Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina to Governor ..., for the scholastic years ...
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OFFICIAL CIRCULARS, LETTERS AND RULINGS OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION FOR THE Years 1902-1903, 1903-1904 AND Reports of State Institutions, Peabody Fund, Distribution of the First and Second $100,000, etc. PART III OF REPORT. 196 BIENNIAL REPORT OF Til E Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, October 3, 1902. To the Count)/ Superintendent: As many of the public schools in the State will not be in session so early as the 12th of October, the day set apart by the law as North Carolina Day, I have taken the liberty of exercising the discretion allowed me by the law to name another day, and have selected Wed-nesday, November 26, for the celebration of "North Carolina Day" in the public schools of the State this year. The subject selected is "The Albemarle Section." I enclose a copy of the remarkably interesting and valuable programme. Please send to every teacher in the county a copy of this letter to you and of this programme. I send you a number of copies of both under separate cover. I earnestly desire that "North Carolina Day" shall be cele-brated this year by every public school in the State. The full programme, containing all the readings, declamations, sketches and songs, has been bound in a neat pamphlet. Any number of copies of this pamphlet for use in the schools will be sent to the County Superintendent from the State Superintendent's office upon application. Please write me at once about how many copies you think will be needed for the schools in your county, and I will send them as soon as they come from the hands of the printer. Direct your teachers to apply to you for these programmes. I sincerely hope that every teacher in your county will use the ex-cellent opportunity of "North Carolina Day" to rally the patrons of the school around it, to arouse a pride in the public school, to awaken an interest in the study of the history of the State, and to inspire a patriotic love of North Carolina and her people. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. SUPERINTENDENT OF ITBLIC INSTRUCTION. 19' NORTH CAROLINA DAY. Subject: The Albemarle Section. PROGRAMME OF EXERCISES. 1. Song—The Old North State William Gaston. 2. Reading—The First Governor. William Drummond. Adapted from Wiley's North Carolina Reader and Weeks' Sketch of Drummond. 3. Questions and Answers for Children. By Committee of State Literary and Historical Association. 4. Reading—Roanoke Island of To-day Charles R. Taylor. 5. Reading—Albemarle Monuments R. B. Creecy. <i. Reading—Edenton W. E. Stone. 7. Song—America. 8. Reading—Hertford It". F. McMullan. it. Reading—A Distinguished Citizen of the Albemarle Section. Adapted from Address by Junius Davis. 10. Declamation—Extract from the Memorial to Congress concern-ing the Celebration of the Settlement of Sir Walter Raleigh's Colonies on Roanoke Island. .Geo. T. Winston, for Committee. 11. Reading—Cape Hatteras and the Banks. 12. Hatteras and the Bankers R. B. Creecy. 13. Stories of the Banks Jennie Langston. 14. Declamation—Hatteras Joseph W. Holden. 15. Selected Hymn. 198 BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE Office Superintendent oe Public Instruction, Raleiuh, December 22, 1902. To County Superintendents: I have sent you under separate cover blank applications for aid from the second "Hundred Thousand Dollars" appropriated by chap-ter 543 of the Laws of 1901, "for the purpose of bringing up to the constitutional requirement for a four months public school term in each school district of the State those public schools whose terms, after the distribution and application of all other school funds, do not comply with said requirement." Please fill out these blanks and return them promptly. Any delay on the part of one County Superintendent will delay every other county applying for aid out of this fund. No part of this fund can be sent to any county until the applications from all counties have been returned to this office. These applications should be filled out and returned to my office immediately after the January apportion-ment of the county school fund by the County Board of Education at their meeting on the second Monday in January. We expect to appor-tion this Second Hundred Thousand Dollars and send out the war-rants for it not later than February 1, 1903. To prevent mistakes and avoid, if possible, the delay of correction, I wish to urge carefulness on the part of County Superintendents in filling out these blank applications and to call special attention here to some of the important provisions of chapter 543. Please read care-ful7 ij every word of this chapter in the Laws of 1901, a copy of which ought to be in the office of the Clerk of the Superior Court of your county. Please observe carefully the following provisions of that chapter : Section 4, "Report of County Board of Education and con-tents thereof ;" "Report to be accompanied by affidavits from certain county officers and contents of these affidavits." Section 6, "Requi-site number of pupils." You will observe that this section forbids aid from this fund to any school district containing a census school popu-lation of less than sixty-five children unless said district exists for "good and sufficient cause, approved by the County Board of Educa-tion and the State Superintendent of Public Instruction." The causes for the existence of such small districts are declared in section 29 of the School Law to be sparsity of population and peculiar geographical conditions. No other reasons for their existence will be satisfactory to the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. You will observe, therefore, that I have enclosed a certificate printed on the back of an application blank to be signed by the County Board of Education, stating that all districts containing less than sixty-five children of school age applying herein for aid out of the Second Hundred Thou-sand Dollars exist for satisfactory reasons, to-wit : sparsity of popu-lation, or geographical conditions, such as intervening streams, swamps, mountains, etc. SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 199 You will observe also that the money received by each district named in your application is usable by that district only, and only for the specific purpose mentioned in chapter 543, section 3. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, December 22, 1902. To County Superintendents: I notice from your report that your county failed to have a four months school term during the year ending June 30, 1902, notwith-standing it received aid for that purpose out of the second hundred thousand dollars. I presume that this was attributable to your fail-ure to receive the State warrant before your schools closed for that year. As explained in a statement from me attached to every war-rant sent to County Treasurers, this money is usable only for the specific purpose of aiding school districts mentioned in your formal applications on file in this office to have a four months term. The amount stated in your application as needed by eacJi district is usable by that district and no other for the purpose stated and no other. If it was received too late to be used by that district for that purpose last year, it should be used at the beginning of the school term for the year ending June 30, 1903, to lengthen that term. Please let me hear from you at once stating why these schools in your county failed to have a four months term last year and what has been done with the money sent for that purpose to each district apply-ing. Please answer at once, as it is necessary to have this informa-tion before the warrants for the second hundred thousand dollars for this year are sent. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction. Raleigh, December 24, 1902. Hon. R. D. Gilmer, Attorney-General Raleigh, N. G. Dear Sir :—In answer to your inqury relative to the payment of the salary of Mr. Gilmer Welch, whose school was closed for lack of the average daily attendance required by law, permit me to say that sec-tion 23 of the School Law says: "When a monthly report of any school where the district does not contain over one hundred and fifty children shows an average daily attendance of less than one-fifth of the school census, the committee shall at once order the school to be 200 BIENNIAX, REPORT OF THE closed, and the money due said school shall remain to the credit of that school." Mr. Welch is clearly entitled to his salary up to the time that his monthly statement showed that the school failed to make the required average and was ordered by the committee to be closed. Very truly yours. J. Y. Joynee, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh. No Legal Authority to Contract With Denominational or Sectarian Schools for Using the Public School Fund. Dear Sir :—Permit me to state through your columns that in every instance in which the question has been presented to me as Superin-tendent of Public Instruction I have ruled that there was no legal authority to contract with any strictly denominational or sectarian school to use public school funds and conduct the public school in connection therewith. Section 33 of tbe Public School Law expressly gives authority to the school committee to contract with the teacher of a private school regularly conducted for at least six months in the year to use the public school fund in connection with the private schools to give instruction to all pupils between the ages of six and twenty-one years in the branches of learning taught in the public schools, under the conditions prescribed in that section. I have ruled that the term private school does not include sectarian and denomi-national schools. There is, therefore, no express authority for mak-ing any contract with these schools for the use of public school funds. Without express authority such contracts would be illegal. Letters on file in this office will show that this has been my ruling. Captain John Duckett, chief clerk in my office, informs me that this was also the ruling of my predecessor, General T. F. Toon. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner. Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction. Raleigh, January 22, 1903. To the County Superintendent: Dear Sir :—You have not yet sent in your application for aid from the second hundred thousand dollars for a four months school, or notified me that you will need no aid. All applications must be sent in by February 2d. Please prepare your application very carefully SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC' INSTRUCTION. 201 so that it may not be necessary to return it for correction. Unless the counties are as economical as possible, asking for no more than is absolutely necessary for weak districts that are legally entitled to aid. there will not be enough of the second hundred thousand dollars to meet the demands. I wish to urge you, therefore, to be as moderate as possible in your request and to utilize every cent available in your county to secure a four months term in every district before asking for one cent out of the second hundred thousand dollars. Your delay in sending your application promptly, correctly prepared, will delay every other county in the State applying for aid and will cause great inconvenience. I am anxious to send all warrants for the second hundred thousand dollars to the county treasurers before any schools in any county close. Please let me hear from you by return mail, if possible. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh. No Step Backward. Dear Sir :—In answer to your inquiry about the second hundred thousand dollars I desire to say that it is my earnest hope and belief that the Legislature will make provision for its payment. It will be nothing less than a calamity to the school interest of the State if they should fail to do this. The reports that I have been receiving from the county superintendents in regard to their schools this winter indicate that the public schools are in better condition than ever before, that the people are taking more interest in them and that the attendance is better than at any previous time in their history. Such is the testimony of a number of the superintendents and teachers in many counties from whom I have heard from time to time through personal and official letters. After all the promises made to the people during the last campaign that they should have a four months school, I do not think that the Legislature can afford at their first meeting after the election to permit these promises to be broken. The people have acted upon the faith of the promises of the party that they have learned to trust and that has established in North Carolina a reputa-tion as a pledge-keeping party. In many counties all the arrangements for conducting their schools four months have been made and in some counties the teachers in many of the weak districts have already taught out more than the county apportionment under the advice of the County Superintendent and County Board of Education that the second hundred thousand dollars from the State would probably be 202 BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE available and that it was better to have a continuous term of the schools than to close them and allow them to become disorganized and begin later in case they should get their part of the State appropria-tion. If this money should fail to be provided now, it would complicate greatly school affairs in many counties, would cause a number of county deficits instead of one State deficit, and would have a tendency to retard educational progress and dampen educational enthusiasm. It would weaken the faith of the people in the promises of the State and of the party. It would, as is usually the case in all school troubles, strike the poor, innocent teacher hardest and probably result in the loss of a part of their hard earnings to many of these poorly paid teachers. The failure to provide this money now would work a hardship to more people than the failure to provide for any appro-priation made by the last Legislature. This second hundred thousand dollars was appropriated by the Legislature of 1901 for this specific purpose. It is as binding as any other appropriation made by that Legislature. It affects more vitally the educational interest of the great masses of the people of North Carolina than any other appropriation made by that Legislature. If the other appropriations made by that Legislature are provided for, and many of them have been paid in full to date already, then this appropriation made for the benefit of the little children of North Caro-lina must be provided for. If there should not be enough money to pay all the appropriations made by the last Legislature, then as State Superintendent of Public Instruction and the legal representative of the educational interest of the children of the State, I shall insist that all appropriations shall be scaled and that this appropriation shall be put upon the same footing with all others and the same per cent, of this shall be paid ; in other words, if we have not money enough to pay all, then I shall insist that all appropriations made by the preceding Legislature shall be prorated. It would not be fair or just to allow all the deficit, or the largest part thereof, to fall upon the appropriation for the public schools and the little children. I am confident, however, that this General Assembly, composed of many of the State's able, patriotic and just representatives, will see the wis-dom and the justice in providing the means to keep the State's pledge to its little children. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joynee, Superintendent of Puhlir Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, February 16, 1903. 1 >eak Sir :—Fermit me to call your careful attention to the enclosed letter in regard to the second hundred thousand dollars for a four months public school term. This is a serious situation and demands SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 203 prompt and courageous action. In the name of the children, and for the sake of the people's schools, I urge you to write or telegraph your Representatives in the Legislature at once, calling their attention to the importance of making provision for the payment of this money. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, March 13. 1903. To County Superintendent: Dear Sir :—The aggregate amount of the applications for aid from the second hundred thousand dollars for a four months school term was $141,169.25, hence it was necessary to scale all applications. After a careful examination of your application the State Board of Educa-tion lias fixed the amount to which your county, in their opinion, is equitably entitled at dollars. I have this day sent the treasurer of your county a warrant for the above amount. This is a reduction of per cent. I have sent you another blank for you to report at once the amount received from this apportionment by each district asking aid in your application. Each district contained in your original application is entitled to per cent, of the amount asked for. You can easily make this calculation and fill these blanks and return them to my office at once. Keep a copy of this apportionment on file in your ofliee, as it will have to be published in your county in the annual report of the pro-ceedings of the County Board of Education, now required by the amended school law. The money apportioned is usable only by the district named in your original application to which it is apportioned, and only for the pur-pose of paying teachers and the current expenses of conducting the school in that district. If the schools have closed in any of these districts this money should be held to the credit of those districts, and used only for lengthening the school terms in those particular districts when the schools reopen. I would not advise reopening the schools for a short term. I think it wiser in most cases to wait until the opening of the schools for the next school year. Very truly yours. J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. 20-1- BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, June 8. 1003. To the Members of the County Boards of Education: My Dear Sirs :—You will enter upon the duties of your office July 6, 1003. In view of the impossibility of conducting the public schools of your county successfully without an efficient county superintendent and competent school committeemen, I trust that you will pardon me for taking the liberty of making some suggestions at this time in regard to the wise discharge of the first most important duties of your board, the election of a county superintendent and the selection of school committeemen. As to the necessity and importance of competent supervision, re-quiring the entire time and thought of a competent superintendent, permit me to ask a careful reading of pages 36 to 39 of my biennial report, a marked copy of which I send you under separate cover. Permit me also to call your attention to the duty of observing strictly in your election of comity superintendent the legal qualifica-tions for the office as set forth in section 1G of the school law. Please kindly read carefully sections 1G, 38, 39 and 44 of the school law, and observe especially the notes upon these sections. I wish, in conclusion, to urge you to observe in your selection of a county superintendent, the following: (1) Without fear, without prejudice, political or religious, having before your eyes only the wel-fare of the children and the success of the public school, select the most competent man to be had for the money, choosing him from your county, if such a man is to be found there, and if not to be found in the county, seeking him wherever he can be found. (2) If your present county superintendent possesses the necessary qualifica-tions for a successful administration of his delicate, difficult and im-portant duties, as I trust he may, re-elect him and give him a chance to show what is in him and to make a greater success of his work by ] laying him, if possible, a sufficient salary, under section 44, to justify him in giving all his time and thought to the work of supervision and to justify you in requiring him to do this. (3) Take advantage of section 44 and pay your superintendent as large a salary as your school fund will justify, but be sure that you get more man and more time for more money. By way of suggestion to you in the selection of school committee-men, let me beg you to read carefully section 17 of the school law and note thereon. Let me insist that you shall earnestly seek to find for school committeemen men of intelligence and good business qualifica-tion, who are known to be in favor of public education, as required by law ; who will take an active interest in the public schools and will have the courage to discharge their duties, especially the duty of selecting teachers, without fear or favor. SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 205 I desire to assure you of my hearty co-operation with all your efforts to advance the cause of education in your county, and to request your hearty co-operation with me in my work. Very truly yours. J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, June 19, 1903. To County Superintendents: Dear Sir :—We send you a number of copies of the pamphlet con-taining the "Loan Fund Act" and the rules and regulations adopted by the State Board of Education in regard to this fund. Please read carefully my letter to County Boards of Education and County Super-intendents in the first part of the pamphlet. You will observe that applications for loans must be filed on or before July 15, 1903. We arc sending you also a number of blanks for applications. Please kindly communicate with all districts in the county that desire a loan from this fund and see that they have a chance to make application through the County Board of Education at the meeting on the first Monday in July. The delay in sending these pamphlets and applica-tions is due to our inability to get them earlier from the State printers. We are endeavoring to arrange dates for the educational campaign during the summer and fall. In order to conduct the campaign as economically as possible we must endeavor to give the different speakers a series of appointments in the same section on consecutive dates. Therefore, if you are planning for educational rallies in your county and desire the aid of speakers through the campaign commit-tee and the Southern Education Board without expense to you, we must ask you to confer with Secretary E. C. Brooks at this office before fixing your dates. This will enable us in many cases to group appointments in such a way as to save much expense. If you have not already written Mr. Brooks in regard to appointments for speak-ers in your county and you desire such appointments, please write to him at once. I suggest that, wherever possible, you combine these educational rallies with your township meetings and endeavor to have present at all of them members of the County Board of Education, school com-mitteemen, teachers and patrons. You might arrange for these edu-cational rallies at central points in the county, fixing the dates of the township meetings in the surrounding sections so as to immediately precede and prepare the way for these central meetings. This would result in a saving of time and energy and an increase in enthusiasm for the meetings. In order to secure a large attendance at these central meetings and to get the largest possible hearing for our cause. 206 BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE endeavor to organize and rally at these points all the educational forces of the county—boards of education, school committeemen, teachers, preachers, editors, politicians and patrons. Advertise the meetings thoroughly and whenever possible provide attractions such as basket picnics, barbecues, music, etc. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joynee, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, July 16, 1903. Dear Sir :—It is necessary in planning a new school-house or in making additions to an old school-house that you observe suggestions on page 10 of "Plans for Building Public School-houses," a copy of which I send you. The ceiling should be thirteen feet, never less than twelve feet clear between the ceiling and the finished floor, and if the floor space is very great the ceiling should be greater than thirteen feet. The light, according to best authorities, should come from the rear and left side, or from the left side only. The glass surface should be equal to one-fifth or one-sixth of the floor surface, and the top of the window should be as near the ceiling as possible in order to give the best ventilation. It is the opinion of the best authorities that the shape of the school-room should be oblong, the ratio of the breadth to the length should be about as 3 to 5. In constructing a new build-ing it is an easy matter to provide a cloak-room too, with very little additional cost, and this should be done. In section 13 of the School Law for 1903 you will observe this clause: "They (the County Board of Education) shall not be author-ized to invest any money in any new school-house that is not built in accordance with the plans approved by State Superintendent of Public Instruction." I call your attention to this clause of the new law, because it is absolutely necessary that you observe the above suggestions, for in the future in building school-houses we must keep in mind the health and comfort of the child, even if it does cost more money. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 207 Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, July 25, 1903. To County Superintendents : I wish to call your special attention to the amendments passed by the last Legislature to the Text-book Law. These amendments are appended to the School Law, page GO. If more depositories are abso-lutely necessary in your county for reasonably convenient distribu-tion of books, please take at once the necessary steps for the estab-lishment of them as directed in section 1 of these amendments. You will observe that it is your duty to notify the contractors, pub-lishers of the text-books adopted, of the date of the opening of the public schools at least thirty days before they open. This is impor-tant, so the contractors may supply the dealers with ample quantities of books before the time the schools open. Please also notify me of the date fixed by your county board for the opening of your public schools. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, August 18, 1903. To County and City Superintendents: In view of the fact that eighty-five per cent, of the people of our State live by farming, and in view of the further fact that a large per cent, of our farm tillers get their only education in the public schools, the Legislature of North Carolina has ordered that the Ele-ments of Agriculture shall be taught in all the schools of the State. All modern arts and trades benefiting by the discoveries and adaptations of science. Farmers should share in these benefits. It has been fully demonstrated that children can be taught the funda-mental principles of good cultivation of the soil just as they can be taught the fundamental principles of arithmetic and grammar. Indeed, if our farmers are to hold their own in the sharp competition of modern life, our future farmers must learn these principles and their application. The State Board of Education has adopted a simple and beautifully illustrated book as a text-book for this subject—a book that any capable teacher can teach by following the methods suggested in the book. This book is called "Agriculture for Beginners," and is pub-lished by Ginn & Company. It will be on sale at all State depositories. Section 16 of the Text-book Law requires all books adopted by the Text-book Commission to be introduced and used as text-books to the exclusion of all others in all the public free schools of the State. In conformity, therefore, to the law of the State, you are instructed to 208 BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE see that every teacher in the schools, white and colored, under your supervision adds this subject to the regular course of instruction. I suggest that all pupils in each school who are over fourteen years old, and such others as are sufficiently advanced, be arranged into one class for this work. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, September 9, 1903. To Con nil/ Superintendents: An examination of the reports for the year ending June 30, 1903, convinces me that the statistics as to the number of persons between twelve and twenty-one who cannot read and write are incomplete and inaccurate. A number of counties have failed to report the number of illiterates between these ages, while the reports of others show such a large per cent, of illiteracy that I am confident that they are incorrect. Please scrutinize closely the census returns of each dis-trict now coming into your office and require the blanks for the num-ber of children between twelve and twenty-one who cannot read and write to be tilled completely and accurately before approving order for taking the census. Please examine also such reports as have already been returned and filed and paid for and have them corrected at once, if you find correction necessary. These statistics are important, and for the honor of your county and of the State they should be accurate and complete. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, October 5, 1903. To County Superintendents: You are hereby notified that the annual meeting of the State Asso-ciation of County Superintendents will be held in the Hall of the House of Representatives iu the City of Raleigh, Wednesday and Thursday. November 11 and 12, 1903. Your attention is called to section 39 of the Public School Law re-quiring every county superintendent to attend this meeting continu-ously during its session unless providentially hindered, and directing the County Board of Education to pay his traveling expenses and his per diem while in attendance. County superintendents employed on salary will not be allowed this per diem, but will be allowed trav- SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 209 eliug expenses. Let nothing except strictly providential hindrance, by which I understand one that the power of man cannot remove, prevent your attendance. Every county superintendent in the State will probably be present at this meeting. Such a conference between the county superintend-ents and the State Superintendent is an absolute necessity and can not fail to prove profitable. Many topics relating to our work and to ways and means of improving and advancing it will be discussed. We are now at work on an informal programme. I will thank you to write me at once suggesting such questions as you think ought to be discussed. We propose to make this a working conference. Please come prepared to give the work your entire attention during these two days and with such information at your command as will be helpful to your co-workers. It will be our aim to have a free exchange of ideas about our common work, and to give to one another the benefit of our experience and observation. The first session of the Association will be held Wednesday morning at eleven o'clock. You are expected to be present at the first meeting. I am now in correspondence with the railroads in regard to reduced rates. You will be notified if these rates are secured. The District Associations of County Superintendents will also meet and organize during the session of the State Association. I sent you some days ago a package of pamphlets on the duties and powers of school committeemen. The pamphlet also contains a letter to school committeemen. Please send a copy of this pamphlet to every school committeeman in your county. It is my hope that it may prove helpful in securing their co-operation and in giving them in a concise form the necessary information for a business-like performance of their duties. The outlook for education in the State is hopeful. This ought to be the most successful year's work for education in all the history of North Cai*olina. Its success in each county, however, depends largely upon the wisdom, the enthusiasm and devotion of the county superin-tendent. I shall confidently expect you to avail yourself of this oppor-tunity to confer with your co-workers about your great work and to get such help as you can from them and to give such help as yoii can to them. Very truly yours, . J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of PuMic Instruct ion. 14 210 BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, October 28, 1903. To County Superintendents: Reduced rates have been secured over the Atlantic Coast Line, Seaboard Air Line and Southern Railway for all attending the meet-ing of the State Association of County Superintendents. Round-trip tickets will be on sale November 9, 10 and 11, with final limit Novem-ber 14, for a continuous passage from all points on these lines within the State and from Suffolk, Norfolk and Danville. Be sure to ask for these round-trip tickets. An interesting program has been arranged, beginning Wednesday morning at eieven o'clock and closing Thursday evening at ten o'clock. Among the subjects to be discussed are : "The Problem of Attend-ance," "Course of Study in the Public Schools," "Visitation of Schools by County Superintendents and How to Make it Most Helpful," "Emphasis of the Essentials in the Public School Course," "Hints on Teaching Agriculture," "Institutes and other Means for Improvement of Teachers." "Township Meetings and Educational Gatherings," "Local Taxation and Consolidation," "Rural Libraries," "Superin-tendents' Records," "Teachers' Reports and Records," "Library Re-ports and Records," "General Discussion of the School Law and its Execution," "Apportionment of the Second Hundred Thousand Dol-lars." On Wednesday evening the State Literary and Historical Associa-tion will meet with us, and will have charge of the program for that evening. Your attention is again called to section 39 of the Public School Law, making it the duty of every county superintendent to attend this meeting continuously, unless providentially hindered. I am sure that it would also be the pleasure of every progressive county super-intendent, who has the proper conception of his work and an earnest desire to fit himself better for it and to help others fit themselves better for it. to attend this meeting continuously. I wish to urge you to make your arrangements to be present at the first session and to remain until the close of the last session. Wednesday and Thursday will be busy days. I hope that all will come prepared to devote themselves entirely to the work of the Conference Wednesday and Thursday. Friday can be given to sight-seeing and pleasure. A printed program will be sent you in a few days. Please examine it and come prepared to take part in the general discussions. I will thank you to return at once the enclosed postal notifying me of your purpose to' attend and the time of your arrival. I am sending you under separate cover several copies of Educa-tional Bulletin No. 2, entitled, "Progress in Public Education." Dis-tribute these copies freely throughout the county, and especially give one copy to your county newspaper, with the request that the editor make editorial mention of the same. Very truly yours, J. T. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. SUPERINTENDENT OF ru/BLIC INSTRUCTION. 211 STATE ASSOCIATION OF COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS OF NORTH CAROLINA, RALEIGH, NOVEMBER 11, 12, 13, 1903. Programme. WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 11. 11 to 11 :30 a. m. Organization. 11:30 a. m. to 12:30 p. m. Address—Superintendent J. T. Joyner. 2 :30 to 2 :50 r. m. How Local Taxation was Secured for Every Dis-trict but One in Dare County—Superintendent B. G. Grisp of Dare. 2 :50 to 3 :20 i\ u. What the County Superintendent Can Do to Secure Consolidation and Local Taxation. Discussion led by Super-intendent T. A. Sbarpe of Guilford and Superintendent W. S. Long of Alamance. 3 :20 to 3 :40 p. m. General Discussion, led by Superintendent R. J. Cochran of Mecklenburg. 3 :40 to 4 :10 p. m. Teachers' Institutes. Discussion led by Superin-tendent Y. D. Moore of Caldwell and Superintendent W. H. Ragsdale of Pitt. 4:10 to 4:30 p. m. General Discussion of Institutes and other Means for Improvement of Teachers—Superintendent J. D. Hodges of Davie. 4 :30 to 4 :50 p. m. The Southern Education Board and the Campaign for Education—Charles D. Mclver, District Director. 4 :50 to 5 :10 p. m. Township Meetings and Educational Gatherings. Discussion led by Superintendent R. B. White of Franklin and Superintendent R. W. Askew of Bertie. \ WEDNESDAY EVENING. 7 :45 p. ir. Meeting of State Literary and Historical Association. By invitation the State Association of County Superintendents will meet with the State Literary and Historical Association. 212 BIEX^IAL EEPOET OF THE THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 12. EXPLANATION OF THE GRIMES AND CUNNINGHAM PHIZES. 10 to 10:45 a. m. The Apportionment of the Second Hundred Thou-sand Dollars for a Four-months School Term. Discussion conducted by State Superintendent. 10 :45 to 11 :30 a. m. General Discussion of the School Law and its Execution. 11:30 to 12 a. m. Some Suggestions to Those Beginning to Teach Agriculture—Dr. F. L. Stevens of the A. and M. College. 12 a. m. to 12:30 p. m. Emphasis of the Essentials in the Public School Course—Superintendent John C. Scarborough of Hert-ford. 12 :30 to 1 p. m. General Discussion. 2 :30 to 3 p. m. Practical Hints on Teaching About Crops and Farm Animals—Dr. C. W. Burkett of the A. and M. College. 3 to 3 :20 p. m. How Teachers May be Encouraged and Stimulated to Promote Attendance and Advancement of the Children. Dis-cussion led by Superintendent J. C. Kittrell of Vance. 3 :20 to 3 :40 p. m. The Problem of Attendance—Superintendent W. M. Thompson of Onslow. 3:40 to 4:10 p. m. Course of Study in the Public Schools, and Ad-vancement of Children from Year to Year—Superintendent C. W. Massey of Durham. 4:10 to 4:30 p. m. General Discussion. 4 :30 to 5 p. m. Organization of District Associations of County Super-intendents. 8 to 8 :30 p. m. Visitation of Schools by County Superintendents, and How to Make It Most Helpful. Discussion led by Superin-tendent Charles H. Mebane of Catawba. S :30 to 8 :50 p. m. General Discussion. 8 :50 to 9 :15 p. m. Life and Character of Calvin H. Wiley—Professor R. D. W. Connor, Wilmington, N. C. 9 :15 to 10 p. m. The Superintendent's Record, the Teacher's Record and the Library Record. Discussion of Superintendent's Record—Superintendent E. Leff Wagoner of Alleghany. Dis- / SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 213 cussion of Teacher's Record—Superintendent J. W. Hays of Wilson. Discussion of the Library Record—Superintendent C. C. Wright of Wilkes. FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 13. 10 a. m. Farewell Meeting in the Hall of the House of Representa-tives. Visit to Public Institutions. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, November 19, 1903. To County Superintendents: Friday, December 18th, has been fixed as the date for North Caro-lina Day this year. The interesting program is now in press. It will be ready for distribution next week. I am anxious that every public school in the State shall celebrate this day this year. Please notify me at once how many copies will be needed in your county for all your schools. Several copies will, of course, be needed by many of the schools. This will enable us to estimate the number of pro-grams needed. We will send the programs for the schools in your county to you. Please see that they are distributed at once to the various schools. Unless they are distributed immediately after re-ceiving them the schools will not have time to prepare the program. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, December 7, 1903. Dear Sir :—I am taking the liberty of sending you some copies of the program for the celebration of North Carolina Day in the public schools. I sincerely hope that it will be convenient for you to cele-brate this day in your schools in accordance with chapter 1GG of the Public Laws of 1901. You are, of course, at liberty to modify the program as you see fit or to substitute for it an entirely different program if you prefer. I am anxious, however, that at least one day in the year shall be devoted to the consideration of some topic of our State history, the study and discussion of which will tend to awaken a new interest in the study of North Carolina his-tory and to cultivate a sane spirit of State pride. I am especially anxious that our graded schools, the best equipped public schools of the State, shall aid in securing the universal celebration of North Carolina Day in the public schools by celebrating the day themselves 214 BIENNIAL EEPOKT OF THE and thus setting a good example to all of the public schools. If the programs reach you too late to celebrate the 18th of December, I suggest that you might select a later date. Should you need more copies of the program let me know. If you have not sent to tbis office the report of your school for the year ending June 30, 1903, please kindly send it at once. Witb best wishes for a most successful year, I am, Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, December 15, 1903. Dear Sir :—Your attention is called to section 75 of the School Law requiring the annual publication on the 31st day of December of a financial statement by the Board of Education. After consultation with the Attorney-General I have concluded that it will be a sub-stantial compliance with the spirit of this section of the law to pub-lish the annual report of the treasurer of the school fund required in section 51 of tbe School Law. This will probably contain all the infor-mation needed about the management of the school fund without in-curring the expense of publishing every item as required in the finan-cial statement of tbe Board of County Commissioners. To publish such a full report of every item of expense for the County Boards of Education would require annually not less than ten thousand dollars of the school fund. It seems to me, also, that the financial statement will have to be for tbe fiscal school year which ends June 30, 1903. In tbe interest of economy, therefore, I send this let-ter of advice in regard to these statements. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, December 31, 1903. To the County Superintendent : Dear Sir :—I write to urge you and your board to scrutinize care-fully the application of every school for aid from the second hundred thousand dollars, and to enforce a strict compliance with the law as laid down in tbe Appendix to the Public School Law and explained in my recent circular letter accompanying the blank applications. Unless the strictest economy is practiced, and the law rigidly followed SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 215 by County Boards, the appropriation will be insufficient to meet the demands this year. Please fill out the application blanks heretofore sent you and return to this office immediately after the first Monday in January, so as to prevent delay and enable me to notify County Boards at once what amount of money each can depend upon from the second hundred thousand dollars. Please read this letter to the County Board of Education. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh. A campaign for education is on in earnest. This is to be fought for better schools and better school facilities. To accomplish this, an educational campaign will be made in every county whei-e there seems to be an opportunity to improve the present conditions. Walter II. Page says truly that there is enough native intelligence going to waste in North Carolina for lack of training to govern the entire world. There must be a cause for this. If a person's surroundings and asso-ciates determine his character and intelligence, then the individual's surroundings should be studied and improved. It is a recognized fact that a child's associates must be elevated if that child's training is to remain permanent. This is the work the Central Campaign Commit-tee for the Purpose of Improving the Public Schools has undertaken to accomplish. THE EDUCATIONAL PLATFORM. The following resolution was unanimously adopted by this commit-tee in Raleigh, February 13: it was reaffirmed at Greensboro, April 3, also at Charlotte, May 2. and at Morehead City by the Teachers' As-sembly, June 13 : "Be it therefore resolved. That it is the sense of this conference that an active and vigorous campaign should be at once inaugurated in every county for the accomplishment of the following ends, to-wit : "1. The consolidation of small districts wherever possible. "2. The erection of adequate and comfortable school-houses. "3. The lengthening of the public school term by local taxation." A FOURTH OF THE SCHOOLS ARE RUN CONTRARY TO LAW. The reports from the different County Superintendents show that about one-fourth of the school districts contain less than sixty-five children of school age. In other words, about twelve districts for every county (when a general average is made) are illegal. The 216 BIENNIAL REPOET OF THE schools run about three months in the year, and the State Superin-tendent is called upon for funds to increase them to a four months school. WHAT CAN BE DONE BY CONSOLIDATING. Take three districts that contain just sixty-five children each. The appropriation would be about $90 for each ; just about enough to run three months with one good teacher. This teacher would have an attendance of about thirty-five children, and she would have to teach every subject, from the alphabet to the higher English branches. Now take these three districts and combine them into one and employ two teachers, one for the primary grades and the other for the higher grades. There would be money enough to run the consolidated school four and a half months, and the work could be done infinitely better. THE DIFFERENT COUNTIES ARE RECOGNIZING THIS FACT. This consolidation of small districts is such a great economy in school management that county after county is readily combining their schools. In every instance it is done by the people and not by educa-tional boards. The Rockingham Board of Education has invited the patrons of the school all over the county to be present and consider this one question at the next general meeting. Two schools have already been consolidated recently by the vote of the people. At Providence, Randolph County, men left their ripe wheat uncut to attend the educational rally and hear this subject discussed. One farmer expressed the situation when he said : "Nearly every man here represents an uncut wheatfield, but we value good educational advantages at this time more than the saving of wheat. We are deeply in earnest on the question." Over 100 school committeemen alone, in Wilson County, attended the educational conference June 27, to consider this question. The women of Hickory have taken up this matter and are arousing deep and lasting interest in this question. THE EFFECT OF CONSOLIDATION. One County Superintendent says : "The residents of the school dis-tricts which have been consolidated would raise a strong protest if an attempt were made to go back to the old small school system. Pupils from every part of the district enjoy a long school term. The ming-ling of the pupils has had a deepening and broadening influence upon their minds, and there have come into these districts highly educated teachers, whose influence has been far greater than ever came from the contracted district, the dilapidated school building, and the short term of service." SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 217 What is Being Done for the Improvement of the Schools. Reports being received daily from every section of the State give the strongest proof that there is a growing sentiment in every county toward the improvement of the public schools. The educational asso-ciations and assemblies on every occasion have emphasized three principles and have worked toward these three ends, believing that the accomplishment of these will lead to other needed reforms. I. CONSOLIDATION OF DISTRICTS. Alamance County has so arranged six townships that it is now pos-sible to establish graded schools. So well did the Superintendent per-fect his work that consolidation followed as a necessity. Anson County consolidated four districts into two last year. Ashe reduced eight districts into four. Caldwell consolidated three into two ; Cher-okee two into one ; Brunswick reduced her number from seventy-nine to seventy-one ; Davidson has consolidated five districts and is now considering several others. Edgecombe has consolidated nine into five. Gaston has consolidated eight into one and others will be changed soon. Guilford has consolidated a number of districts and a number of others have the matter under consideration. Harnett has consol-idated ten into five and discontinued two. Hertford has consolidated two. Iredell has reduced the number in three townships from twenty-two to seventeen. Lenoir consolidated four the past year. The work of consolidation in Lincoln will begin immediately after the educa-tional rallies : there are three townships now ready for the change. Mecklenburg has consolidated eight into four and is making arrange-ments to reduce the number very materially within the next year. In Pitt the districts have been rearranged in two townships. Polk has consolidated four white districts into two and five colored into three. The Superintendent of Randolph County says : "We have consolidated the districts in one township and next year we will begin a systematic rearrangement and consolidation." Rockingham has consolidated two and arranged to reduce the number to three less still. Vance has reduced three districts to one ; Tyrrell has consolidated two ; Warren two : and Watauga three. Stokes County has reduced the number to ten less, and more consolidations will follow soon. Mitchell consoli-dated two and is preparing others for the change. Wilkes has reduced the number to ten less. Rutherford County has consolidated two and Cleveland six districts. II. IMPROVEMENT OF THE SCHOOL-HOUSES. In Randolph County the citizens of Franklinville have raised $1,000 by private subscription for the erection of a school building, and four other new up-to-date buildings have been erected the past year and plans are perfected for more this year. In Mecklenburg County one 218 BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE building is now being erected at a cost of $3,500 and about $7,000 in all will be spent by next January. Six hundred patent desks were bought last year and about the same number will be purchased this year. Edgecombe County has built five new buildings, one at Conetoe at a cost of $1,200; all will be repainted this year. Lenoir County built four houses last year. Lincoln County spent $1,550 in the past year in buildings. One building in Union County was built last year at a cost of $1,500. Eight thousand dollars is to be spent in Guilford County during the next year for school improvements. Iredell erected five new buildings, the citizens subscribing a large per cent, of the money. In Alamance the citizens have agreed in six townships to erect new school buildings. The cost of each will range from $200 to $500. A great deal of the money has already been subscribed. Har-nett County built last year fifteen new school-houses, and will build eight during the next year. Bertie has made great improvement in school buildings and equipments. Caldwell built four new buildings. Gaston County erected three large buildings. At Lowell's subscription was raised for a $1,500 building. Gates County built two modern buildings, arranging to build three more this year. Cherokee built four the past year. Watauga erected by private subscription one large central high school building. Hyde County is making arrange-ments to enlarge and improve the old buildings. Columbus County built several new houses last fall. Hertford erected four new build-ings at a cost of $400 each, one other enlarged at a cost of $250 ; others to be greatly improved. Brunswick has built three the past year. Currituck is making arrangements to equip the schools with better supplies. In Orange County the people of Andrews' School House have decided to build a $450 school-honse. At Pickard's, same county, $100 was raised toward building an up-to-date building. A movement is on foot to erect a better building at Hillsboro. Mitchell built four new houses. Wilkes is arranging to build twenty-five this year. Rutherford has given contract for three modern school build-ings. Cleveland County has built four well-equipped houses, costing in all $2,100. III. LOCAL TAXATION. Randolph County has one rural district ready for local taxation, others are ripe and will vote next year. Forsyth County has one township that has petitioned the County Commissioners for an elec-tion. The County Superintendent of Mecklenburg County says about one-half of the county will vote on local taxation this fall. Beaufort County has one rural graded school. Union County has one rural graded school and will have two others next year supported by private subscription, free though to all in the district. Guilford County has five districts that will ask for a vote on local taxation. Pitt Ceunty will hold an election in Bethel Township and in Farm-ville Township on September 4. The schools in New Hanover all run seven months. The county tax for the present is sufficient. Davidson SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 219 County will support one graded school for nine months by private subscription free to all the children in the district. Wilkes County has two townships ready for local taxation ; and Stokes has one, where an election will be ordered. The Superintendent of Alamance County has arranged for six rural graded schools this fall. Warren County has one high school free to all the children in the district for nine months, supported by private subscription. Caldwell County has two districts that will vote on question of local taxation this fall. Gaston has two districts, and possibly two others, that will vote on question of local taxation this fall. Hyde County has one rural graded school. Columbus has six districts that will vote on local taxation ; Rowan County has two districts that will vote on same question ; Vance County has one. Currituck has one school supported for ten months by a Sporting Association near Poplar Branch. In Rutherford County several local tax districts are in contemplation. Cleveland County will vote on local taxation in two districts on September 6. Add to this report the work done in Wake, Durham, Buncombe, and other counties that have not yet reported, and the great improvements in buildings, equipments, and length of term are remarkable when compared with the stagnation that appeared only a few years ago. One other force should be mentioned here—the work of the "Woman's Club for Building Better School-houses. ' r This club has extended its usefulness in a number of counties, and almost daily the report comes that a Woman's Club has been organized in another county, and that the citizens are making plans to avail themselves of the assistance of this organization. All this work is in the rural districts or the smaller towns. It is a Crime to Neglect the Education of the Country Children. The Tarboro Southerner says: "The advantages of a good school are by no means limited to the student, but influence everybody in its reach. You can no more have an educated people who depend on for-eign schools for the training of their children than you can have pros-perous farmers who depend on foreign markets for their food sup-plies." The larger towns have recognized this fact and have estab-lished their graded schools to educate all the children. The rural dis-tricts are beginning to recognize it. This one fact must be well under-stood : only '/ far children that arc sent away from the country to be educated return to live there and to bring the result of their training back to their community and to their associates; and the money that is expended, on one would almost support a nine months public school. Is it not better to give fifty children a good common school education than one a college course? Another fact must be recognized: the 2.20 BIENNIAIi KEPOKT OF THE family cannot he elevated successfully unless all the children of that family are educated, and this education will not remain permanent unless their associates are educated. IGNORANCE ENCOURAGES FALSE RELIGIONS. The newspapers contain some interesting items concerning the Mormon Church. Eighteen Mormon missionaries have recently-been sent into North Carolina, and a Mormon temple is to be erected in the eastern part of the State. These missionaries enter districts that are most illiterate ; here they make many converts ; here they establish their churches and Sunday-schools; and here they fill the mind with false teachings because the county and the State of North Carolina have allowed these people to grow in ignorance, unable to discern between the true and the false. Is there not some argu-ment here for united action on the part of the churches and all friends of Christianity in behalf of better schools and diffusion of education among people of rural districts? Should no demand be made for a stronger school, that the children and parents might have the benefit of a strong teacher living in their community. NEEDS OF THE FARMER. The farmer needs a generous supply of fresh reading matter that he may keep in touch with the important events of his country, that he may know the supply and demand of the market, that he may know of the latest development in the field of agriculture; for his family, that home may be made more attractive, that the people may be brought into contact with one another, and that they may be able to converse more intelligently. This can be done to a better advantage where two or more schools are brought together, or where the dis-trict is large enough to afford a longer school term, a good circulating library, and a strong teacher. WHAT IS BEING DONE. The people have recently consolidated two districts in Vance County, and are preparing to vote a local tax. News comes from ten counties that the people are arranging to unite their schools, and some to vote special taxes. One Superintendent writes that the children, who are now walking three miles to school when before the consolidation they walked only one-half a mile, say they would not want to go to school if they had to return to the old school building. They now have two good teachers, with the work well arranged. The attendance has increased over fifty per cent, because the new school is attractive. The term has been lengthened one-third, with no additional cost ; and the people are now ready to vote a slight tax to increase the term to eight months. Since over sixty per cent, of the people in the rural districts pay tax on less than $500 worth of property, it is readily seen that a small tax for the poor man is a paying investment. SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 221 Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, January 9, 1904. Dear Sir:—In your application for aid from the second hundred thousand dollars you neglected to fill the blank asking for the total school fund. Your application cannot be acted on until this informa-tion is received. You will, therefore, please kindly furnish this in-formation on the inclosed blank and return it at once. You will observe that the total school fund includes all funds received and to be received and apportioned from taxes, fines, forfeitures, liquor license, etc., and from all other sources, except local taxation, from July 1, 1903, to June 30, 1904. including also the State apportionment from the first hundred thousand dollars made to your county in Jan-nary, 1904. All taxes for 1903, whether sheriff has settled or not, must be estimated, included and apportioned before your county will be entitled to aid from the second hundred thousand dollars. Before the amounts to which the districts designated in the enclosed blanks are legally entitled out of the second hundred thousand dollars can be determined, the information asked in these blanks must be furnished. Please fill and return them at once. You will observe that the number of teachers actually employed in each district must be given and the salary actually paid ; that the actual current monthly expenses for incidentals, such as wood, etc.. must be separated from the monthly salaries of teachers; that only the actual necessary expenses that are in fact paid can be allowed, and tnat these cannot in any instance exceed $25.00 for the entire school term. Please send this information by return mail, as I desire to have the second hundred thousand dollars apportioned without delay so that each county will know as soon as possible how much money it is to receive before the schools close, and may know whether the schools in any district must be closed before the expiration of the term. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, January 13, 1904. READ CAREFULLY EVERY LINE OF THIS LETTER. Dear Sir :—An examination of the thirty applications received has made manifest the absolute necessity for the information asked on the blanks enclosed for every district in every county asking for aid. To prevent delay, therefore. I am sending these blanks for supplementary information to every county that has filed an application. The appor-tionment of the second hundred thousand dollars cannot be made until this information is received. You will, therefore, kindly fill the 222 BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE blanks at once for every district contained in your application and return to me, if possible, by return mail. It is evident from the appli-cations already received and from the estimates received from other counties that the amounts asked for will exceed the special- appropria-tion. It is also evident from an examination of the applications received that the amounts asked largely exceed the amounts allowed by the special Act of 1903. My examination of these leads me to believe tbat the appropriation will be sufficient to meet all demands that are in strict compliance with the law. The State Board of Edu-cation cannot grant to any district more than is allowed by the special Act of 1903. (See appendix to Public School Law, pages 56 to 60, and explanation in circular-letter heretofore sent you, another copy of which is enclosed ) . To aid you further in filling these additional blanks and in under-standing the necessity for this additional information, I call your careful attention to the following additional explanations of the law : I. The following is the maximum number of teachers allowed under the law for schools in districts asking aid : 1. Schools with actual enrollment of less than seventy pupils not more than one teacher. • 2. Schools with actual enrollment of seventy to one hundred and five pupils, not more than two teachers. 3. Schools with actual enrollment of one hundred and five to one hundred and forty pupils, not more than three teachers. 4. The same proportion of not more than oue teacher for every thirty-five children enrolled will apply to schools with an enrollment of more than one hundred and forty pupils. Salaries will not be allowed for a larger number of teachers than this. If the number of teachers actually employed is less than the number allowed by law, salary will be allowed only for the teachers actually employed. II. The following is the maximum total amount allowed by law for salary of teachers for four months in white and colored schools in the respective districts asking aid : WHITE SCHOOLS. 1. Schools with an actual enrollment of seventy and less, not more than $113.44. 2. Schools with an actual enrollment of seventy to one hundred and five, actually employing two teachers, not more than $226.88. 3. Schools with an actual enrollment of one hundred and five to one hundred and forty, actually employing three teachers, not more than $340.32. COLORED SCHOOLS. 1. Schools with an actual enrollment of seventy and less, not more than $90.52. SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 223 2. Schools with an actual enrollment of seventy to one hundred and five, actually employing two teachers, not more thau $181.04. 3. Schools with an actual enrollment of one hundred and five to one hundred and forty, actually employing three teachers, not more than $271.56. If the actual salary paid teachers, white and colored, employed in these respective schools is less than these maximum amounts, only the amounts actually paid such teachers will be allowed for the four months. III. Current Expenses.—The only expenses besides teacher's sal-ary that will be allowed needy- districts are the actual incidental expenses incurred and paid, which must be reported separately for each district, and these must not exceed in any cases, as heretofore explained, the maximum of $25 for the four months term. If no inci-dental expenses for fuel, janitor, etc., are actually incurred and paid, none should be reported and none can be allowed. The number of teachers and the salary of each teacher in each district must be re-ported separately, and the incidental expenses actually incurred and paid for running the school must be reported separately, therefore, as directed in columns 2, 3 and 4 in these blanks. IV. Available Funds.—Every district asking aid must report every cent apportioned to that district from all school funds, State and county, received or to be received from all sources during the school year from July 1, 1903, to June 30, 1904. It matters not how these funds or any part of them may have been or may be used, whether for building, equipment, paying latter salaries than those mentioned above and allowed by law, or for any other purpose. This district will not be entitled to receive from the special appropriation one cent for a four months school term, even if it cannot have a four months school, if its total apportionment from all sources for that school year is equal to or greater than the amounts allowed above for teacher's salary, pins the amounts allowed above for actual current expenses. To illustrate: If a white school district allowed one teacher under the law and employing one first-grade teacher has received or will receive from its entire apportionment from all sources during this school year $113.44, plus the actual current expenses as explained above, that district will not be entitled to receive any part of the special appropriation for weak districts. If a colored school district allowed one teacher under the law has received or will receive from its entire apportionment from all sources during this school year $90.52, plus the actual current expenses as explained above, that dis-trict will not be entitled to receive any part of the special appropria-tion for weak districts. The same rule will apply to white and colored districts entitled to more than one teacher. You will, therefore, see the necessity of reporting the total apportionment to each district from all sources for this school vear as directed in column 5 of these blanks. 224 BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE If you will read carefully the second paragraph of my note to sec-tion 13 of the Public Law, page 12, you will see that districts apply-ing for aid from the special appropriation must account for their entire apportionment for the entire school year and will not he allowed to deduct amounts used for building or for other purposes and make up the deficit caused thereby from the second hundred thousand dol-lars. In other words, if any district uses a part of its apportionment for building or other purposes than actual current expenses, not ex-ceeding $25, it cannot ask to have this amount supplied out of the second hundred thousand dollars, even if it cannot have a four months school. The special appropriation can be used only for teachers' sal-aries and current expenses, and any district having a sufficient appor-tionment from all sources for these purposes, as explained above, will be excluded from participating in the apportionment of the second hundred thousand dollars. No part of the second hundred thousand dollars can be used directly or indirectly for paying for buildings. If you will furnish promptly and accurately the information asked in these blanks for every district contained in your former application, the amounts to which these districts are entitled under the law can be calculated at once. These amounts will be calculated in this office from the information on file here and will be placed in the blank columns left for that purpose and returned to you promptly. Fill out two copies of these blanks, returning one to me without delay and keeping the other in your office. We send you enough blanks for two copies. By making your own calculations for each dis-trict in accordance with the explanations in this letter, you can deter-mine for yourself, before the apportionment is made and official noti-fication is sent from this office, how much most of the districts will receive under the law, and stop now, if necessary, the schools in those districts that are not entitled upon this basis of apportionment to enough to continue four months. With the increase in the property for taxation and in the assessment thereof in nearly every county in the State, and with the amendments to the special act passed by the Legislature of 1903, the legal demands for aid this year ought not to be nearly so great as last year, and will not be, if the law is obeyed. If I can secure through your co-operation a strict compliance with the law, I believe that the appropriation will be sufficient for all legal demands this year. Unless I can secure a strict compliance with the law in the apportionment of the second hundred thousand dollars this year, I foresee that, in all likelihood, the law will be repealed. Very truly yours. J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. __> The following address was issued to the members of the General Assembly of 1903 in the interest of the bill pending for the establish-ment of a Loan Fund for Building and Improving Public School Houses. The bill was passed. A 1'ERMANE.NT LOAN FUND FOR BUILDING AND IMPROVING PUBLIC SCHOOL HOUSES IN NORTH CAROLINA. There is in the hands of the State Treasurer about two hundred thousand dollars belonging to the State Board of Education arising from the sale of public lands. About one hundred and fifty thousand dollars of this is in State bonds at four per cent, interest. The fund has been accumulating for years. A part of it is the old Literary Fund. Under the law only the interest on it is usable for the public schools. This has been apportioned to the schools per capita from time to time and has srarcely been permanently felt in increasing the school fund or improving the public schools. I have recommended that this entire fund and all funds arising hereafter from the sale of lands belonging to the State Board of Education shall be created a permanent loan fund and placed under the control of this Board to be loaned by them under such regulations as they may adopt to County Boards of Education and by these in turn to school districts to build and improve public school-houses. A bill has been introduced in the Senate by Senator White to carry out this recommendation. The bill provides, among other things, that this money may be loaned by the State Board of Education to County Boards of Education payable in ten annual installments, bearing interest at four per cent. The County Board of Education is author-ized to execute a note for the amount borrowed and directed to set aside a sufficient amount from the county school fund each year before apportioning the same to pay the annual installment and interest. The amount loaned to any county is made a lien upon the total school funds of such county in whatsoever hands such funds may be found. Upon failure to pay any installment or interest or part of either when due, the State Treasurer may bring action against the County Board of Education of such county, and person or persons in whose possession may be any part of the school funds of the county and against the tax collector of such county. If the amount of the school fund then on hand be insufficient to pay in full the sum so due, then the State Treasurer shall be entitled to an order directing the tax collector of such county to pay over to him all moneys collected for school pur-poses until such debt and interest shall have been paid. This, of course, makes the State Board of Education absolutely safe, insuring repayment of all amounts loaned. The County Board is authorized to loan to the district and deduct, if necessary, from the annual appor-tionment to that district the annual installment of its debt with inter- 15 226 BIENNIAL EEPORT OF THE est. This renders the Couny Board absolutely safe. The district can. of course, raise by private subscription or otherwise its annual install-ment and secure its entire apportionment each year for running its school if it prefers. If this bill putting into operation my recom-mendation be passed by the General Assembly, two hundred thousand dollars will be available the first year for building and improving pub-lic school-houses and twenty-eight thousand dollars every year there-after perpetually for the same purpose. Under the rules of the State Board of Education this fund could be used to secure buildings where they are needed worst, and to stimulate self-help so that the invest-ment each year in public school-houses could probably be nearly doubled by private subscription and in other ways. This loan fund would, of course, be increased from year to year by the proceeds of sales of State lands, and I should hope to see it increased in the years to come by devises and bequests. It seems to me that it would invite the philanthropy of men honestly desirous of helping in the best way the public schools of this State. The proposition is such an absolutely safe one that it ought to and would, I think, appeal to business men of large means and philanthropic instincts at home and abroad. I honestly believe that through such a use of this fund we might hope to secure a good, comfortable, well-equipped school-house in every district in North Carolina within one generation. Such a use of this fund would be carrying out in the wisest possible way the purpose of its creation. Our ancestors, wise in their day and generation, hedged about this fund in such a way that only the interest on it could be used, for the evident purpose, I think, of accumulating a fund event-ually large enough to be used to great advantage for permanent im-provement of the public schools. No other use of the fund would be so permanent and far-reaching in its benefits as the one provided for in this bill. It would bless the present and future generations of children. It would reduce the amount absolutely necessary to be appropriated out of the general fund for building purposes and thereby increase the apportionment for running the schools ; thereby, also, reduce to some extent the special State appropriation for a four months school term. It would be, as pointed out above, a perpetual loan fund for the improvement of public school-houses, twenty-eight thousand dollars of which would be usable for this purpose every year through all the years that are to come. I consider this the best opportunity that has yet been offered to the General Assembly of North Carolina to provide through this use of this fund a practical plan of securing in a reasonable time a comforta-ble and respectable school-house in every rural district in the State. I sincerely hope that the General Assembly will give to this bill the serious attention that it deserves, and that they will enact it into a law, that this fund now locked up in the treasury of the State may be invested for this permanent purpose and set at once upon its perpet- SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 227 ual round of blessing to this and all future generations of children in North Carolina. The use of this sacred fund for any temporary purpose would, as I see it, he a crime against past, present and future generations. It would he a violation of the evident wise purposes and intentions of our ancestors in the creation of the fund. As long as it remains com-paratively idle in the hands of the Treasurer it will be a constant temptation to every General Assembly that happens to find a deficit that must be met. If used for any temporary purpose or to meet any temporary deficit it will, in my opinion, be lost forever to the children of the State. Everybody knows the difficulty of getting the State to repay money that it borrows from itself. Gentlemen of the General Assembly, it is my deliberate conviction that the most important leg-islation for education in North Carolina that has been presented to you or will be presented to you during this session of your body, is this bill for the creation of this permanent loan fund for supplying much-needed public school-houses in your State. If enacted into a law, I believe that it will result in more permanent benefit to the public schools of the State than any law passed by this or any other General Assembly of the last quarter of a century. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Raleigh, February 26, 1903. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, August 5, 1902. To County Superintendents and County Boards of Education: Since the decision of the Supreme Court in the case of Hooker ct ah v. Toivn of Greenville, some confusion seems to have arisen in regard to the distribution of the school fund. In response to numerous in-quiries from County Superintendents, members of Boards of Education and others, I have deemed it necessary to send out this letter of in-struction. In the case referred to above, the question of the distri-bution of the school fund was not directly at issue, therefore, what the Court says upon that subject is what the lawyers call a dictum instead of a decision. Section 24 of the Public School Law of North Carolina, directs the County Boards of Education to apportion the school fund of the county to the various townships per capita. It further directs them to distribute and apportion the school money to each township so as to give to each school in said township for each race the same length of school term, as nearly as may be, each year, and to have proper regard for the grade of work to be done and the qualifications of the teachers required in each school for each race, and fix the maximum salary for each school in the county. This law 228 BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE having been legally enacted by tbe Legislature, must be assumed to be constitutional until it is expressly decided by the Court to be uncon-stitutional. I cannot think that what appears to be a dictum of the Supreme Court upon a question not directly at issue, in a case involv-ing the constitutionality of a special Act of the Legislature, applicable only to a particular locality, can be understood, or was intended by the Court to be understood, as- setting aside section 24 of the General School Law of the State, and radically changing the entire method of distribution of the school fund. Therefore, I feel it my duty to in-struct County Boards of Education to continue to apportion the school fund as directed by the Public School Law of North Carolina. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, November 16, 1903. Dear Sir :—I am sending you blank applications for aid from the second hundred thousand dollars. These blanks cannot be properly filled, signed and returned under the law until after the meeting of the County Board of Education on the first Monday in January. 1904. In most counties, however, perhaps in all, the necessary information can be obtained and the blanks filled ready for immediate action by the County Board of Education at that meeting, so as to be returned immediately afterward to this oriice. Let me urge that this be done in every instance, so as to prevent delay in sending the warrant, thus making it possible for the money to be placed to the credit of the needy districts before the close of the schools. I enclose also a blank to be filled and returned at once, giving as accurate an estimate as you can of the total amount needed by your county for a four months school term in the weak districts entitled under the law to aid from the second hundred thousand dollars. I presume that every County Superintendent now knows approximately the available funds of every district in his county from the apportion-ment for the year beginning July 1. 1903, and ending June 30. 1904, and can, therefore, estimate approximately how much each of these districts will lie entitled to under the law out of the second hundred thousand dollars for a four months term. From these estimates, I will' be able to tell—certainly within a few hundred dollars—the amount needed for a four months term in the State this year, and to give the County Superintendents some assurance at once as to whether the hundred thousand dollars will be sufficient to meet the demands, so that they will know whether it will be safe to continue their schools. 1 hope that it will never happen again in North Carolina that the poorly paid teachers shall be allowed to do their work and then SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 229 have to be notified after it is done that there is not money enough to pay them. If these estimates are carefully made and returned to me hy you at the earliest possible date, I shall hope to be able to notify you within a few weeks, certainly during the month of December, whether the hundred thousand dollars this year will be sufficient to pay all legal demands for a four months term. Before making these estimates and before filling out these blanks, read carefully every word of the act appropriating two hundred thousand dollars to the public schools in North Carolina, found on pages 56-60 of the Appendix of Public School Law of 1903. Examine carefully the headings of each column in the blank applications, and read carefully the following explanations and suggestions: /. Counties < ntilled l<> aid. No county is entitled to any aid out of the second hundred thousand dollars under this act unless the provisions of the law as to- the appli-cation of fines, penalties, forfeitures and other money properly belong-ing to the school fund have been complied with, and unless the consti-tutional limitation of taxation has been reached in the county, and the affidavit to these facts provided for on the back of the blank appli-cations has been made by the Chairman of the Board of County Com-missioners and the Clerk of the Superior Court, as required by section 8 of the special act. No county that has set aside a larger per cent, of the total school fund for building and repairing school-houses and for equipment than that allowed for that county by section 24 of the School Law and men-tioned in section 10 of the special act is entitled to aid. No county having more than a four months school term in any town-ship is entitled to aid unless it has set aside at least one-sixth of the total school fund and used the same as far as it. will go to bring its own weak districts up to a four months school term. No county is entitled to aid that has not complied in all respects with all other requirements of the School Law in regard to the appor-tionment of the funds to the various townships and districts. (See section 10 of the special act). //. Districts ci>litlc<l to aid. Section 7 of the special act forbids aid from the second hundred thousand dollars to any school district containing a census school pop-ulation of less than sixty-five children, unless the formation and con-tinuance of such district shall have been for good and sufficient rea-sons named in said section and set forth in an affidavit by the Chair-man of the County Board of Education and the County Superintendent of Schools, which affidavit will be found on the back of the blank ap-plications to be signed and sworn to by these parties and approved by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 230 BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE ///. Avail a hie funds. Section 4 requires a report of all funds available to each district for school purposes from all sources, except funds obtained by special local taxes and balances brought over from the second hundred thou-sand dollars from the preceding school year. All funds apportioned to the district by the County Board of Education under section 24 of the School Law out of the county and State school funds for the year be-ginning July 1, 1903, aud ending June 30, 1904, must be included and reported. All school taxes levied for that year must be included and reported. If the sheriff has not settled by January 1, 1904, the school funds for that entire year that he is required to collect and account for in his settlement must be estimated and included in the report of available funds for each district. The apportionment to the county from the first hundred thousand dollars must be included and reported. That apportionment for your county this year may be ascertained by multiplying #0.14730 by the number of children of school age in your county according to the school census of the year ending June 30. 1903. Funds arising from special local taxes in rural tax districts are not included and need not be reported, for these are not subject to appor-tionment by the County Board of Education under section 24, and are expressly exempted from consideration in estimating the available funds of rural special tax districts by sections 4 and 5 of the special act. Balances remaining to the credit of the districts from the preceding school year from money received for the district from the second hundred thousand dollars last year after the closing of the school are not included in available funds for this school year and need not be reported. If such balances are not used, however, before January 1, 1904, they must, under section 24, be returned to the general school fund lor re-apportionment unless the district shall have been pre-vented from using them by providential or other unavoidable causes. In a word, each district entitled to aid out of the second hundred thousand dollars under the special act has a right to a four months school term each year out of the second hundred thousand dollars, and the apportionments to that district from all available State and county school funds of that year under section 24 of the School Law, provided the applications do not exceed the special appropriation. IV. Expenses. In a calculation of the necessary monthly expenses required to be reported under section 9 of the special act, the following expenses will be allowed : 1. Current expenses. The actual current expenses for necessary supplies, etc., for con-ducting the school, not to exceed in the aggregate $6.25 per month, as provided in section 21 of the School Law. SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 231 2. Salary of Teachers. For the year ending June 30, 1903, the average monthly salary paid white teachers in the State was $28.36 and the average monthly salary paid colored teachers was $22.03. In the calculation of the monthly expenses no white teacher can be allowed more than $28.36, and no colored teacher can be allowed more than $22.63 for each of the four months. If they have been employed at monthly salaries less than these amounts, they will be allowed only the actual salary paid. No second grade teacher of either race will be allowed more than the actual salary paid second grade teachers of that race in that county. In no case can a second grade teacher's salary exceed $25 in any county. In schools having more than one teacher, salary will be allowed for one teacher to every thirty-five pupils enrolled, provided that number of teachers is actually employed in the school. No school with an enrollment of less than seventy will be allowed salary for two teachers. (See section 0). The continuation of the appropriation of the second hundred thou-sand dollars will, in my opinion, depend upon the wise and economical management of it. It is the duty of every County Superintendent and every County Board of Education to co-operate with the State Super-intendent in enforcing this law, in preventing abuses or evasions of it, and in carrying out the intent of the law and the purpose of the law-makers and of the people by securing a four months school term in every public school of the State without using more of the money provided for that purpose than is absolutely necessary. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, February 6, 1904. To County Superintendents: You will find enclosed a copy of the apportionment from the second hundred thousand dollars, in accordance with chapter 751 of the Pub-lic Laws of 1903, to the various districts in your county applying for aid under that chapter. The State warrant for the total amount will be sent to your County Treasurer when issued by the State Auditor, and I am authorized by the State Treasurer to say that the warrant will be paid promptly on March 1st. In a few counties asking for large amounts and containing a number of small districts, the amounts asked by these small districts were scaled, and in a few others asking for large amounts for current expenses, these expenses were scaled, and in this way. the apportionments were brought within the available appropriation. With these exceptions, there has been no scaling this year, and every district in every county has been allowed every cent to which it was entitled for a four months school under chapter 751. 232 BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE Please furnish your County Treasurer with a copy of these appor-tionments and instruct him to place to the credit of the respective dis-tricts the respective amounts allowed. Please keep also in your office for the information of the Comity Board of Education a record of these apportionments. I suggest that you copy them in your record book. As you have been instructed heretofore this money is usable only by the particular district to which it has been apportioned for the specific purpose for which it was apportioned, to-wit : to supplement the county and township apportionment to that district for the pay-ment of salary of teacher and current expenses for a four months school. It cannot he legally used for any other purpose. If, for any good reason, the money apportioned to any district cannot be used for that purpose during this school year, it must remain to the credit of that district and be used to lengthen the school term of the district next year. It must be used for this purpose, however, by each district on or before January 1, 190"). Please impress upon your committee-men and other school officers that the use of this money- for any other purpose would be a violation of law and a misappropriation of the fuiids. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, February 23, 1904. To County Superintendents: Somewhat full power is vested in the County Board of Education and County Superintendent for the regulation and government of the schools by sections 13 and 14 of the Public School Law. I am confi-dent that by a wise exercise of this power the County Board of Edu-cation, through the adoption of reasonable regulations, can do much to place the public schools of the county upon a better business basis, to stimulate teachers and pupils of these schools, and to reduce the work to order and system. I wish to prepare for discussion in our District Associations of County Superintendents a suggested set of such rules and regulations to be sent later to all County Boards of Education. Some County Boards of Education, under the advice of the County Superintendent, have already adopted such rules and regu-lations and have found them very helpful in the management of the public schools. In the preparation of this suggested set of rules and regulations, I desire to have the benefit of the experience of County Superintendents and Boards of Education who have already adopted and tried such. I will thank you. therefore, to send to me at your earliest convenience copies of all rules and regulations adopted by your Board, together with such criticisms of them and such sugges- SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 233 tions about changes in them or additions to them as you may see fit to make. I greatly desire, also, to have your aid and suggestions in the prepa-ration of a course of study for the public schools to be discussed and agreed upon in our District Associations. We need. I think, more definiteness, correlation and uniformity in the course of study in the public schools. .Many teachers. espe< ially young and inexperienced teachers, would do much more successful work if they could have placed in their hands a more definite chart of work. The work of the public school would suffer less from the unfortunate frequency of changes in teachers if we would adopt a graded and progressive course of study and require it to be followed in all the schools of the county by all teachers from year to year. I know that such courses of study have been prepared and used with considerable success in many coun-ties. If you have such a course of study for the schools of your county, I will thank you to send me a copy of it, accompanied by any criticisms or suggestions that you may see fit to make. With a view to aiding us in the preparation of such a course of study, I have had prepared for distribution to all white public school teachers in your county some blanks, of which I send you a number of copies. Please require every teacher of every white school that has not yet closed to fill one of these blanks, sign and return to you. Please forward ten of the best of these to me as soon as all of them have been returned to you. Keep in your office the others and copies of those sent me. The information obtained by you from a careful examination and study of these reports ought to be of much service to you in finding out about the work of your schools and in shaping that work in the future. After 1 shall have had an opportunity to get the benefit of your experience and suggestions about these matters and to discuss them fully with you in our meetings of the District Associations. I shall have printed and sent out from the office a suggested set of rules and regulations for adoption by County Boards of Education and a graded course of study and schedule of recitations for the public schools. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Publie Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, March 2. 1904. To the Librarian: In accordance with section 4 of the School Law and Rule 12 of the Regulations governing tne Rural Libraries, please furnish the informa-tion asked on the enclosed sheets. Prepare two copies, sending one to me and the other to your County Superintendent. 234 BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE I desire to publish a complete report of all the libraries in the State for the stimulation of the districts that have not yet been progressive enough to provide libraries for themselves, and for the information of the General Assembly and the public. The continuance of the appro-priation for Rural Libraries will depend upon the successful manage-ment and benefits of them as indicated by these reports. On the other sheets please give, as directed, a complete catalogue of all books in the library. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, March 2, 1904. To County Treasurer: I send you to-day Auditor's warrant for the amount allowed your county from the second hundred thousand dollars to aid districts to have a four months school. The County Superintendent has been furnished a copy of the allowance to each district, and has been in-structed to furnish you a copy of the same. Please place the respective amounts to the credit of the districts named therein. This money is usable only by these districts, and must be used only for the specific purpose of paying salary of teachers and actual expenses for a four months school in these districts. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh. My Dear Sir :—If possible, I should like for you and your County Board of Education to decide at the April meeting of the Board about a Teachers' Institute or Summer School for your county. Please read carefully my note to section 26 of the School Law, and kindly call it to the attention of the members of your County Board of Education. From this note you will see that I consider a summer school contin-uing several weeks, in which the study of the subjects taught in the public schools may be pursued as well as the study of methods and principles of teaching, more advisable and more profitable than a short institute lasting only one week. I also believe it advisable for two or more counties to unite in such a joint summer school where such a union can be effected without too great inconvenience and expense to the teachers. A number of counties have already notified me of their SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 235 purpose to uiiite in such schools this summer. Several such joint summer schools have been very successfully conducted heretofore in the State. Please notify me immediately after your meeting in April of the decision of your Board in regard to the Institute or Summer School. Notify me also of the date in case you decide to hold an Institute or Summer School. I desire to confer with you also in regard to the faculty. You will observe that under section 2G the power of appoint-ing the teacher or teachers for such Institute or School is vested in the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. In the exercise of this power I shall, of course, give due consideration to your prefer-ence, wishing only to be assured of the competency of the teachers pre-ferred by the local authorities. It will be safest, however, to confer wiili me before making any contracts with teachers. As soon as I can ascertain the number, location and dates of the County Institutes or Summer Schools for the summer of 1904, I shall undertake to get a list of competent men and women whom I can recommend for Insti-tute and Summer School work, and shall be glad to co-operate with County Superintendents in getting the best possible teachers for this work. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, April 9, 1904. Dear Sir:—T send you a blank for petition for special school tax election under section 72 of Public School Law. I send you also two certificates of election returns. The general election law requires that, after the election, the returns shall be made to the Chairman of the County Board of Elections, also to the Regis-ter of Deeds. If you need additional blanks for petitions or returns they will be furnished from my office upon application. I enclose you a blank asking for information in regard to local taxa-tion, consolidation of districts and improvement of school-houses. Please fill these blanks and return to me at once. This information is desired for the use of the Executive Committee of the Central Cam-paign Committee, composed of State Superintendent J. Y. Joyner, Charles B. Aycock. Charles D. Mclver, and E. C. Brooks, Secretary. This committee will plan the campaign for education this year largely upon the information furnished by you in these blanks. There are now 193 local tax districts in North Carolina ; 149 of these have been added since the inauguration of the campaign two years ago. During the past two years at least 1,200 unnecessary small school dis- 236 BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE tricts have been consolidated into larger districts and 884 new school-houses have been built. Most of these houses have been built in accordance with plans sent out from this office, and are of far better character than school-houses heretofore built. This indicates very commendable and encouraging progress along these three important lines of improvement. This progress is due in part to a cultivation of sentiment resulting from the agitation by public discussion, in part to the intelligent and active efforts of County Superintendents, school officials and other public-spirited citizens, and in part to a quiet, earnest, deep-seated interest in public education among the people and a daily growing determination on their part to give their children a better chance through better schools to get a better education. The outlook is hope-ful. Nothing can stop this educational movement. Any relaxation of effort, however, on the part of the friends of education must result in retarding it. The Campaign Committee and the State Superintendent are anxious to co-operate with you. your school officials and other interested citizens in carrying on the good work for better public schools. Arrangements have been made as heretofore to send speakers to aid the local authorities in communities where there is a reasonable prob-ability of securing local taxation, consolidation or improvement of public school-houses and grounds. Please furnish the information requested as soon as possible. Very truly yours. J. Y. Joyneb, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, April 21, 1904. Dear Sir :—1 regret that after consultation with the Attorney- General. I am compelled to say to you that, in my opinion, there is no warrant of law under section 20' for appropriating money for an insti-tute or summer school unless such institute or summer school is held in the county or is held by agreement between two or more adjoining and contiguous counties for those adjoining and contiguous counties at some convenient and satisfactory point in one of said counties. I am satisfied that it would be very helpful to your teachers to attend a good Summer School, like that at the University and the A. and M. College, and other places in the State, where they would have the ben-efit of instruction by strong faculties and the benefit of association with a large number of teachers from all parts of the State, and I re-gret to be compelled to seem to throw any obstacle of any sort in the way of ambitious teachers who are seeking large opportunities for improvement, and who ought to be encouraged in every effort to avail SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 237 themselves of such opportunities. But it is my duty to obey the law, and I do not believe that the law under any reasonable construction will permit the appropriation by the County Board of Education of any county of funds for paying the tuition or expenses of teachers at a Summer School in a distant county not adjoiniong or contiguous. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, May 12, 1904. Dear Sir :—1 am satisfied that my ruling in regard to the appro-priation of money for traveling expenses and tuition of teachers at-tending a Summer School in a distant county not adjoining or contigu-ous to the county making the appropriation is correct. The Attorney- General assures me that he has not changed his opinion in the matter. I am of the opinion, however, that, under the circumstances, your Board of Education might have a right, under the authority vested in them in section 24 to fix the maximum salary of teachers, to allow teachers attending Summer Schools and presenting -satisfactory cer-tificates of attendance and work in such schools a small increase of salary for the term, sufficient perhaps to cover their tuition and possi-bly a part of their traveling expenses. This increase in salary, how-ever, could not be made for the specific purpose of covering tuition and traveling expenses, but woidd have to be made under the general authority of the Board to fix the salary of each teacher of each scbool by allowing teachers who would attend a good Summer School at con-siderable expense to themselves a reasonable increase in salary as an encouragement to teachers to prepare themselves better for their work, and upon the general idea that teachers attending such schools ought to be better prepared for a higher grade of work. You will observe that section 24 allows the County Board of Educa-tion to take into consideration the grade of work to be done in fixing the maximum salary of the teacher of any school. If this arrange-ment is made, however, the teacher will have to pay his or her own expenses and tuition and take chances about getting a school and securing the increase of salary. The entire salary of each teacher will have to come out of the funds apportioned to the district in which he or she teaches. In districts receiving aid from the special State appropriation for a four months school term, of course no increase of salary could be allowed in excess of the average salary allowed by this special act. This could, of course, be regulated by your Board by apportioning a sufficient amount to districts in which such teachers teach to cover the increase allowed in the salary. I do not advise this course, but simply suggest it as a possible legal way out of any 238 BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE embarrassment arising from contracts made with Summer Schools for tuition of teachers and to prevent undue disappointment on the part of teachers that had made their plans to attend such schools. Your Board must be the judge of the advisability of adopting this course. Very truly yours, J. T. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. This letter was sent to Superintendents of Alamance, Rockingham, Chowan, etc. Construction of Section 72. Dear Sir :—In answer to your letter of February 4th my opinion is as follows : Under section 72 of the School Law the money raised by special tax for any district must be placed by the sheriff in the hands of the Treasurer to the credit of the School Committee of that district. The apportionment of this money among the schools of the district, white and colored, is then absolutely under the control of the committee in the same manner as the apportionment of the county fund or the town-ship fund among the schools, white and colored, is under the control of the County Board of Education as prescribed in section 24 of the School Law. In other words, the committee of the special tax dis-trict can apportion the money raised by the special tax among the schools of the two races in such a way as will give them equal length of term, having due regard, however, to the grade of work done and the qualifications of the teachers required in each school for each race. The committee could not, therefore, apportion to the white schools the money paid by the white race and to the colored schools the money paid by the colored race, but, considering the fact that the colored schools would not require as well qualified teachers and their teachers would not and ought not to be paid as large salaries because they are not as well qualified as a rule and because their expenses are not as great and they can, therefore, afford to teach for smaller sala-ries, the committee could so apportion the money as to do substantial justice to the colored race and satisfy them by giving them about as many months of school without having to apportion to them anything like their per capita part of the special tax money. I expect that you would find upon a calculation that you could divide the money legally in this way and give the negroes about equal length of term for very little more money than they would actually pay in taxes and poll tax. You might make some calculations along this line. I happen to know that the negro schools in most of the towns and cities having graded schools supported by special tax are run about the same number of months as the white schools for little more than half the cost per cap-ita of the white schools. This problem is managed without difficulty in this way in towns like Durham, Goldsboro, Wilson. Washington and SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 239 other cities and towns supporting their schools by special tax and having a large negro population. You understand, of course, that on account of the smaller salaries and cheaper school-houses and equip-ment and the probable irregularity of attendance during certain months of the year, tbe negro schools can be run tbe same number of months for very much less per capita cost than tbe white schools. Suppose you calculate how much it would cost to run your negro schools and then calculate how much they would receive from the county school fund and bow much they would pay in the way of poll tax and small property tax under the special tax and you could then easily arrive at how much of the special tax paid by tbe white people would have to be used under tbe law by this plan for the negro schools. I am of the opinion that you will find tbe amount small. Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruct ion. Ruling as to What Constitutes a School Day. Dear Sir :—1 presume that in construing the law fixing a school day at not less than six hours nor more than seven hours the commit-tee would have to use tbe same common sense that they would use in other business. A literal construction of the law would, I presume, require at least six hours of school work. A reasonable construction would probably allow short recesses to be taken out of this time as the teacher is compelled to remain and have supervision of the children during recesses. If the amount of time taken for recesses is excessive, of course it should not be included in the six hours. You can easily understand how, if the teacher was allowed to count all recesses and to give as much time for recesses as be chose, the number of hours of work might be too greatly reduced. Whether the law ought to be construed as to require six hours of actual school work would depend, I think, to some extent upon the season of the year and tbe distance that the children living farthest from the school had to walk. For example, in many places it would be difficult in the winter to begin earlier than 9 A. M., or to close later than 4 P. M. This would give six hours of work with an intermission of an hour for dinner, but would not include any short recesses between times, which are usually desirable, and which, I think, ought not to be taken out of the six hours. Very truly yours. J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. 240 BIENNIAL, REPORT OF THE Ruling as to Using Public Money in Denominational Schools. Raleigh, March 14, 1904. Mr. ./. D. Morris. Union Mills, N. O. Dear Sir:—I instructed the County Board of Education of Ruth-erford County that under section 33 no contract could be made with the teacher of any sectarian or denominational school and no part of the school fund could be used in connection with such school. I have invariably given the same instruction to every County Superintendent and County Board of Education who have consulted me upon this question. Your County Board of Education decided, as I understand it, that Round Hill Academy at Union Mills was a denominational or sectarian school. Upon their statement of the facts, I was of the same opinion, and have seen no reason to overrule their finding of fact in regard to this, even if I had authority to do so. Sections 13 and 14 of the School Law vest in the County Boards of Education the general control and supervision of all matters pertain-ing to the public schools in their respective counties and confer upon them all powers and duties conferred and imposed by the School Law or the general laws of the State respecting public schools which are not expressly conferred and imposed upon some other official. In the exercise of these general powers and duties, your County Board of Education refused to lease two rooms of the denominational school at Round Hill Academy for the public school, and decided that it would be wisest and for the best interest of the public school in that district to build a public school-house and to use the public school funds for that purpose. Under the law they had authority to pursue this course if they deemed it best. Neither the State Board of Education nor I have authority to overrule their action even if we did not agree with them. I have no authority to instruct the County Board of Education to have the public school taught in connection with the Round Hill Acad-emy nor to have it taught in any particular house. I have no author-ity to overrule their action and say to them that they must not use the money to build a house in the public school district, if they deem this wisest, or that they must lease a house belonging to a denomina-tion and have the public school taught therein, if they deem that un-wise. If you will read my letter to Mr. Sams, a copy of which I sent you, you will find that I never instructed Mr. Sams nor his Board, but that, on the other hand. I simply gave him my opinion upon a statement of facts made in a letter from him to me. and that the opinion given him in that letter was in exact accord with the opinion given upon the same matter to you and your County Board and to all others asking my opinion upon that question. You will find, also, that the advice given to him in that letter was in exact line with the advice given to others upon the same question, and that I went out of my way to say SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 241 to him that on account of the sensitiveness of the people on the sub-ject of any sort of connection between a denominational and a public school, I deemed it wisest for the public schools to he taught in a pub-lic school-house, wherever possible, and that there should be a com-fortable public school-house in every district in North Carolina as soon as possible. Now. in conclusion, I shall not instruct your County Board of Edu-cation to have the public school taught in any house or in connection with any school contrary to their judgment as to what is best in the exercise of their general authority to coutrol and supervise all matters pertaining to the public school in their county, and to have the general government of the schools. I shall not instruct your County Board of Education not to build a public-school house in your district if they deem it wisest in the exercise of their authority to build such a house and to Use the funds of the district for that purpose. They are the judges of these matters, and their action in these matters so far as I am concerned and so far as the State Board of Education is concerned, are final under the law. I regret that you differ from me in my construction of law, but the Constitution makes the Attorney-General my legal adviser, and I prefer to accept his opinion upon legal matters. I have discharged my duty in this matter as I see it, and I have followed the law as I understand it and as I have been advised about it by the Attorney- General. If my action does not please you and your friends, I regret it, but I cannot help it. I have done nothing in the matter that I am ashamed of or afraid for the whole world to know, so that if it will be any consolation to you to air the matter in the papers, you have my permission to do so. I had rather be damaged than be coward enough to be driven to do what I do not believe the law and my conscience approve by threats of damage by exposition. My actions are the actions of a public officer, and are always open to the world. "Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. Office Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, September 22, 1904. Mr. C. O. Gray. Marshall, X. C. Dear Sir :—I have been unable to get an official ruling from the Attorney-General. He is now engaged in the campaign, and will not be in his office for the next week or ten days. I have carefully con-sidered section 33 of the School Law and I am satisfied that it was the purpose of the law-makers to prevent absolutely the use of any public school money in collection with any sectarian or denominational school. The principle of absolute separation of church and state is 16 242 BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE fixed in our Constitution and in our law, and should be guarded with much vigilance. What cannot be done directly ought not to be done indirectly, even though an apparently temporary gain might result therefrom. I have advised, therefore, and urged that a good public school-house should be provided in every public school district, owned and controlled absolutely by the public school authorities. I do not believe it prudent or wise to evade or even to seem to evade this law preventing any sort of combination between the public and the secta-rian or denominational school. I am satisfied that such a combination is not only illegal and unwise, but harmful to both the public and the denominational or sectarian school. I am satisfied, therefore, that the best thing for your people to do is to make arrangements at once to build a good public school-house in Marshall, and, if necessary, vote a local tax for the support of a first-class public school. Any other arrangement, even if it could be legally made, will be bound to be merely temporary and would provoke in the end dissatisfaction and criticism. The only sort of legal arrangement that could be made in your case would be for the School Committee, by authority of the County Board of Education, to rent your house for the public school term and to have absolute control of it during that time and to have the entire management of the school, including the election and the control of the teachers. In other words, the committee might rent from your de-nomination or your trustees the school property for public school pur-poses just as they might rent any other property from any other owner for such purposes in case there was no public school-house in the dis-trict, but in the event of renting such property from j-ou, the commit-tee and the County Board of Education should have as complete con-trol of the property and of the school as they would of any other pub-lic school of the county. I am satisfied that the Attorney-General will endorse this opinion. Very truly yours, J. Y. Jotner, Superintendent of Public Instruction. This opinion and ruling endorsed by Attorney-General, September 28. 1904. Explanations of Section 24. Dear Sir:—As there seems to be considerable misunderstanding in regard to the effect of the amendment recommended by the Joint Com-mittee on Education to section 24 of the Public School Law regulating the apportionment of the county school fund, I beg to offer a few words of explanation thereof. Under the head of other necessary expenses the present law does not limit the part of the school fund that may be set aside by the County Board of Education for building school-houses. The amendment proposed to limit the amount that may SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 243 be set aside from the county fund for this purpose to not more than twenty-five per cent, in counties with a total school fund of live thou-sand dollars or less ; not more than twenty per cent, in counties with a total school fund of over live thousand dollars and not more than ten thousand dollars ; not more than fifteen per cent, in counties with a total school fund of over ten thousand dollars and not more than twenty-five thousand dollars ; and not more than ten per cent, in coun-ties with a total school fund of over twenty-five thousand dollars. Under the present law in many counties a larger per cent, of the total school fund than this has been used for building during the past year. Under the present law and the ruling of my predecessor the entire cost of building school-houses was paid out of the general fund. The amendment proposes for the county to bear one-half of the ex-pense out of the building fund thus set aside and the district to bear the other half, either by private subscription or out of its annual apportionment. Under the old law the entire expense of building had to be borne by the school district and so it often happened that small, weak districts were compelled to close their school for two or three years in order to use their annual apportionment in paying for a house and then perhaps get only a very poor house. The proposed amendment seems to ine to be fair, just and wise middle-ground be-tween the old law and the present law, placing as it does one-half of the burden of building the house on the county and the other half on the district. Under the old law it was almost impossible to get houses in the weaker districts and the stronger districts had a very great advantage. Under the present law there is a possibility of doing an injustice to the stronger districts in bearing the entire expense of building the houses in the weak districts. Another amendment to this section proposes, to set aside one-sixth, if necessary, of the total school fund to be used in securing a four months school term in every school in the county. This amendment would not affect in the least those counties that already have a four months term in every district. For many such counties it would not be necessary to set aside this fund. In a number of counties under the present method of apportioning the school fund per capita by town-ships it happens that the stronger and more populous townships often have a school term of six or eight months while the more sparsely populated townships in the same county have a school term of less than four months, and consequently ask the State to bring these schools up to a four months term. The purpose of this amendment is to throw upon the counties themselves a part of the burden of bring-ing their own schools up to a four months term before they ask for aid out of the special State appropriation for this purpose. This seems but just and would reduce the special appropriation necessary to give a four months school term in eveiw district and save several thousand dollars to the State. It seems but just that the county should bear at least a part of the burden of bringing its own weak 244 BIENNIAL EEPOKT OF THE districts up to a four months term before asking for the help of the State, especially as the State appropriates one hundred thousand dol-lars per capita to all the counties and the biggest part of this goes to the counties and townships that have the largest number of children and the longest school term. After this small part of the total school fund or so much thereof as may be necessary has been used to bring the weak districts in the county up to four months, the balance of the fund is to be apportioned per capita by townships as at present and the stronger and more popu-lous townships will get their per capita part of it. It simply requires the strong in the county to help to a small extent the weak in their own county before calling upon the State to bear their entire burden. Some of the cities and towns are fighting this amendment, but it does not seem to me unjust that they should bear a small part of the bur-dens of the rural districts in their own counties from which they have largely drawn their support and their population. It has been the purpose to strike a just middle-ground here also, setting aside only a small part of the fund to be used for this purpose and allowing it to be used for equalizing school terms in the entire county but simply not for bringing all to the constitutional limit of four months and beyond that allowing each strong town, city or township to get the benefit of its larger population and per capita. Ruling as to Teaching Higher Branches in Public Schools. Raleigh, December 12, 1903. Dear Sib :—Section 24 of the School Law vests in the County Board of Education the authority to fix the maximum salary for each school in the county. It also directs them to distribute and apportion
|Title||Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina to Governor..., for the scholastic years...|
|Other Title||Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina to Governor, official circulars, letters and rulings of the Superintendent of Public Instruction|
|Creator||North Carolina. Department of Public Instruction.|
|Date||1902; 1903; 1904|
|Place||North Carolina, United States|
|Publisher||Raleigh :Dept. of Public Instruction,1904.|
North Carolina Department of Public Instruction
|Rights||State Document see http://digital.ncdcr.gov/u?/p249901coll22,63754|
|Physical Characteristics||1 v. :ill. ;23 cm.|
Health Sciences Library. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
North Carolina State Documents Collection. State Library of North Carolina
|Digital Characteristics-A||284 p.; 12.23 MB|
Ensuring Democracy through Digital Access, a North Carolina LSTA-funded grant project
North Carolina Digital State Documents Collection
|Pres File Name-M||pubs_biennialreportrespi1902nort.pdf|
|Pres Local File Path-M||\Preservation_content\StatePubs\pubs_edp\images_master\|
OFFICIAL CIRCULARS, LETTERS AND RULINGS
SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION
Years 1902-1903, 1903-1904
Reports of State Institutions, Peabody Fund, Distribution
of the First and Second $100,000, etc.
PART III OF REPORT.
196 BIENNIAL REPORT OF Til E
Office Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Raleigh, October 3, 1902.
To the Count)/ Superintendent:
As many of the public schools in the State will not be in session so
early as the 12th of October, the day set apart by the law as North
Carolina Day, I have taken the liberty of exercising the discretion
allowed me by the law to name another day, and have selected Wed-nesday,
November 26, for the celebration of "North Carolina Day" in
the public schools of the State this year.
The subject selected is "The Albemarle Section." I enclose a copy
of the remarkably interesting and valuable programme. Please send
to every teacher in the county a copy of this letter to you and of this
programme. I send you a number of copies of both under separate
cover. I earnestly desire that "North Carolina Day" shall be cele-brated
this year by every public school in the State.
The full programme, containing all the readings, declamations,
sketches and songs, has been bound in a neat pamphlet. Any number
of copies of this pamphlet for use in the schools will be sent to the
County Superintendent from the State Superintendent's office upon
application. Please write me at once about how many copies you
think will be needed for the schools in your county, and I will send
them as soon as they come from the hands of the printer. Direct
your teachers to apply to you for these programmes.
I sincerely hope that every teacher in your county will use the ex-cellent
opportunity of "North Carolina Day" to rally the patrons of
the school around it, to arouse a pride in the public school, to awaken
an interest in the study of the history of the State, and to inspire
a patriotic love of North Carolina and her people.
Very truly yours, J. Y. Joyner,
Superintendent of Public Instruction.
SUPERINTENDENT OF ITBLIC INSTRUCTION. 19'
NORTH CAROLINA DAY.
Subject: The Albemarle Section.
PROGRAMME OF EXERCISES.
1. Song—The Old North State William Gaston.
2. Reading—The First Governor. William Drummond.
Adapted from Wiley's North Carolina Reader and
Weeks' Sketch of Drummond.
3. Questions and Answers for Children.
By Committee of State Literary and Historical Association.
4. Reading—Roanoke Island of To-day Charles R. Taylor.
5. Reading—Albemarle Monuments R. B. Creecy.
Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina to Governor ..., for the scholastic years ...for