, (b) effort to interest audience, (c) understanding of material, (d) natural expression, (e) good posture, (f) well-modulated voice, (g) clear enunciation, and (h) correct pronunciation. 5. Frequent oral reading by the teacher presents a pattern of good reading to the class. 6. Provide sufficient practice in oral reading. One method of giving pupils a large amount of practice is to divide the class into a large number of groups with six or more in a group. 7. Give practice in correct pronunciation and enunciation outside of the oral reading time. Elementary Schools of North Carolina Types of oral reading involved in the above practices include: (a) be-ginning lessons in oral reading; (b) audience reading; (c) oral reading to improve the technique of expression; the appreciation lesson. There is need for all of these types in life situations in school and out. Silent Reading is important as a means of extending experience and of stimulating the thinking powers of boys and girls. The child as does the adult, reads to find out something or for the pure pleasure of reading. Definite training in silent reading begins in the first grade and increases in emphasis with each succeeding grade. Silent reading should as a rule precede oral reading and factual and informational material should be used largely for silent reading purposes. Even literary material has many passages of this informational type which can be read silently and then expressed in the child's own words. In preparing a lesson in silent reading the teacher should know the needs of the group, the material selected to meet these needs, and the best methods of using the selected materials. A stimulating motive question should always follow a brief introduction which connects the material with the past experience of the child. Then all difficulties should be cleared up and the standards of reading recalled before the silent reading of the lesson. Checking up on the material read should be obtained by asking thought questions. In silent reading the pupil may read rapidly enough to keep up with his thinking. His enjoyment of the process leads him to wish to read again and again and more and more material. The child who makes reading a thought process is always evaluating ideas and accepting or rejecting them as a whole or in part. Encouragement should be given him to bring to, bear on a new situation the ideas he has already accepted. An important principle of teaching silent reading is to help the pupil to realize the purpose for which he is reading. He must know whether he is reading for pleasure, for information, or for instruction. When he understands and appreciates the purpose of his reading he has the proper attitude toward the reading material usually. Types of silent reading are: Skimming, rapid reading for pleasure, careful reading of difficult material, reading to solve a problem, and train-ing in the effective use of the library. REFERENCES: Gist and King. The Teaching and Supervision of Reading. Chapters III, IV. Scribner's. Storm and Smith. Reading Activities. Chapter III. Ginn. Anderson and Davidson. Reading Objectives. Laurel. National Committee on Reading. The Twenty-fourth Yearbook. The National Society for the Study of Education. Part I, pp. 47-54. Brooks. The Applied Psychology of Reading. (See pp. 271, 275 index page reference.) Appleton. Stone. Silent and Oral Reading, Revised. Chapters VI, VII, VIII. Houghton. C. Standardized tests and improvised checks. Testing cannot take the place of teaching, however, it is necessary in the efficient administration of a reading program. Comparing the achieve-ment of a group or an individual with an established standard makes possible an objective evaluation of class and pupil progress, and this is an aid in teaching. From the use of standard tests, the teacher may know whether or not her pupils are making satisfactory progress. Test results furnish standards but they are not to be used as goals. They may be used to discover the power of the class as a whole, and the particular strengths. 30 Course of Study for the and weaknesses of individuals. Little significance should be attached to the results of one test unsupported by other data. Tests are valuable for measuring growth over periods as long as a half-year or a whole term and for supplying information for remedial programs. Standard tests are sometimes given only at the close of the year. When this is done, their purpose is largely to determine promotion or non-pro-motion. However, the test results will aid the teacher in the adaptation of the course of study to pupil needs during the fall term, as their diagnostic value is not entirely lost. Tests administered again near mid-term afford a check-up on results of the fall reading program. At this time, the best diagnostic work is accomplished and the program of remedial work is made most effective. Reading tests are available for use in the latter part of the first year in school and may be used effectively in each succeeding grade. It is ex-tremely important to follow verbatim the directions for administering the tests. Time limits should be kept absolutely. Otherwise, results are useless. The following suggested list of reading tests indicates briefly the form and function of standardized reading tests, which are available: Oral reading tests Gray. Standardized Reading Paragraphs and Oral Reading. Check tests. Public School Pub. An individual test of oral reading giving an analysis of the errors of each pupil. Silent reading tests Haggerty's Achievement Examination in Reading. Sigma I. World. Gates Primary Reading Tests. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College. Gray's Silent Reading Test University of Chicago. Burgess' Measurement of Silent Reading. Russell Sage Foundation. Monroe Silent Reading. Revised. Public School. Pub. Thorndike-McCall Reading Scale. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College. Detroit Word Recognition Test. World. Stanford Achievement Test. Reading Examination. World. Courtis Silent Reading Test. S. A. Courtis, Detroit. (In purchasing tests the directions for giving and scoring should be requested; also standards or norms for each test.) 1. SUGGESTIONS FOR USING STANDARDIZED TESTS to discover and correct individual and group deficiencies in reading. a. Choose a standardized test having at least three forms. Plan to give one form of this test to each grade above the first about the second or third week of school; another form of the test at the middle of the school year; and the third form at the end of the year. b. Give one form of the standardized test selected and graph the results. c. Study the results carefully and diagnose the reading difficulties of each individual and of the group. d. Stimulate the pupils to feel the need of improving their reading and to cooperate consciously. e. Plan the various types of remedial measures which should be used to overcome different weaknesses. f. Use attractive, interesting reading material for remedial work. g. All children do not respond alike to the same material and methods. The same remedial procedure for a reading deficiency in two dif-ferent children may overcome the deficiency in one and not in the other. Each pupil must be given special treatment as needed. Prob-lem cases must have special attention. h. Give systematic remedial measures for remedying all weaknesses and deficiencies. i. There are many abilities to be developed in the various grades. Give informal tests frequently and systematically in order to keep in close touch with the progress being made along all lines. Elementary Schools of North Carolina 31 j. Modify remedial measures in the light of the results from informal t6Sts. k. Give' another form of the standardized test at mid-term in order to measure progress and to diagnose further the difficulties and prob- Igitis. 1 At the close of the year give the third form of the standard test which was used for testing results at the beginning and at mid-term. The scores on this last test form for the year should be one of the determining factors in promotion or grade placement for next year. .-,•-• m Keep a record of the individual progress made from the beginning of the remedial work until the close. Pupils and parents should have an intelligent notion of the practical uses of these tests in their relation to pupil progress. # . n. Plan carefully the work in reading with a view to meeting specinc needs as revealed by the tests at mid-term. 2. IMPROVISED OR INFORMAL TESTS Improvised tests are devised to supplement standard tests, not to take their place. And tests alone, any sort, do not improve the child's reading. They only point, in a measure, to the weaknesses, and give the teacher a basis upon which to attack the individual's problems. Improvised checks to measure rate and comprehension should be used very frequently. . Rate is measured by number of words or lines per minute ; comprehension may be measured by the child's ability to (1) answer factual or thought questions; (2) answer yes or no questions; (3) reproduce the story; (4) select the most important ideas; (5) comprehend the general theme. The best checks of this nature are those that are quite clear to the child, can be answered in one or two words, and can have but one correct answer. If yes or no questions are used, there should be 20 or more of them, and the score should be the number of questions correctly answered, minus the number incorrectly answered. A method of testing that might be used to encourage the child to read thoughtfully and to follow directions in answering questions is that of using checks of like nature for ten or twelve days in succession. To get the best results, each day's scores should be shown to the child graphically —the class average from day to day, and the child's score on an individual graph. If the child is to be able to show improvement, each material should be used—the teacher giving no aid—the same approximate amount of reading given each day, and the same time allotment, and about the same number of questions asked or directions to follow. This gives the teacher and child a definite basis for comparing each day's results. Needless to say the books used with this plan must be those to which the child does not have access at any other time of day. In this plan the directions and check materials are placed on the board for the class, or on mimeographed sheets for each child. The directions might follow this order: a. Open (name of book) to page— b. Read the story (name of story) that is on pages.— and— c. After reading the story, do what the directions tell you to do. The directions then given may be yes or no, completion, or a variety of types. Examples of the different kinds of suitable comprehension checks are given later in the chapter. 32 Course of Study for the Informal tests even once or twice a week help to show the teacher the relative ratings of her group; also to show the child his improvement in reading. In addition to these, it is wise to use some sort of check with each day's reading lesson—the check need not be extensive, or always written, for oral questions from the teacher can lead to thoughtful read-ing, interpretation, and organization of ideas. If the child becomes ac-customed to checks, he is likely to form the habit of reading for the thought at all times, and not just at special testing times. A distinction should be made between the child's reading that should be done mainly for the story element (pure enjoyment) and his reading to gain information. The former should be checked by asking for the main ideas, by having him illustrate in drawing, or in pantomime his ideas of certain situations brought to his mind by the selection, and by reproducing the story in his own words. The latter can be checked by tests involving detailed interpretation of the material. These two sorts of reading checks for recreational and work-type material can be justified in the schoolroom because the child needs both types of reading as a child and as an adult he will need both. REFERENCES: Gates. The Improvement of Reading. Parts II, III. Macmillan. Brooks. The Applied Psychology of Reading. Chapters VIII, IX. Appleton. National Committee on Reading. The Twenty-fourth Yearbook. Part I. Chapter IX. The National Society for the Study of Education. The Classroom Teacher. Vol. II, Chapters VII, XIII, XIV. Vol. VI, Chapter IX. The Classroom Teacher, Inc. Storm and Smith. Reading Activities in the Primary Grades. Chapters XIII, XIV. Ginri. D. Deficiencies and remedial work. Deficiencies in reading may be classified as of two types: (1) deficiency In accuracy and fullness of comprehension; (2) deficiency in rate of comprehension. Certain causes tend to produce both kinds of deficiency, while other causes are only likely to produce one of the two kinds. One group of causes might be termed "native disabilities," another group "in-correct or inefficient teaching practices." Below are listed the causes which tend to produce either or both kinds of deficiency. 1. CAUSES OF BOTH SLOW AND INACCURATE READING a. Native disabilities Low intelligence Lack of life-experience for interpreting material Lack of a speaking vocabulary b. Wrong or inefficient teaching practices Unsuitable material (uninteresting, too easy or too difficult, not sufficiently varied), resulting in lack of interest and effort. Failure to have children read with a purpose, failure to take fatigue factor into account, failure to encourage child, failure to interest child in improvement. Neglecting to give balanced emphasis to development of read-ing skills and habits: Placing over-emphasis on oral reading Over-emphasis on study of isolated words (too much word drill) Over-emphasis on analytic method of attacking words (phonics) Failure to develop an adequate sight vocabulary or method of attack on words Over-emphasis on speed Elementary Schools of North Carolina 33 Failure to make children conscious of proper study habits and skills Failure to give sufficient or properly distributed prac-tice in study habits. Failure to check progress 2, SPECIFIC DISABILITIES AND REMEDIES. Disabilities affecting accuracy and amount of comprehension are treated in sub-topics (a) and (b) below; those affecting rate are treated in sub-topic (c). a. Disabilities affecting accuracy of comprehension of phrase and sentence Tendency to read without a purpose. Remedy: Be sure child reads with the idea of "finding out" something definite.^ Lack of concentration on meanings. Remedy: Give exercises and checks on the comprehension of words, phrases, and sentences, read. Use riddles, picture-pointing, completion exercises, multiple-choice tests, matching sentences, following directions. Tendency to read fast without attention to meaning. Remedy: Throw emphasis on checking for comprehension. Fixation on words instead of on longer thought units (phrases). See recommendations under (c) below. Vocabulary difficulties, such as a small stock of sight words, inability to recognize new words, inability to perceive familiar words, have a pronounced effect on accuracy of comprehension, and are fully treated under (c) below. Too great dependence on contextual clues results in inaccuracy in thought-getting. See suggestions under (c) below. b. Deficiency in paragraph comprehension. The above mentioned causes of poor phrase and sentence comprehension also operate to produce defective paragraph comprehension. There are, how-ever, additional deficiencies which particularly influence para-graph understanding. Deficiency in the interpretation of whole paragraphs (the general idea). Remedy: Provide a variety of interesting material of increasing complexity, constantly checking com-prehension; enlist pupil's cooperation and permit self-checking when possible. Select fresh material, using paragraphs that are well organized thought units. In checking, give questions that cannot be solved except by an understanding of the whole unit. Valuable exercises and checks on comprehending the whole unit include: Riddles Illustrating or picture-marking Problem-solving Multiple choice—selecting the right topic sentence from a group Completion sentences Giving a title to a paragraph Giving a title to an illustration accompanying a paragraph Making or selecting the topic sentence Giving directions which necessitate grasp of whole paragraph in order to be followed True-false statements involving the main idea Inability to reason beyond the ideas of a paragraph. Remedy: Give questions that require thinking beyond the mere grasp of the ideas in a paragraph, i. e., reasoning to find an answer that is implied but not stated, such as: Reasons why the action occurred Whether an action was wise or unwise What may have happened before What will be likely to happen next What was the funniest thing that happened (Multiple choice and true-false sentences, and so forth, may be adapted to check ideas implied in a unit.) 34 Course of Study for the Inability to understand precise directions. Remedy: Give exercises in following directions which require pupils to select and retain every significant item and discard other items — such as dramatizations, playing games, handwork, drawing pictures, following recipes. Inability to note details. Remedy: Give exercises requir-ing search for and recall of significant details and exercises requiring the use of the details to prove some point, and re-quire children to outline, using sub-topics. c. Deficiencies resulting in retardation of rate of comprehension. Excessive vocalization (lip movement, whispering). Remedy: Reduce the amount of oral reading; have pupil make conscious attempt to improve,' have pupil place fingers on lips ; give training in silent reading where response is _ in terms of meaning; give training in reading for comprehension with a time-limit. Short span of recognition, too many eye fixations to a line. Remedy: Increase sight vocabulary; encourage use of context clues; have child, using known vocabulary, pick out or under-line thought units (phrases) ; use the same phrase-groups, repeating in various contexts, as: Jack lost his hat He looked for it He looked in the bedroom He looked in the kitchen He looked in the yard He found it on a post Read to the child, indicating phrasing; use flash cards (limited use) or other material which utilizes action exercises, picture-pointing from phrases, questions, multiple-choice ex-ercises, completion exercises requiring the placing of a miss-ing phrase, riddles, and exercises in matching parts of sen-tences. In case of too great attention to sounding of words, curtail work in phonics. Possession of a small stock of sight words. Remedy: First presentation of words should be effective; emphasis should be • on meaning. Introduce new words by means of pictures, and in context; review words in a number of contexts; let child keep individual lists in single word and in context form; have child make a "dictionary" of illustrated words and phrases; play games which emphasize the meanings of words, such as picture-pointing, matching words or phrases with a picture, drawing word-meanings, or acting word-meanings. Inability to recognize new words or inability to perceive familiar words. Remedy: Encourage getting words from con-text; use material that facilitates use of contextual clues. Teach various methods of word analysis, not relying on any one method exclusively, i. e. : Compare a word form with other words having similar form, and keep charts of words that look alike. Use exercises which call for attention to details of words, multiple-choice, true-false, completion, and so forth, may be used, e. g. : rat The cat ate the mouse bat Note: These exercises should be in thought-unit form whenever possible. Give a limited amount of phonetic work. Utilize syllabification. Slow grasp of ideas. Remedy: Give exercises in which pupil reads rapidly to get the general idea; give various types of comprehension exercises with a time limit, checking the number and quality of ideas gained. See 2, a. Elementary Schools of North Carolina 35 references: Gates. The Improvement of Reading. Macmillan. 'Gray and Zirbes. "Primary Reading" from The Classroom Teacher, Volume II. The Classroom Teacher, Inc. The Twenty-fourth Yearbook. Part One, Chapter X. The Public School Pub. Gray. "Remedial Cases in Reading: Their Diagnosis and Treatment" in Supplementary Educational Monographs. No. 22, University of Chicago. Beeby. Chicago Schools journal. February, 1926. E. Basal Texts, Supplementary Readers and Library Lists. 1. BASAL TEXTS. Adopted by the State Board of Education. Two primers, two first readers, two second readers and two third readers are adopted for basal use in the first, second and third grades, respectively. One reader is adopted for basal use in each of the following grades: fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh. The State Board of Education in adopting readers placed the Newson Readers first for basal use in the first, second and third grades. It is suggested that after the work in the basal primers is completed that the teacher select other primers from the suggested list given below for use as needed to prepare the class or groups of pupils for the work in the basal first readers. A large number (ten or more) of primers and first readers may be used during the year's work in the first grade. (See sug-gested list below.) Grade I: Primer. Playtime. Newson. Primer. Playfellows. Johnson. First Reader. Good Times. Newson. First Reader. Friends to Make. Johnson. Grade II: The Open Door. Newson. Trips to Take. Johnson. Grade III: Storyland. Newson. The Treasure Box. Johnson. Grade IV: The Study Readers. Fourth Year. Merrill. Grade V: The Study Readers. Fifth Year. Merrill. Grade VI: The Study Readers. Sixth Year. Merrill. Grade VII: Boys' and Girls' Readers. Seventh Reader. Houghton. 2. SUGGESTED LIST OF ADDITIONAL READERS From this list teachers may select readers which contain materials that meet the needs of the class as the work in the basal texts develops during the year.* Grade I: Primers Bobbs-Merrill. Bobbs-Merrill. • Child's Own Way, Wag and Puff. Wheeler. Reading Literature. Row. Pathway to Reading. Silver. Child's World Readers. Johnson. The reading materials listed in the outline courses in language, health, citizenship and science should be an integral part of the supplementary reading program and form the bases tor the fundamental relationships of reading to these other subjects. Course of Study fob the Open Road to Reading. Everyday Ginn Classics. Macmiian. Winston Readers. Winston. F c' ^°^ Reade". Lyons, .bison Readers. Scott ' The Study Readers. We Three Merrill Up. and Doing. Mentzer. Merrill. Citizenship Readers. Lippincott. First Readers ^°b^-Merrill. Bobbs-Merrill. rvw.ng i,V it ?^ ature - Row- Child s World. Johnson. Winston Readers. Winston. Open Road to Reading. Ginn Chfl7^y CI #Ssi , CS - Macnillan. Flcn u° T l Readers- Lyons. ihe Study Readers. Merrill. Out and Playing. Mentzer. Citizenship Readers. Lippincott. Grade II: Second Readers ru^'MArrilL Bobbs-Merrill. m l"gi"P"re' Row. Child s World Readers. Johnson Winston Readers. Winston Open Road to Reading. Ginn Everyday Classics. Macmillan. F <=A U" Sp°r^ Readers. Lyons, f&™<S Refd%s Ihe Study < ?00k Two. Scott. Readers. Merrill. Citizenship Readers. Lippincott. Grade III: Third Readers r^/>'MArrilK Bobbs-Merrill. S&y^Sr^tdv^r8 - Wh— rvM1 . ng«Vit f rature - Row- ' Child s World Readers. Johnson. Open Road to Reading. Ginn W'nston Readers. Winston! Child-Story Readers. Lyons. ThJ ° n c+ R | ad ?> rs' J Book Three. Scott The Study Readers. Merrill Citizenship Readers. Lippincott. Grade IV: Fourth Readers Child Library. Scott. Llson. Scott. Reading and Living. Book I. Scribner's Winston Readers. Winston BCnDner s- Studies in Reading. University. C^%UreGood Readlingm. RSecardiibn«eSr-'s.Doubleday Story Study Far and Near. Johnson Citizenship Readers. Lippincott Bobbs-Merrill. Bobbs-Merrill ru*&m& ^erature- Row. Child Story Readers. Lyons. Grade V: Fifth Readers Child Library. Scott. JUson. Scott. Studies in Reading. University. roLen R Ure J-m Reading. Doubleday. £ uu R , eadl "£- Scribner's. Bobbs-Merrill. Bobbs-Merrill Elementary Schools op North Carolina 37 Grade VI: Sixth Readers Child Library. Scott. Elson. Scott. Studies in Reading. University. Good Reading. Scribner's. Bobbs-Merrill. iiobbs-Merrill. Citizenship Readers. Lippincott. Adventures in Reading. Doubleday. Reading and Living, Book III. Scribner's. Child-Story Readers. Lyons. Grade VII: Seventh Readers Child Library. Scott. Elson. Scott. Studies in Reading. University. Reading and Living. Scribner's. Achievement, banborn. Bobbs-Merrill. Bobbs-Merrill. Citizenship Readers. Lippincott. 3. LIBRARY LISTS There cannot be too many books for the child's free reading in any grade or stage of progress in reading. Interests differ and the books at his disposal should vary in content material and difficulty. The lists sug-gested here meet this condition as far as possible. A few books illustrative of the types of materials offered by the more complete library lists are listed here by grades. Since they are taken from recent compilations of library materials they should be reliable, and are possibly the best avail-able. The purpose of this list is merely to suggest the range and type of materials to be selected for the various phases of library work as related to the grade work in reading instruction. For library references and source materials see references at the close of this section. It is suggested that the books the child is to study during the year not be placed on the reading table or in the library for his free use until after the study of the books. Copies of supplementary books not to be used for class study should be placed on the table, as valuable and interesting con-tent material is in this way brought into use. The First Grade: Picture Books The Real Mother Goose. Illus. by Wright. Rand. Smith. The Chicken World. Putnam. Petersham and Petersham. Miki. Doubleday. Greenaway. A—Anple Pie. Warne. Crane. Old Mother Hubbard Picture Book. Dodd. Books of Verse with Pictures Greenaway. Marigold Garden. Warne. Stevenson. Child's Garden of Verses. Scribner's. Tippett. I Live in a City. Harper. Picture Books Which Tell a Story Brooke. Johnny Crow's Party. Warne. Bannerman. Little Black Sambo. Stokes. Caldecott. Picture Books 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Warne. Carrick. Picture Tales from the Russian. Stokes. Clark. The Poppv Seed Cakes. Doubleday. Potter. Peter Rabbit. Warne. Song Books Le Mair. Little Songs of Long Ago. McKay. Crane. The Baby's Upera. Warne. Coleman and Thorn. Singing Time. Other Rhymes and Poems Adelborg. Clean Peter and the Children of Grubbylea. Longmans. Lear. Nonsense Books. Little. Fyleman. Fairies and Chimneys. Doubleday. Field. Taxis and Toadstools. Doubleday. 38 Course of Study for the Stories to be Read or Told to the Children Lefevre. The Cock, the Mouse, and the Little Red Hen. Jacobs. Gruelle. Raggedy Ann. Volland. Bryant. Best Stories to Tell to Children. Houghton. Lofting. The Story of Mrs. Tubbs. Stokes. Mitchell. Here and Now Story Book. Dutton. Books Children Can Read Hardy. The Little Book, Sally and Billy. Wheeler. Dootson. A Riddle Book. Rand. Wright. The Magic Boat. Ginn. Heward. The Twins and Tabiffa. Macrae. The Second Grade: Zirbes. The Story of Milk. Keystone View Co. Bianco. The Wooden Doll. Macmillan. Adams. Five Little Friends. Macmillan. Bianco. The Velveteen Rabbit. Doubleday. Field. Poems of Childhood. Scribner's. Youmans. Skitter Cat. Bobbs-Merrill. The Third Grade: Grant. Story of the Ship. McLoughlin. Milne. When We Were Very Young. Dutton. Wells. Peppi, the Duck. Doubleday. Swift. Little Blacknose. Harcourt. Jewett. Hopi, the Cliff Dweller. Heath. The Fourth Grade: Heward. Ameliar Anne and the Green Umbrella. Macrae. De La Mare. Peacock Pie. Holt. Beston. Firelight Fairy Book. Atlantic Pub. Asquith. Pillicock Hill. Macmillan. Meigs. The Wonderful Locomotive. Macmillan. The Fifth Grade: Baylor. Juan and Juanita. Houghton. Fyleman. Fairies and Chimneys. Doubleday. Gfimm. Fairy Tales. Lippincott. Lofting. The Story of Dr. Doolittle. Stokes. Patch. Hexapod Stories. Little. The Sixth Grade: Bryant. The Children's Book of Celebrated Bridges. Century. Canfield. Understood Betsy. Holt. Green. Dick Byrd: Air Explorer. Putnam. Pyle. Robin Hood. Scribner's. Riley. Rhymes of Childhood. Bobbs-Merrill. The Seventh Grade: Charnley. Boys' Life of the Wright Brothers. Harper. Garland. Boy Life on the Prairie. Harper. London. Call of the Wild. Grosset. Salter. Bambi. Simon and Schuster. Untermeyer. This Singing World. Harcourt. La Prade. Alice in Orchestralia. Doubleday. REFERENCES: From which to select more complete lists of library materials for each grade. State Approved Library Lists for Elementary and High Schools. Graded List of Books for Children. 1930. Nora Beust. American Library Association, Chicago. Price $2.00. Selected Books and Pictures for Young Children. Dagleish and Schurman. Educational Playthings, 20 E. 69th Street, New York City. Price $0.35. II. Suggested Outline for the Reading Program in Grades I to VII, Inclusive. THE FIRST GRADE There are two important divisions of the work in reading in the. first grade, (a) the preparation period, and (b) the initial period of reading instruction. The suggested outline which follows deals with these two divisions. A. The period of preparation for reading. This period includes the work of a well-organized kindergarten and the first grade teacher should undertake in so far as possible this very essential step in the reading program. Elementary Schools of North Carolina 39 In planning her work the teacher should not confuse the period of preparation with that of the initial period of reading instruction which follows it. The purpose of the former is to get children ready to be taught to read. This preparation must be provided for if pupils are to show a readiness for reading when they meet with the difficulties of formal read-ing instruction. Some children do not possess this reading readiness when they are expected to begin the work in reading. It is important that this foundational work be accomplished before pupils are called upon to master any of the technical difficulties of the reading process. There are three things involved in the definition of reading readiness: (1) a mental ma-turity sufficient to cope successfully with the intellectual difficulties in-volved in learning to read; (2) a background of experiences that will make the subject matter of beginning reading intelligible; (3) active interests and social qualities that will enable children to participate satisfactorily in the activities by which beginning reading is taught. To try to find out the present status of the school beginners in regard to these three things is one of the first responsibilities of the teacher. In addition to the broad general terms of the definition of reading readiness a detailed list of the most significant evidences of unfitness for reading is given here. In this way, both sides of the case of reading readi-ness— important factors in reading readiness and deficiencies to be dealt with before progress is made—are brought before the teacher for careful study. Some of the most significant evidences of unreadiness for reading are: Lack of experience Lack of interest Lack of mental efficiency or maturity Lack of sufficient command of English Lack of social moral efficiency Poor emotional reactions—shyness, rebelliousness, dependence, un-happiness, discouragement Physical handicaps—poor vision, poor health, ear defects, adenoids, undernourishment Unsatisfactory results—failure to make satisfactory progress, and to acquire correct habits, attitudes and skills. Lack of physical efficiency—restlessness, poor muscular control, nervousness. Lack of accuracy in habits of expression. Speech defects, poor enunciation Immature children limited by one or more of these deficiencies cannot accomplish the work expected of the average and normal child who is ready for first grade reading. Undesirable habits of study and work, and increase in nervous strain, poor emotional responses, and low standards are the result of trying to force pupils to read before they have attained reading readiness. When the child is brought into the formal work of learning to read before he is ready for it, he is very apt to be found at the close of the year in the retarded group or classed among the failures. When the pupil is forced daily to face failure and discouragement as he makes an effort to cooperate with the teacher, he rarely recovers. The mere fact that a child has reached the age of five-and-a-half or six years is no indication that he is ready to read. A great many children entering the first grade are not fully prepared and eager for instruction in reading. A very large percentage are far from being ready to attack 40 Course of Study for the the problems of first grade reading satisfactorily. "Bridging the gap" for these children, getting them ready to read, is one of the most important problems in the program of reading instruction. Beginners in school differ widely in degree of physical, mental and social maturity due to a great extent to differences in training, experience and ability. Because of the individual differences at the beginning of school, it follows that their preparation for reading is notably different. Provision for appropriate instruction for individuals and groups will be more effective if the pupils are properly classified according to ability and attainments. The beginners entering school should be divided into about three groups of approximately the same readiness for reading, and the same learning capacity. The use of standardized mental tests will be helpful in de-termining the proper grouping of pupils for instructional purposes. Mental maturity is considered the most reliable basis upon which to classify pupils. The teacher's estimate of the pupil's readiness to read which she secures through observation and study of the child engaged in various activities provided during the period of preparation for reading, supplements the results of the mental tests in determining the grouping of pupils. In the absence of measurement by standardized tests, the teacher's judgment or estimate of the pupil's readiness to do first grade work is the most satis-factory criterion upon which to base the classification. This, of course, pre-supposes that the teacher gives some time, during the first few weeks of school, to the study of the children. Since pupils advance at different rates of progress, frequent changes must be made in the classifications especially during the first half of the year. From the study of the progress of pupils, the teacher should make adjustments among the groups as the needs of the pupils demand. In order to give the individual child his right start in the reading situation, it is necessary to plan a preparation period for each of the three groups suggested for classification of the school beginners. The pro-gram of activities in each group may differ only in scope and extent of development. Some children, of course, will move rapidly into the work of the initial period* of reading instruction, where habits and skills are developed, and others because of specific deficiencies and general imma-turity will remain in the preparation period for several weeks or months. The present equipment of the child, physical, mental and social, should determine the kind and type of work planned and conducted during the preparation period. The objectives and suggested activities should be adapted and adjusted to the needs of the three groups as they progress through the grade. 1. GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE PREPARATION PERIOD The kinds of training and experience indicated in the objectives stated here are essential to satisfactory progress in reading, and are described briefly in terms of contributions which they make to child development. a. Wide experience, provided in harmony with the interests of children and preparing them to understand the stories and activi-ties about which they will read. b. Reasonable facility in the use of ideas; that is, ability to. make use of past experience and information in conversation, in solv-ing simple problems, and in thinking clearly about the content of what they read. Elementary Schools op North Carolina 41 c. Sufficient command of simple English sentences to enable pupils to speak with ease and freedom. This in turn aids them in anticipating the meaning of passages and in reading fluently. d. A relatively wide speaking vocabulary which enables them to recognize quickly the meaning of words and groups of words. e. Accuracy in enunciation and pronunciation which insures right habits in the first reading experiences and eliminates the need of corrective exercises later. f. A genuine desire to read, which aids in the interpretation of passages and which supplies motives that carry pupils through many difficult periods. Conscious attention to the types of training which are listed and which are recognized as prerequisites to reading, promotes growth that makes reading a natural and desirable activity in the first grades. 2. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES To accomplish more quickly the objectives for this period, it is essential to plan activities with a definite relation to the specific objective to be attained. The following outline may serve the teacher in her efforts to meet the demands of the situation. Objective 1 : To increase the child's fund of meanings by enlarging his experiences. Activities: Listening to stories and talking about them. Conversation about pictures. Discussing events of excursions or trips. Caring for and discussing pets. Making things. Drawing and painting. Dramatization and imitative play. Playing games suitable to age. Taking part in school activities, parties, special programs. Handling and manipulating things. Objective 2: To develop the power and ability to express ideas by the use of pictures, dramatic action, construction, and language. Activities : Making contributions during conversation and discussions. Explaining about things made. Dramatizing events and stories. Expressing ideas by means of objective material. Social communication with classmates. Objective 3: To correct defects of speech, and to develop clear articu-lation. Activities: Listening to careful speech. Singing rote songs. Practice in speaking slowly and distinctly. Special help in case of articulation defects. Objective U: To increase the span of attention. Activities: Listening to stories graded carefully as to length and simplicity of plot. Working on problems that appeal strongly to the interests. Associating words with pictures on toys, blocks, games. Objective 5 : To stimulate inquiry and curiosity. Activities: Going on excursions. Making collections of various things. Keeping pets and watching them. Listening to stories read or told. Looking on while some one reads. 42 Course of Study for the Objective 7 Activities: Objective 8: Activities . Objective 9: Activities : Objective 10 Activities : Objective 6: To develop self-confidence. Activities: Living in a happy, free environment. Encouragement and approval when attempting worth while things. Lead to gradually assume responsibility. To enlarge the vocabulary. Listening to stories. Discussing new experiences. Discussions relating to concrete material and situations. Oral word or language games. To create an interest in books and stories leading to a definite interest in reading. Looking at picture books. Singing favorite songs from books with others. Listening to interesting stories read from books. Being in an environment rich in good pictures and good books. Making booklets. To develop the child socially. Rhythmic games. Association with other people, children and grown people. Playing, group games. Planning and giving parties. Singing together. Working together. To provide opportunity for physical development. Opportunity to move about freely. Large muscle activity. Frequent outdoor play. Rest period and lunch period. Living in hygienic surroundings. It is very necessary to build up a general readiness for reading—that is, to be sure that all children sense that reading is a necessary and interesting part of their activities. However, it is not the purpose of the preparation period for reading to teach children to read but to get ready to read. Attitude, not number of words recognized, is the main goal of this period. Informal teaching plans rather than regular class work should be fol-lowed in this preparation period. Centers of interest affording a rich environment including picture books, pictures, nature study materials and materials for construction or making things should be provided. A great deal of the subject matter should be centered in pupil's plans and activities. A few suggestions are as follows: Making furniture for the various centers of interest in the room: reading, science, music and art, and social activities. Making toys, tents and animals, to use in various ways in play, as the circus. Making a garden and cultivating the plants. Making and furnishing doll and play houses, stores and airplanes. Making decorations for various and special occasions, holidays. Activities pertaining to excursions, nature study, hygiene and health, safety, doll play, parties, use of bulletin board. Steri-optican views. Newspaper. These activities provide training in: planning, initiating, completing things; assembling, adapting and taking care of materials to work with; sharing materials and tools with others; persistence; neatness; use of language, freedom of expression; and, ability to think. Elementary Schools of North Carolina 43 The amount of subject matter to be acquired during the preparation period for reading cannot be definitely stated. With the specific objectives as guides the first consideration in the program of subject matter and activities should be to plan to eliminate in so far as possible those de-ficiencies which retard progress in reading readiness; and second, to at-tempt to plan those experiences which will enable as many beginners as possible to come into the possession of the prerequisites to reading as stated in the general and specific objectives. In summarizing the work, it may prove helpful to state the desirable outcomes for the preparation period of reading as follows: a. Wide experience in Listening to stories and rhymes and discussing interesting points. Handling books and pictures. Dramatizing stories and various experiences. Social contacts. Use of nature study materials. Observation and discussion of things common to the environ-ment. b. Definite interest in Pictures, books, puzzles, and games. Expressing ideas in various ways. Working with the group—taking part in its activities, attain-ments and progress. c. Acquaintance with words which will be encountered in his first reading experiences. Opportunity to become familiar with these words through situations providing vocabulary work. 3. EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES A list of equipment and supplies suitable for carrying on the work as outlined above is suggested here. While this list is in no way complete, it should be useful in suggesting to the teacher the types of equipment and supplies to be provided. a. Furniture Desk, chairs, waste paper basket, files, bookcase, and cabinet for supplies. (For the teacher.) Tables and chairs for children of different sizes. Piano or phonograph. Attractive library chairs and table. Files for pictures, fresco paintings, and other materials. Cabinets for individual pupils. Cabinets for tools, blocks, and science supplies. Book case. Lockers or closet space for children's wraps. Work benches and work tables. Blackboards. Large bulletin boards. Cots of canvas for rest period. Aquarium with running water. b. Stimulating equipment and work materials Large blocks from lumber mill. Packing boxes to supply material for making things. Pieces of lumber suitable for making chairs, tables, trains, boats, and many other things called for in the various activities planned. Tools—saws, hammers, screw
|Title||Course of study for the elementary schools of North Carolina: reading, language, spelling, health, elementary science, citizenship|
|Creator||North Carolina. Department of Public Instruction.|
Hillman, James E. (James Elgan), b. 1891
North Carolina. Department of Public Instruction.
Education, Elementary--Curricula--North Carolina
|Place||North Carolina, United States|
(1900-1929) North Carolina's industrial revolution and World War One
(1929-1945) Depression and World War Two
|Description||A special committee from the staff of the State Department of Public Instruction has had direct responsibility for this work... James E. Hillman, chairman.--P. .; Includes bibliographical references.|
|Publisher||Raleigh, N.C. :State Superintendent of Public Instruction,|
|Agency-Current||North Carolina Department of Public Instruction|
|Rights||State Document see http://digital.ncdcr.gov/u?/p249901coll22,63754|
|Physical Characteristics||494 p. ;24 cm.|
|Collection||Health Sciences Library. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill|
|Digital Characteristics-A||29584 KB; 510 p.|
|Series||Educational publication (North Carolina. Department of Public Instruction) ;no. 154. Division of Publications ;no. 47.|
Ensuring Democracy through Digital Access, a North Carolina LSTA-funded grant project
North Carolina Digital State Documents Collection
|Pres File Name-M||pubs_edp_courseofstudyelementary1930.pdf|
|Pres Local File Path-M||\Preservation_content\StatePubs\pubs_edp\images_master\|
Collection of Mmty Caroliniatta
5ofjtt &prunt TfyiW
of tfje Class oU889
This book must not
be taken from the
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2011 with funding from
Ensuring Democracy through Digital Access (NC-LSTA)
Educational Publication No. 154 Division of Publications No. 47
COURSE OF STUDY
published by the
State Superintendent of Public Instruction
Raleigh, N. C.
Observer Printing House
charlotte, n. c.
General Statement 7
Introductory Statement 12
Part One: The Needs of the Teacher 12
Part Two: The Program of Reading Instruction Within the
Classroom . 21
General Discussions of Important Factors in the Reading
Suggested Outline for the Reading Program in:
Grades I to VII, Inclusive . 38
The First Grade 38
The Second and Third Grades 72
The Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Grades 101
The Seventh Grade 111
Part Three: Further Steps in Unifying and Broadening the
Reading Course Through the Grades 117
Part One: Basic Principles Underlying the Making of the
Course of Study in Language 119
Part Two: General Suggestions Concerning Language Instruction 122
Part Three: Language in the Primary Grades 133
First Grade 139
Second Grade 1 46
Th ird Grade 156
Part Four: Language in the Grammar Grades, Four to Seven 166
Fourth Grade 178
Fifth Grade 185
Sixth Grade 192
Seventh Grade 205
Part Five: Language Forms According to Grade 211
Part Six: Follow-up Work in Course of Study Making 221
The Course in Spelling 223
First Grade Spelling 236
Second Grade Spelling 238
Third Grade Spelling 241
Fourth Grade Spelling 247
Fifth Grade Spelling 249
Sixth Grade Spelling 251
Seventh Grade Spelling . 253
Part One: Introduction 257
Part Two: Health Education Procedures 271
Analyses of Some Factors and Situations Which Influence
Health Study 271
Outline of Work by Grades for Period to be Given to
Definite Instruction 278
Grades One, Two and Three 278
Grade Four 318
Grade Five 337
Grade Six 353
Grade Seven 365
How May Health Achievements be Measured 378
Part Three: Reference Materials 386
ELEMENTARY SCIENCE 395
The Subject Denned 395
Aims of Teaching Elementary Science 396
Methods of Teaching Elementary Science 399
Science Concepts to be Gained 414
The Curriculum 415
Utilize Nature Material of Local Environment 421
Restricted Lists of Nature Phenomena Common to North Carolina 422
General Information 424
Meaning of Citizenship 429
General Objectives of the Course in Citizenship 429
Specific Objectives of the Course in Citizenship 430
Some Suggestions for Reaching These Objectives 439
General Procedure 439
Materials and Period for Definite Instruction in Civic
Remedial Work With Problem Cases 448
Grades One, Two and Three 449
Grades Four ad Five 460
Grades Six and Seven 464
Teaching Units Illustrating Phases of Citizenship Training
in the Intermediate and Upper Elementary Grades 470
Measuring Growth in Citizenship 485
Bibliography and References 490
Addresses of Publishers . 493
Only a few elementary texts can now be changed in any one year. This
makes necessary the division of the course of study into two or more parts.
The present volume treats the subjects in which new texts have been
adopted since the last course of study was published, and two subjects
in which no text is required.
A special committee from the staff of the State Department of Public
Instruction has had direct responsibility for this work. This committee
consisted of James E. Hillman, Chairman; Juanita McDougald, Secretary;
L. C. Brogden, Nancy O. Devers, G. H. Ferguson, Susan Fulghum, M. C.
S. Noble, Jr., and Hattie S. Parrott.
Associated with this central committee were school people in this State
and elsewhere who assisted directly in the study of the various subjects.
Acknowledgment is given to these friends and students of education who
have rendered this help.
P/" J?.1?? W' Carr' Associate Professor of Education, Duke University, Durham, N. C.
Miss Sibyl Henry, Graduate Student, Duke University, Durham, N. C.
Miss Annie M. Cherry, Supervisor Halifax County Schools, Roanoke Rapids, N. C.
leachers, supervisors and other educators who read and evaluated the course.
The Curriculum Committee preparing the Elementary School Curriculum for the public
schools in the State of Minnesota.
The Curriculum Committee preparing the Course of Study in Reading for Fresno, Cali-fornia,
Other State Courses of Study used for checking on present-day trends in curriculum
making and contents of courses of study.
Charles E. Merrill Company, Publishers, New York, N. Y.
Johnson Publishing Company, Richmond, Va.
Dr. Carl Adams, Director of Instruction in Education and Psychology, E. C. T. C.
Greenville, N. C.
Dr. John W. Carr, Associate Professor of Education, Duke University, Durham, N. C. Miss Frances Whitney, Department of Education, Lenoir Rhyne College, Hickory, N C. Miss Evelyn Weaver. Critic Teacher, Appalachian State Teachers College, Boone, N C. Miss Nora Beust, Specialist in Children's Literature, Chapel Hill, N C.
Miss Annie Ray, Critic Teacher, Western Carolina Teachers College, Cullowhee, N. C. Miss Annie Cherry, Supervisor Halifax County Schools, Roanoke Rapids, N. C.
Miss Myrla Morris, Critic Teacher, N. C. C. W., Greensboro, N C
Miss Nan Lacy, Primary Teacher, Raleigh, N. C.
Mrs. A. E. Gouge, Instructor in Teacher Training, Bakersville, N. C.
Miss Mary Johns, Grammar Grade Teacher, Raleigh, N C.
Miss Nannie Mae Tilley, Grade Teacher, Bahama, N. C.
Miss Bettie Aiken Land, Critic Teacher in Primary Grades, N. C. C. W., Greensboro, N. C. Miss . Salhe B Marks, Associate Professor of Elementary Education, U. N. C, Chapel
Hill, N. C.
Miss Martha Ray, Grade Teacher, Concord, N. C.
Miss Mary Hyman, Supervisor Orange County Schools, Hillsboro, N. C.
Miss Miriam MacFadyen, Critic Teacher in Primary Grades, N. C. C. W., Greensboro,
Miss Ida Seidel, Supervisor Pitt County Schools, Greenville, N. C.
Dr. L. R. Meadows, Head of English Department, E. C. T. C, Greenville, N. C.
Miss Mary Blackstock, Supervisor Buncombe County Schools, Asheville, N. C Miss Clyde Fields, East Elementary School, Statesville, N. C.
Miss Margaret Gustin, Supervisor Carteret County Schools. Beaufort, N. C. Miss Ruth Heilig, Principal Innes Elementary School, Salisbury, N. C
Miss Mamie Howard, Principal Elementary School, Candor. N. C
Miss Vera Keech, Supervisor Perquimans County Schools, Hertford, N. C.
Miss Ethel McNairy, Primary Supervisor City Schools, Statesville, N. C
Miss Edna Morgenthaler, Supervisor Elementary Schools, High Point, N. C Dr. K. C. Garrison, N. C. State College of Agriculture and Engineering, Raleigh, N. C. Dr. h. H. Koos, Assistant Superintendent City Schools, Winston-Salem, N. C.
Consultant—C. E. Turner, Professor of Health Education, Institute of Technology.
Miss Nettie Brogden, Rural Supervisor Guilford County, Greensboro, N. C. Miss Helen Burch, Instructor Teacher Training, Franklin, N. C.
Miss Berta Coltrane, Instructor Teacher Training, Whiteville, N. C
FOR HEALTH (Continued):
Miss Nena DeBerry, Principal Frank B. John School, Salisbury, N. C.
Mr. J. H. Epperson, Superintendent of County Health Department, Durham, N. C.
Miss Ruth Gunter, Supervisor Lee County, Sanford, N. C.
Miss Emily Johnson, Instructor Teacher Training, Grassy Creek, N. C.
Miss Mary Moyle, Instructor Teacher Training, Linwood, N. C.
Mrs. Hildred E. Wessel, Instructor Teacher Training, Murphy, N. C.
Miss Carrie Wilson, Supervisor Nash County, Nashville, N. C.
Miss Helen Dunlap, Supervisor Edgecombe County, Tarboro, N. C.
Dr. C. O'H. Laughinghouse, State Board of Health, Raleigh, N. C.
Dr. G. M. Cooper, State Board of Health, Raleigh, N. C.
FOR ELEMENTARY SCIENCE:
Mrs. M. Louise Bullard, Grammar Grade Teacher, Raleigh, N. C.
Dr. J'>hn W. Carr, Associate Professor of Education, Duke University, Durham, N. C.
Dr. Bert Cunningham, Professor of Biology, Duke University, Durham, N. C.
Miss Flossie Martin, Science Teacher, Winston-Salem, N. C.
Dr. C. E. Preston, Associate* Professor of the Teaching of Science, University of North
Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C.
Dr. R. J. Slay, Director of Science Instruction, East Carolina Teachers College, Green-ville,
Dr. L. H. Snyder, Associate Professor of Zoology, N. C. State College, Raleigh, N. C.
Dr. B. W. Wells, Professor of Botany, N. C. State College, Raleigh, N. C.
Miss Gladys Boyington, Teacher Social Studies, N. C. C. W., Greensboro, N. C.
Mr. LS. D. Bunn, Superintendent Puolic Schools, Lillington, N. C.
Course of study for the elementary schools of North Carolina: reading, language, spelling, health, elementary science, citizenshipfor