Biennial report of the North Carolina Commission for the Blind
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en Biennial Report of the NORTH CAROLINA STATE COMMISSION FOR THE BLIND <\&» From July 1, 1950, through June 30, 1952 **yv "And I will bring the blind by a way that they knew not; I will lead them in paths that they have not known I mill wr.h-r darkness light before them." —Isaiah xlii, 16. Biennial Report of the NORTH CAROLINA STATE COMMISSION FOR THE BLIND C*&J>i From July 1, 1950, through June 30, 1952 KTjjT*J "And I will bring the blind by a way that they knew not; I will lead them in paths that they have not known; I will make darkness light before them." —Isaiah xlii, 16. Governor Scott presenting Mr. Thomas Hunter (blind), of Fayetteville, the first award made in connection with the 1951 Nationally Employ the Physically Handicapped Week. This is the Governor's trophy for outstand-ing achievement in the field of employment by a handicapped person in North Carolina. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Letter of Transmittal 4 Members of the North Carolina State Commission Board. . 5 Advisory Medical Committee 6 Introduction 7 Organizational Chart 8 Aid to Blind Chart 9 Social Service Division 10 Specialized Service Chart 12 Comparative Analysis of Aid to Blind 14 Medical Division 18 Services for Children 23 Vocational Rehabilitation Division 27 General Rehabilitation 28 Rehabilitation Center 34 Home Industries 39 Workshops 41 Bureau of Employment for the Blind 44 Assistance and Cooperation from Other Agencies 47 Recommendations 48 Appendix I 54 Appendix II 56 Appendix III 58 P< LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL To Honorable W. Kerr Scott Governor of North Carolina Raleigh, North Carolina Dear Governor Scott: Pursuant to Chapter 53, Public Laws of 1935 and subsequent legislation, I have the honor to submit to you the accompanying report of the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind for the biennial period beginning with July 1, 1950 and ending June 30, 1952. This report concerns the management and finan-cial transactions of this Department. Respectfully submitted, Sam M. Cathey, Chairman N. C. State Commission for the Blind MEMBERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE COMMISSION FOR THE BLIND (Six Members—Appointed by the Governor) Judge Sam M. Cathey, Chairman, Asheville, N. C. Dr. Howard E. Jensen, Chairman, Executive Committee, Durham, N. C. Mr. H. C. Bradshaw, Durham, N. C. Mr. Frank C. King, Brevard, N. C. Mr. Sam Alford, Henderson, N. C. Mr. Thomas S. Payne, Washington, N. C. (Five-Ex-Officio Members—Designated by the Legislature) Mr. Ernest C. McCracken, Director, State Employment Service, Division of Employment Security Commission, Raleigh, N. C. Mr. Egbert N. Peeler, Supt., State School for the Blind, Raleigh, N. C. Dr. J. W. R. Norton, Secretary and State Health Officer, State Board of Health, Raleigh, N. C. Col. Charles H. Warren, Director, Vocational Rehabilitation, Ralegh, N. C. Dr. Ellen Black Winston, Commissioner, State Board of Public Welfare, Raleigh, N. C. ADVISORY MEDICAL COMMITTEE (Surgeons Certified by the American Board of Ophthalmology) Dr. Sam D. McPherson, Jr., Chairman, Durham, N. C. Dr. V. M. Hicks, Supervising Ophthalmologist, Aid to the Blind, Raleigh, N. C. Dr. Elbert C. Anderson, Wilmington, N. C. Dr. W. Banks Anderson, Durham, N. C. Dr. Ralph A. Arnold, Durham, N. C. Dr. James W. Bizzell, Goldsboro, N. C. Dr. H. H. Briggs, Asheville, N. C. Dr. A. N. Costner, Durham, N. C. Dr. H. M. Dalton, Kinston, N. C. Dr. Alan Davidson, New Bern, N. C. Dr. John L. Etherington, Goldsboro, N. C. Dr. B. A. Helsabeck, Winston-Salem, N. C. Dr. L. Byerly Holt, Winston-Salem, N. C. Dr. Clarence B. Foster, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. J. G. Johnston, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. Ruth Leonard, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. M. N. Lymberis, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. Thomas A. Martin, Raleigh, N. C. Dr. E. E. Moore, Asheville, N. C. Dr. H. C. Neblett, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. Robert Odom, Asheville, N. C. Dr. George T. Noel, Kannapolis, N. C. Dr. Winston Roberts, Winston-Salem, N. C. Dr. John L. Shipley, Elizabeth City, N. C. Dr. Henry L. Sloan, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. Frank C. Smith, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. William P. Speas, Winston-Salem, N. C. Dr. Roy A. Stewart, Newton, N. C. Dr. Frederick W. Stocker, Durham, N. C. Dr. J. David Stratton, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. Horace G. Strickland, Greensboro, N. C. Dr. S. Weizenblatt, Asheville, N. C. Dr. John D. Wilsey, Winston-Salem, N. C. Dr. Larry Turner, Durham, N. C. INTRODUCTION The North Carolina State Commission for the Blind was created by legislative enactment in 1935 and began to function as a state agency in July of the same year. This Biennial Report presents the accomplishments for the period July 1, 1950-June 30, 1952. The law under which the Commission operates places on it the responsibility of interpreting, administering and supervising an all inclusive program of work for the blind. These activities are accomplished by the three main divisions of the Commission: 1—The Social Service Division which supervises financial grants to the indigent blind and renders special services to all the blind of the State; 2—The Medical Division which carries on three main phases of work, prevention of blindness, conservation of sight and restoration of vision; 3—The Rehabilitation Division which is composed of five major parts : a, General Rehabilitation Services; b, the North Carolina Rehabilitation Center for Adult Blind; c, Home Industries; d, Workshops and e, The Bureau of Employment for the Blind. This Report reflects the continuous development of activities and opportunities offered to the blind citizens of North Carolina. We feel that the blind of our State, as well as the thousands of persons with serious eye defects, have profited by the efforts of the Commission, and through the services rendered to them, many have become self-maintaining, self-respecting citizens of the state. The Commission for the Blind has made a concerted effort to conserve and utilize all State, Federal and community resources, so that as many as possible of the visually handicapped of the State could benefit by the use of such resources. Our program considers the whole man against his background of social, medi-cal and financial needs and endeavors to help him help himself to fit into his community and take his place in the life of our State. We could not present this Report without comment on the loyalty, perseverence and hard work of the staff and all persons and organizations who have made such noble contributions to the forward progress of good eye care for our citizens. The Federal, State and County agencies, as well as private agencies, have given much aid and co-operation. The North Carolina State Association for the Blind and the North Carolina Lions Clubs have given untold financial aid and unselfish devotion to the cause of a better way of life for the visually handicapped citi-zens of North Carolina. E E o U v *• o *• I/) oc o U o Z o -C U "5 c .2 oH "n ow CO H Z< OQ W DC H O HQ fa O 09 H Zw fa 03 Zo I— I H l-H fa fa fa O 09 H o fa z ft, ft, < c « .* «f u og £ C 01 gn a V U (< >. J S >i o 00 00 J1 c So "? ~> E3 p w 0< u 4) Q go 3 4) & y W vM! 73 O CO < «3 CD •a e "2 » c > ^ r 9 2 ft 2 4) 4> & a. u |8 1 3 < O 4> OS J8* V A V A _, ^ 6 2 gj W U c CI < 0) „ EM *§ o S 4) ** ">- O a) 09 <- IS 4> 5 > ' AO B§° 2 B « J •a 2 ft u W*> a«. $5 ft^ ft£ Si « <o > ' > ' "8 1> a <* a H * J3 o 10 Biennial Report of the SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION Christine Anderson, Supervisor The primary function of the Social Service Division is to super-vise the administration of the Aid to the Blind program and to provide through local organization a program of specialized services throughout the State. Specialized services are available to the Aid to the Blind recipients as a part of the case work process, but cannot be made available to other blind unless local sponsorship is provided. It has been found, however, through surveys and census of the blind population that over 50% of the blind in North Carolina are not in need of financial assistance, but are in great need of other services and training in order to live normally in a sighted world. Through its field staff of six supervisors and thirty case workers for the blind the social service division has made particular effort during the past bi-ennium to strengthen and expand the specialized program on a State-wide basis. The specialized service program includes a full range of case work services to the blind, including instructing the family in techniques of avoiding overprotection and dependence and help-ing the blind person to adjust realistically to the physical, psy-cological and social aspects of blindness. The blind person is helped to resume his normal responsibilities in the home through instruction and guidance in household tasks, child care, etc. Training in the maximum use of the remaining senses is empha-sized; academic training in typing, signature writing, reading and writing braille; the distribution of talking book machines, braille literature, and radios; the provision of recreational out-lets ; instruction in therapy crafts ; and where needed, assistance in procuring medical care. One most important part of the case work program is the educa-tion of parents of blind pre-school children in methods of train-ing the blind child. It is readily known that parents of blind children are faced with many emotional conflicts which make the rearing of such children fraught with difficulties. The usual reaction is one of despair and fear and too often their attitudes are expressed in over-protection or complete rejection. If the parents are able to make a proper adjustment to their problem the children have a much greater chance of developing acceptable patterns of behavior and becoming useful adult citi-zens. The case worker for the blind assists the parents in over- North Carolina Commission for the Blind 11 coming these destructive attitudes by instruction in methods of training the blind child to become self-reliant; avoidance of blindisms and behavior difficulties ; the selection of suitable toys to stimulate the mind and develop a more secure personality. Through the sponsorship of the North Carolina State Associa-tion for the Blind and in cooperation with the State School for the Blind this individualized instruction in the home is supple-mented by intensive group instruction for a one week period during the late summer at the State School for the Blind in Raleigh. Training in the common problems through modern workshop techniques is provided by a staff composed of a pedia-trician, an ophthalmologist, a psychologist, a nutritionist, a librarian, nursery school teachers and play specialists. Promi-nent speakers from various agencies serving the blind are also featured on the program. During the biennium the staff of the Social Service Division participated in a study of the visually handicapped child which was sponsored by the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness. The focus of the study was upon the causes of blind-ness among infants and pre-school children; a broader purpose of the study was to establish factual information regarding hereditary factors involved in blindness. Of the one hundred cases considered in this study in North Carolina, congenital cataracts was found to be the chief cause of blindness among this group with retrolental fibroplasia ranking a close second. One very important change in the North Carolina plan for administration of Aid to the Blind was made early in the bi-ennial period. This change relates to the amendment to the Social Security Act, August 1950, providing that public assistance pay-ments be furnished with reasonable promptness to all eligible individuals. In accordance with this provision and in an effort to implement the plan, a study was made of the causes of delay in processing applications for Aid to the Blind. As a result of this study we were able to revise our administrative and fiscal procedures and establish a period of not more than 31 days for completion of the application process, including the first assist-ance payment. Aid to the Blind checks are written weekly in State Office and very frequently an applicant for Aid to the Blind receives his check within 10-14 days after the date of application. As a preliminary to the proper administration of a program of service and assistance it is necessary that we have accurate data 12 Biennial Report of the on the number of blind and where they may be located. A cur-rently validated census is maintained in State Office and in each of the six Field Supervisors' offices of the agency. It is the direct responsibility of the staff of the Social Service Division to locate and register all blind persons and to keep alert to any needed or desired services that may be given by the agency. A complete tabulation giving location of blind persons by counties and characteristics on race, sex, age, degree of blindness, age at onset of blindness and source of support will be found in Appendix I. The field supervisors and case workers for the blind made 1,203 talks to local civic groups and over radio in an effort to interpret and discuss the work being done in the State by the State Com-mission for the Blind and interested sponsoring groups. This type of public interpretation affords an excellent opportunity for discussing local problems and programs relating to the blind and creates interest and support in promoting the welfare of the blind citizens in each community within the State. Our progress in providing the many types of specialized serv-ices to help the blind develop useful, well-adjusted and happy lives is reflected in the following chart which lists the activities and the number of contacts made by the case workers for the blind during the biennium : CHART I SPECIALIZED SERVICES GIVEN BY CASEWORKERS FOR THE BLIND IN COOPERATION WITH LOCAL LIONS CLUBS Biennium Biennium 1948-50 1950-52 1. Home visits 31,695 32,562 2. Assistance in Personal Adjustment to Blindness— - Assistance in learning to utilize to a maximum degree the other senses and to develop effective ways of performing without sight the ordinary activities of living 8,785 13,814 3. Assistance in family adjustment—Instructing the family in ways of helping the blind person to ad-just to blindness—Assisting the blind person in resuming his normal responsibilities in the home through instruction in child care, performance of household duties, etc 4,886 8,025 4. Instruction in Therapy Crafts—Hobby crafts — sewing, weaving, chair caning, mat making, North Carolina Commission for the Blind 13 leather work, basketry, crocheting, knitting, gar-dening, raising pets and farm animals, etc 5,314 4,006 5. Academic Work—Reading and writing Braille and typing; signature writing; referral to State School for the Blind; referrals to classes for partially sighted; distribution of sight-saving materials; information regarding admission to Rehabilitation Center for the Blind 4,957 7,748 6. Medical Care—This includes planning for the treatment, transportation and follow-up work in cooperation with the Medical Division 21,733 26,158 7. Recreation—Plays, movies, picnics, distribution of gift radios 4,409 7,806 8. Miscellaneous Services 7,456 7,809 9. Talking Book Machines distributed 1,214 972 Both State and Federal laws provide that any applicant or recipient for Aid to the Blind may appeal to the State Commis-sion for the Blind, requesting a hearing if he is dissatisfied because of the following reasons : if his application is not taken, if his application is not acted upon within thirty-one days, if his application is rejected, if he is dissatisfied with the amount of his monthly payment, if he is not satisfied, if his payment is changed or stopped, or if he is found eligible and no payment is made within thirty-one days. The State agency upon receipt of such appeal must afford a fair hearing. During 1950-52 seven requests for hearings were received; the following tabulation shows the number, and action taken by the State Commission for the Blind: Requests received 7 Total handled 7 Requests withdrawn or disposed of by other means, such as adjustment by county prior to hearing 2 Disposed of by decision of the State Commission in favor of appellant 3 County action upheld 2 The issues involved in the appeals were budgetary deficiency, income or property of members of appellant's family and income of the appellant. During the biennial period a total of 5,838 blind persons received Aid to the Blind payments on basis of economic need. It is note-worthy that of this total number of recipients 57.6% were over 55 years of age. Many of the Aid to the Blind recipients have some other disability in addition to their visual handicap and 14 Biennial Report of the could never become employable members of society. Complete informational data on the number of persons receiving1 Aid to the Blind payments, the number terminated or rejected and the age, race and range of payments is given in Chart II, A Com-parative Analysis of Aid to the Blind Acceptances—Rejec-tions— Terminations—for the biennial period, July 1, 1950-June 30, 1952: CHART II A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF AID TO THE BLIND ACCEPTANCES—REJECTIONS—TERMINATIONS 1. Number of persons receiving AB payments June 30, 1950 4,144 2. Number of applications accepted, July 1, 1950- June 30, 1952. . 1,694 3. Total number persons receiving AB, July 1, 1950-June 30, 1952 5,838 4. Number of blind persons whose cases were closed, July 1, 1950-June 30, 1952 1,402 Reasons for closing: a. Vision restored 167 b. Death 670 c. Moved out-of-State 32 d. Became self-supporting 134 e. Receipt of Serviceman's Allotment 19 f. Support from relatives 146 g. Admitted to Public Institution 105 h. Receipt of other Public or Private Aid 18 i. Soliciting alms 7 j. Other 104 5. Number of persons receiving AB, June 30, 1952 4,436 6; Number of persons denied AB, July 1, 1950-June 30, 1952 287 Reasons for Rejection: a. Ineligible on basis of vision 105 b. Ineligible on basis of residence 4 c. Inmate of Public Institution 1 d. Other resources 157 e. Other 20 7. North Carolina average monthly AB payment, June 1950 $ 33.98 8. North Carolina average monthly AB payment, June 1952 34.57 9. Range of monthly AB Payments: June 1950 June 1952 a. $ 4.00—$ 9.99 6 24 b. 10.00— 14.99 83 131 c. 15.00— 19.99 209 197 d. 20.00—24.99 560 464 e. 25.00—29.99 714 703 North Carolina Commission for the Blind 15 f. 30.00— 34.99 697 812 g. 35.00— 39.99 487 540 h. 40.00—44.99... 449 446 i. 45.00— 50.00 939 1,119 10. Age range of AB recipients: June 1950 June 1952 a. 0-14 32 55 b. 15-24 227 290 c. 25-54 1,395 1,532 d. 55 and over 2,490 2,559 11. Race of AB recipients: June 1950 June 1952 a. White 2,195 2,345 b. Negro 1,911 2,054 c. Indian 38 37 Through an amendment to the Aid to the Blind title of the Social Security Act, effective October 1950, the Congress gave legisla-tive approval to the exemption of earnings of recipients of Aid to the Blind up to a maximum of $50.00 monthly. (This legisla-tion was optional to the States for the period, October 1950 through June 30, 1952; mandatory, July 1, 1952.) A preliminary study of Aid to the Blind recipients who were earning a part of their income as of September 1950 was made during the biennium. This survey revealed that 527 Aid to the Blind recipients in North Carolina were earning a part of their living. The Study of Earned Income of Recipients of Aid to the Blind in September 1950, made by the Federal Security Agency on a national level showed that North Carolina had the highest percentage of Aid to the Blind recipients who were earning a part of their living. Many blind persons and others working with the blind have long held the belief that our methods of administering Aid to the Blind have thwarted the efforts of rehabilitation of the blind in that each time the AB recipient earns a dollar, his AB payment is reduced a dollar. Thus, regardless of how hard the blind per-son may work, his efforts can never improve his standard of living above that of "Relief status." This plan and provision exempting up to $50.00 a month earned income provides incen-tive and encouragement to the AB recipient to better his status and to improve his standard of living. It also promotes complete cooperation between the administering of financial assistance and the efforts towards the rehabilitation of the blind individual. The Chart, Appendix I, shows known number of Blind in the State, 10,318; data given by Counties. 16 Biennial Report of the Blind Musician—Case Worker Instructs in Using Talking Book Machine North Carolina Commission for the Blind 17 SPECIALIZED SERVICES 18 Biennial Report of the THE MEDICAL DIVISION Annie Ruth Penney, Supervisor The Commission for the Blind owes a debt of gratitude and appreciation to the physicians of the state practicing the spe-cialty of Diseases of the Eye and Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat. They have provided guidance to the Medical Division and high quality medical care to clients applying for services through the agency's program of prevention of blindness, sight restoration and conservation of vision. Improved methods of treatment and the use of "Miracle Drugs" have given new inspiration and hope to those who are interested in prevention of blindness. Some physicians claim that blindness from diabetic retinopathy need not occur if the disease is discovered early and faithful treatment is followed. North Carolina can boast of a greater number than ever before of highly trained physicians practicing the specialty of Diseases of the Eye and Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat. This makes medical treatment available in all parts of the state. Serious eye condi-tions need not go untreated. Owing to the fine immunization program carried on by the local Health Departments, blindness from infectious diseases is on the decline. Another side of the picture, however, is not so bright. The life span has been increased, with a corresponding increase in degenerative diseases of old age and blindness. Hereditary blindness has not decreased as a result of progress in medical treatment. The saving of the lives of premature infants weighing three pounds or less is a new source of blind-ness. About twenty-five per cent of these infants develop re-trolental fibroplasia. Extensive research on the part of the finest scientific minds in our country has failed to find a treatment that prevents blindness, once the disease has started. The pres-ent approach is to stress prevention of premature births. National surveys have shown that fifty per cent of the blindness in this country could have been prevented or postponed. Reasons are listed below why blindness was not prevented in a study made of specific cases: 1. Failure to recognize early symptoms. 2. Delay in consulting an eye physician or failure to understand the importance of early treatment of serious symptoms. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 19 3. Failure to recognize the importance of medical care in fail-ing eye sight. 4. Clients first sought treatment from a non-medical practioner or a physician of internal medicine. The following suggestions are offered for prevention of blind-ness: 1. Any redness of the eye is a serious symptom. Consult your eye physician. 2. A thorough medical eye examination at least every two years, especially after the age of forty. 3. Consult an eye physician for even a slight eye injury. 4. Consult an eye physicians or hospital medical school eye clinic for any acute pain or inflammatory condition of the eyeball or eyelid. 5. Consult an eye physician as soon as any failing vision in one or both eyes is discovered. The Commission for the Blind recommends more eye health education for lay groups and for public health personnel. The fact that one person in North Carolina is needlessly blind demands research and study in preventable blindness and greater interest and continued cooperation on the part of all those administering health services. SERVICES OFFERED BY MEDICAL DIVISION I. Eye Examination and Treatment. A. Physicians' offices—By appointment through local Departments of Public Welfare or special arrangement. B. Group eye clinics. 1. Arranged in counties where medical eye care is not available locally. 2. Children and adults are admitted on a needs basis, certification made by local Departments of Public Welfare. 3. Clinic eye examinations made by eye physicians. 4. Participating agencies. a. Local Welfare Department. (1) Certificates on needs basis. (2) Takes applications for clinic services. (3) Gives active support to clinic by assisting in planning for physical setup and assisting in providing for clerical help. (4) Plans jointly with Health Department for transpor-tation. 20 Biennial Report op the b. Health Department. (1) School screening for eye defects. (2) Furnishses list of names of children to the Welfare Department for certification on the basis of need. (3) Public Health Personnel assists in operation of the clinic. (4) Assists Welfare Department in planning transporta-tion to and from the clinic for services. c. Commission for the Blind. Area Physical Restoration Nurse is responsible for the following services : (1) Over-all joint planning for the group eye clinic. (2) Securing the services of an eye physician to do the eye examinations. (3) Securing the services of an optician to furnish frames, take frame measurements, copy doctor's prescriptions for glasses, have lenses ground, furnish glasses cases and see that glasses are properly made up and deliv-ered. (4) Worker is present at the clinic for the purpose of co-ordinating and supervising the over-all functioning of the group clinic. C. Sustaining eye clinics. 1. Services offered on an area basis by appointment. 2. Supervised by one or more physicians who are Dipolmats of the American Board of Ophthalmology. 3. Financing shared by local Lions Clubs and the Commission for the Blind. 4. Number and location. a. Asheville, City Hall. b. Charlotte, Professional Building. c. Raleigh, Rex Hospital. II. Follow-Up Work. A. Surgery is done by eye physicians who are American Board Diplo-mats or eye physicians who are accepted applicants for American Board examinations. B. Hospitalization and surgery financed by the Commission for the Blind. III. Glasses: The State Commission for the Blind secures glasses at spe-cial rates from wholesale optical companies for local agencies and Lions Clubs. Glasses are paid for locally and by the North Carolina State Association for the Blind. IV. Sponsorship of Sight-Saving Classes. The Chart, Appendix II, reveals data on the 32,669 indigent per-sons examined by Eye Physicians during the Biennium; data given by Counties. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 21 Scenes from Variety Club Clinic Held Weekly for Both White and Colored, Charlotte, N. C. 22 Biennial Report of the Eye Examination—Variety Club Clinic Charlotte, N. C. pMi jpi «*. i» Before SQUINT OPERATION After North Carolina Commission for the Blind SERVICES FOR CHILDREN 23 Foster Mother Cares for Blind Childre?i The Medical and Social Service Divisions offer special services to North Carolina children. These services include: General Medical Examinations Medical Eye Examinations Eye Surgery and Treatment Medical Eye Care Follow-up Consultation 24 Biennial Report of the Home visits to encourage the parents to take advantage of opportnities offered, to send blind children to the State School for the Blind. Participation in the Joint School Health Program Referral to Sight Saving Classes Referral to The State School for the Blind Services to the Pre-school Child : Eye Examinations Surgery Treatment Pre-School Institute for Mothers of Blind Children : The third annual Conference for Mothers of Pre-School Blind Children was held in August, 1952. For a number of years, leaders in work for the blind in North Carolina have recognized the need and importance of having such a Conference. The officials of the North Carolina State School for the Blind and the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind, the two State agencies whose legal responsibility is work for the blind, had conferred, discussed and tried to find funds in their budgets for this undertaking. No State funds were available and so the Summer Conference remained an unmet need of the total pro-gram for the blind. Early in 1950 the North Carolina State Asso-ciation for the Blind was approached and the proposed project and its importance outlined. The North Carolina State Association is a non-profit, lay group whose sole reason for existence is furthering work for the blind state-wide. This Association was organized in 1934 by promi-nent Lions and other interested groups and individuals to work for a state-sponsored agency which would devote full time to the work for the blind and visually handicapped. Its efforts met with success and in March, 1935, the North Carolina State Com-mission for the Blind was created by legislative enactment. With the background of such achievement in work for the blind, the North Carolina State Association was sympathetic to the need and made funds ' available for the Conference; thus, the first Summer Conference was held in 1950. The Conference is, therefore, jointly sponsored by the North Carolina State Association for the Blind, the North Carolina State School for the Blind and* the North Carolina State Com-mission for the Blind. The School furnishes the physical set-up, staff and supervision; the Commission furnishes the staff to locate the pre-school blind children in the State, to report these North Carolina Commission for the Blind 25 and to work with the mothers who are scheduled to attend, also, the Commission staff is used during the Conference and the North Carolina State Association for the Blind furnishes funds for maintenance and transportation for the mothers and babies, buys books, toys and pays for staff members. PRESCHOOL OPERATIVE SERVICES—1951-52 Squint Operations 60 Congenital Cataracts 28 Congenital Glaucoma 6 Enucleations 5 Chalazion Removed 2 Ptosis 5 Retrolental Fibrophasia 5 Treatment and other defects 16 TOTAL 127 Madeline P. McCrary BABY IN BED Youngest Baby at Summer Institute for Mothers of Pre-School Blind Children 26 Biennial Report of the 1. White Children at Summer Institute for Mothers of Blind Children 2. Colored Children at Summer Institute 3. Twins, Blind from Birth, at Summer Institute North Carolina Commission for the Blind 27 VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION DIVISION The term Rehabilitation has various connotations and usages. It is a word that has come into general use in the past 30 years. As applied to agencies who work with disabled persons in the Vocational Rehabilitation Program, its meaning is this—Voca-tional Rehabilitation is the acceptance of a disabled or handi-capped person as he is and the preparation for employment through various services such as physical restoration, adjust-ment training, vocational training, placement, etc., which is in keeping with his capacities and abilities. The basic concept of Vocational Rehabilitation is to assist an handicapped person to become a productive member of society. Recently Mr. John L. McCaffrey, President of the International Harvester Company, stated that "We try to look at the indivi-dual in hiring, in training, in job assignment and in up-grading. We are more interested in knowing what he can do instead of what he cannot do. We try to train the individual for the kind of job he can do and then find ways to help him do it better." In Vocational Rehabilitation it's the individual and what he can do that counts ; it is his ability and not his disability that makes him employable. The Vocational Rehabilitation of the State Commission for the Blind is comprised of five major units, all of which work to-gether to find, counsel, guide, render physical restoration serv-ices and/or train a blind person for employment. The five major units are : 1.—General Rehabilitation Services, consisting of counseling, planning, placement and post placement supervision. 2.—Adjustment and Prevocational Training secured at the North Carolina Rehabilitation Center for the Blind at Butner, N. C. 3.—Home Industry training secured through the Specialist in Home Industries. 4.—Workshop training secured through the five Workshops. 5.—Stand Operation training secured through the Bureau of Employment for the Blind. 28 Biennial Report of the I. GENERAL REHABILITATION SERVICES Britt L. Green, Supervisor The First World War brought to focus the need of retrain-ing our war veterans, later consideration was given to the gen-eral population and the thousands of handicapped persons among it, who could become self-supporting if given proper physical restoration and training. Rehabilitation services began in 1920, but it was not until 1943 that the Congress made into law a bill sponsored by our own Congressman, Graham Barden. Mr. Barden was co-author of the Barden-LaFollette Bill which became known as Public Law 113. Public Law 113 was a Bill of Rights for the handicapped of the Nation and started a Nation-Wide work for the mentally and physically handicapped. The Congress made funds available for the work, the North Carolina General Assembly matched the funds of Congress, and for the first time in the history of America, the handicapped had the doors of work opportunities opened wide. General rehabilitation involves certain processes, the most im-portant of these are (1) Case Finding, (2) Counseling and Guidance, (3) Training, (4) Placement and (5) Post Placement Supervision. 1.—Case Finding: All the services available to the visually handicapped cannot be rendered until the person has been found. The first job of the General Rehabilitation Division is to find the individual so that he may accept or reject the services that are offered to each handicapped person in the State. After a person is found, he must be interviewed to see if he has rehabili-tation potentialities. Rehabilitation looks at the Total Man—In the light of employability considering these characteristics; Physical ability to work, mental and educational ability to learn and to hold a job, personality equal to employment and skill in a job or ability to render service which someone is willing to buy. 2.—Counseling and Guidance : The aim of vocational counsel-ing is to help the client in his choice of a suitable employment objective, in planning his preparation for such employment and in achieving those attitudes which will bring success and satis-faction in his job. Counseling is based on an understanding of the "whole" individual with due regard to individual differences and the fact that the client is the one to be served. It is he who North Carolina Commission for the Blind 29 is to be made self-maintaining by the processes of rehabilitation. Every effort must be expended to remove or attempt to remove the handicap. Physical restoration is the first step after a client has been accepted by the counselor for rehabilitation services, not only physical but mental restoration or improvement is given due regard. The role of counselor in rehabilitation is most important — He is dealing with a human life, he is having a part in the plans of a human—Only counselors skilled in the techniques of such an art should be entrusted with so great a task. 3.—Training: On the completion of a plan and objective for rehabilitation, the third step is training. This may take many channels, such as training for stand operation, in workshops, industry, colleges and universities. The counselor is responsible for the type and quality of training rendered. He should keep constant watch to see that the client is receiving the kind of training which will fit him for remunerative employment. Even-tual employment is the motivation of all rehabilitation. 4.—Placement: All the above mentioned processes in rehabil-itation must lead to the goal of placement in a job, occupation or profession; job placement which will allow the handicapped individual to use all of his abilities and develop his capabilities. Through the years of human progress, development and in-terpretation, it has been conclusively proven that blind persons do not want to beg, that begging is an insult to any self-respect-ing blind person. It has also been generally conceded at this point that blind people are capable of working and earning a living; therefore, finding new and better opportunities for em-ployment of the blind is a most important work of General Re-habilitation. 5.—Post Placement Supervision. The last of the major steps in the rehabilitation processes is Post Placement Supervision. After a person is placed, he needs guidance and supervision to some degree to insure steady progress. The Rehabilitation Counselor visits the blind person at regular intervals as long as this is needed for continued success and development. With noted progress in the management of his job, the counselor visits at less frequent intervals or when he is called upon by his client. Post Placement Supervision continues as long as the client operates or performs on the job. The aim of Rehabilita-tion is not only to set one blind person up in a job, but also to find new job opportunities for the blind. 30 Biennial Report of the Under the Barden Rehabilitation Act, the Vocational Rehabil-itation Division of the Federal Security Agency pays V2 of the rehabilitation case service cost of physical restoration, training, placement, etc., for blind people who are considered to be em-ployable and all the cost of rehabilitation administration, voca-tional guidance and placement staff. The Federal Vocational Rehabilitation Division supervises the rehabilitation program for the blind and serves as an office of clearance and exchange of new and successful ideas and methods of rehabilitation. The co-operation between the North Carolina State School for the Blind and the Rehabilitation Division of the Commission for the Blind is paying rich dividends to the graduates of the State School. The Rehabilitation Division considers the State School graduates as one of its most important sources of referral for potential Rehabilitation clients. Recently a survey of students was made on the graduates of the white School for the Blind. These interesting facts were revealed: 40% are engaged in the commercial field; 19% in social work; 7% in mattress and chair work; 4% in religious work ; 2% in agricultural work ; 2 % at the Rehabilitation Cen-ter; 2% in workshops; 7% in music and related fields; 7% teaching field; 7% field of recreation; 2% in Law; 2% house-wife; 2% unemployed; 2%> still in college; 4% unknown. 45% of all graduates from the State School have received college training or are in college now. Client Trained a?id Now Operating a Commercial Laundry North Carolina Commission for the Blind 31 According to statistics from the Office of Vocational Rehabilita-tion there were 6425 blind persons rehabilitated into employ-ment during- the 1950-52 period. North Carolina rehabilitated 672 or 10% of this number and again leads the nation in placement of blind persons in employ-ment. STATISTICS ON THE 672 BLIND PERSONS REHABILITATED INTO EMPLOYMENT. PERIOD JULY 1, 1950 THROUGH JULY 30, 1952 Year 1950-1951—TOTAL NUMBER OF REHABILITANTS: 308 Number of Males 175 Number of Females 133 Number of Whites 205 Number of Negroes 103 Average Education at Survey 6.4 Average Age When Accepted for Rehabilitation Services 42.83 Average number of months cases were serviced by the Rehabilitation Division 15.35 Average number of months in training 2.9 Average cost for case services (does not include Administration) . .$340.78 Average weekly wage when accepted as a Rehabilitation Client. . . .$ 4.35 Average weekly wage when closed as employed and rehabilitated. . . $ 23.18 Year 1951-1952—TOTAL NUMBER OF REHABILITANTS: 364 Number of Males 198 Number of Females 166 Number of Whites 259 Number of Negroes 104 Number of Indians 1 Average Education at Survey 6.1 Average age when accepted for Rehabilitation Services 42 Average number of months in Service 21.3 Average number of months in training 2.7 Average cost for case services (does not include Administration) . .$397.18 Average weekly wage when accepted as a Rehabilitation Client. . . .$ 3.68 Average weekly wage when closed as employed and rehabilitated. . .$ 21.32 TOTAL AVERAGES FOR THE TWO YEARS July 1, 1950 - June 30, 1952 Number of Males 373 Number of Females 299 Number of White Persons 464 Number of Negroes 207 Number of Indians 1 Average Education at Survey , 6.2 Average age when accepted for Rehabilitation Services 42.41 Average number of months cases were serviced by the Rehabilitation Divisions 18.32 32 Biennial Report of the Average number of months in training 2.8 Average cost of case services (does not include Administration) . . .$368.98 Average weekly wage when accepted as a Rehabilitation Client. . . .$ 4.01 Average weekly wage when closed as employed and rehabilitated ... $ 22.25 REHABILITATION SERVICES PAY DIVIDENDS Statistics on the Occupational Groups of the 672 Rehabilitated Blind Persons for the Period July 1, 1950, Through June 30, 1952 Type of Job Number Per Cent Professional and Semi-Professional 30 4% Managerial and Sales 86 13 Skilled • 34 5 Semi-Skilled 51 8 Unskilled 67 10 Service Jobs 43 6 Sheltered Work Shops and Craft Workers 64 10 Farmers, Housewives, Helpers, Housekeepers 297 44 Totals 672 100% Madeline P. McCrary Blind Man Manages and Operates Florist Shop North Carolina Commission for the Blind 33 1. Medical Transcriptionists Employed by Baptist Hospital, Winston-Salem, N. C. 2. Sanding and Finishing Furniture, Sanford, N. C. 34 Biennial Report of the THE NORTH CAROLINA REHABILITATION CENTER Helen Cutting, Superintendent Rehabilitation Center Now Housed in Newly Completed Building The North Carolina Rehabilitation Center was created by legis-lative enactment in 1945 and began operation in November, 1945. The establishment of the Rehabilitation Center for Adult Blind was the fulfillment of a long cherished idea and the real-ization of a great unmet need in the total program of work for the blind. Indeed, the orientation and adjustment to blindness which the Center program provides for the adult blind has enabled many blind persons to enter employment and become self-supporting. From November, 1945, until August, 1952, the Center was housed in most unsuitable temporary buildings, loaned by one agency and then another. In August, 1952, the Rehabilitation Center moved into its own new and modern building located'at Butner, N. C. The total cost of the building and equipment was $428,771.00. The main building consists of administrative offices, class rooms, dining facilities and recreation rooms for both races. The wings on either end of the main building are the dormitories for white and colored. The picture of the new building appears above and represents the interest of the State of North Carolina in pro-viding services to its blinded citizens. The new building is ade-quate to meet the needs of the student body and is probably the most modern Rehabilitation Center for the Blind in the entire nation. The pressing need now is for that of staff houses or quarters to provide living accommodations for the instructors and Superin- North Carolina Commission for the Blind 35 tendent. We hope that this need will be met soon, for without properly trained staff the usefulness of the Center could not be achieved. Many states do not have Rehabilitation Centers for the Blind, therefore, our Rehabilitation Center is being used to a small degree by other states. Out-of-state students are admitted only when there are no North Carolina blind on the waiting list. This is a Rehabilitation Center for North Carolinians and their needs supercede all others. Since the Rehabilitation Center has been functioning for seven years, the basic courses offered to the students are rather well established at this time and fewer changes are made than in the beginning. Some of the courses offered at the present time are : 1. Orientation to the physical set-up of the Center and surround-ings, 2. Travel techniques, 3. Adjustment, 4. Continuation of counseling, 5. Psychological tests, measurements, etc., 6. Per-sonality adjustment, 7. Stand training and employment prac-tices, 8. Basic courses in personal hygeine, table etiquette, etc., 9. Home economics and housekeeping, 10. Academic courses such as English, spelling, arithmetic, Braille, typing and tran-scribing, 11. Craft courses, 12. Sewing, 13. Woodshop, 14. Auto-motive repair, 15. Electrical appliance repair, 16. Laundry courses. One innovation in the travel courses has been introduced by the travel instructor recently. The use of Walkie-Talkies in travel training, particularly when the student takes travel tests in the near-by cities has proven most helpful and successful and it is believed that it will become a real tool in travel techniques. The following charts present statistics on the biennium period and will give some idea as to the number of students, age, sex, etc., attending the Center during this period. STATISTICS—July 1, 1950 - June 30, 1952, on Students at the Rehabilita-tion Center Total Number of Students . . 157 Urban 68 Number of Counties Single 99 represented 82 Married 39 Average Age 33.5 Other 19 Males 100 Average Education 7.2 Females 57 Average I. Q 87.5 White 91 . Age at Onset of Blindness : Negro 66 0-4 81 Rural 89 5-14 12 36 Biennial Report of the 15-24 25 25-44 25 45-64 14 Causes of Blindness: Disease 152 Accident 8 Congenital 31 Inherited 26 Degree of Vision—Present: Total-Total 86 Total-Partial 39 Partial-Partial 32 Sources of Support When Student Entered Center: Public Relief 49 Family 86 Self 14 Friends 3 Retirement 1 Insurance 1 Savings 1 Compensation 2 Previous Employment: Workshop 1 Odd Jobs 2 Inspector 1 No Job 29 Switchboard Operator 2 Laborer 33 Family Worker 13 Truck Driver 1 Domestic 7 Seamstress 1 Managerial 6 Sales Work 8 Packer 1 Porter 3 Farmer 20 Textile 8 Fishing 1 Saw Mill 4 Clerical 6 Mattress Worker 1 Mechanic 1 Fireman 1 Housekeeper 1 Minister 1 Teacher 1 Transcriptionist 1 Presser 1 Cook 1 Poultry Farmer 1 Average Number of Months at the Rehabilitation Center... 5.65 Follow-Up Training: Workshop 18 Stand 15 Home Industry 1 Other 8 Number Employed 44 Still in Training 43 Unemployed 69 Deceased 1 Types of Employment of the 44 Employed: Family Worker 2 Instructor 1 Stand Operator and Manager 8 Workshop 6 Hospital Orderly 1 Housewife 2 Mophead Trimmer 1 Soldier 1 Service Station Operator . . 1 Seamstress 1 Packer 2 Laborer 3 Managerial 5 Broom Corn Cutter 1 Maintenance Helper 1 Furniture Factory Worker. . 1 Medical Transcriptionist . . 1 Craftshop (Own) 4 Farmer 1 Tourist Court Operator ... 1 North Carolina Commission for the Blind 37 In the 1948-50 biennial we presented statistics concerning the employment of Center students who attended the Center during this time. In June, 1952, we made a follow-up study which dis-closed these facts : June, 1949 Number Employed 36 Number Unemployed 33 Number in Training 16 Number Left State 1 June, 1951 Number Employed 64 Number Unemployed 20 Number in Training Number Left State 2 Total 86 June, 1950 Number Employed 21 Number Unemployed 39 Number in Training 34 Number Left State 1 Total 86 June, 1952 Number Employed 66 Number Unemployed 25 Number in Training 2 Number Left State 2 Total 95 Total 95. With this follow-up study we found as time went on that a great many more were placed in employment and we feel that this is more evidence that the training at the Center is worthwhile in a total Rehabilitation program. Madeline P. McCrary Wood Working Shop Training—Rehabilitation Center 38 Biennial Report of the 1. Using "Walkie Talkie"—Rehabilitation Center 2. Cafeteria—Rehabilitation Center 3. Recreation Room—Rehabilitation Center North Carolina Commission for the Blind 39 HOME INDUSTRIES Laura E. Merchant Specialist in Workshop and Home Industries Eighty home bound blind persons are now producing salable articles, in sixty counties. Fifty four clients are in training. Over $16,000.00 was. paid to the home bound workers since March 1950. Many of these workers are now entirely self supporting, buy their materials and develop a local sales outlet, with the assist-ance and guidance of the Home Industry Counselor. From others the -finished articles are bought and stored for use in Ex-hibits, County Fairs and various sales conducted by different civic groups. A recently blinded man was given adjustment training at the Rehabilitation Center, upon returning home he was assisted in starting a small concrete plant, making urns, bird baths etc. He now has a good business in this, also he is weaving rugs and operating a small roadside shop, which serves as an outlet for the products of other home bound blind who are unable to create a local market. Blind Man Works in Small Nursery 40 Biennial Report of the 1. Learning to Use Sewing Machine by Touch 2. Rug Weaving Is a Pleasant and Profitable Occupation for This Blind Woman North Carolina Commission for the Blind 41 A young lady was trained in weaving and wood carving at the John C. Campbell Folk School. She is kept busy weaving bags, place mats and carving ducks, squirrels, puppies and other small animals. The satisfaction of producing well made useful articles means more, in many cases, than the remuneration derived therefrom. WORKSHOPS Laura E. Merchant Specialist in Workshop and Home Industries WORKSHOPS : One hundred and five blind persons were given employment in the five workshops through the past biennium. Total earnings were $227,975.54, an average of $22.19 per week. Total gross sales of the five shops was $2,216,078.60. ASHEVILLE WORKSHIP: An upholstery department has been added, providing work for more blind persons and also is used as a training unit for Home Industry clients. New modern mattress making equipment has been purchased for the shop. A new roof put on the building and a new oil burn-ing furnace installed. DURHAM WORKSHOP: The demand for felt exceeding the output justified the changing of the building to accommodate additional machinery for the manufacturing of felt, which is furnished the other workshops using felt in the making of mattresses. All types of mattresses are manufactured in this shop. Sixteen blind persons are given regular employment. Pillow Case Department, Charlotte Workshop 42 Biennial Report of the CHARLOTTE WORKSHOP: The building used in the manu-facturing of pillow cases, mops, aprons and mailing bags, has been put in good repair and a large storage room added, giving more space in the production department. Twenty one blind persons are employed here. GREENSBORO WORKSHOP : Fifty two blind persons are em-ployed making brooms, mops, mop handles, rubber door mats, baskets and caning chairs. The average weekly earnings are $33.75. An automatic broom stitcher and other modern equipment has been purchased for the speeding up of production. Local busi-ness as Club sales and Federal Contracts are the sales outlets. WINSTON-SALEM WORKSHOP : Is housed in a building pro-vided by the local Lions Club. Repairs to the building have re-cently been made. Mattresses are manufactured for local trade and Federal Con-tracts, also furniture repair is done. New modern equipment has been provided for this shop. Mattress ConstructionWinston-Salem Workshop North Carolina Commission for the Blind SCENES IN WORKSHOPS 43 44 Biennial Report of the NORTH CAROLINA BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT FOR THE BLIND R. H. Llewellyn, Supervisor Pursuant to the law which placed upon the Commission the re-sponsibility for maintaining employment opportunities for blincl individuals who are able to work but unable to find placement in outside employment, the Commission established by resolu-tion an auxiliary division known as The Bureau of Employment for the Blind. The advisory body of this Bureau is made up of business men who have had experience in the field of mer-chandising and who advise the Commission on policies, rules, regulations and practices which should be established and ob-served in the operation of a successful business enterprise program. The function of the Bureau is to accept blind and visually han-dicapped persons for training and employment in types of busi-nesses that are considered feasible for blind persons. During the training period these blind people are taught the basic prin-ciples of retailing such as customer approach, display, buying and keeping of adequate reports. At the end of the training period the blind person is given employment in one of the existing units of the Bureau. The blind person is put on a salary based on his ability and success as an operator and salary ad-justments are made at regular intervals. The Bureau was established in 1943 and has taken advantage of the existing Federal and State laws which permit concession stands to be placed in public buildings such as Post Offices, Custom Houses, Court Houses, State buildings, etc. Before a stand can be placed in such locations, the same analysis must be made to determine the suitability and the prognosis for suc-cess as would in any other business venture. Unless the number of persons working in the proposed location is large enough or the traffic in and out the building sufficient, the location must be rejected. This accounts for the fact that many smaller cities do not have stands in public buildings. The present need of the Bureau is suitable locations for stands and it is felt that this must be in the direction of industrial plants and the like. The Bureau has stands in some plants as pictured on these pages but is anxious to establish more stands of this type. All stands North Carolina Commission for the Blind 45 operated by the Bureau of Employment are supervised by trained staff and meet standard requirements. The total sales of the 78 stands during the 1950-52 period amounted to $1,496,160.00. Salaries paid to the operators amounted to $273,588.00. The Bureau provides its operators with paid vacation leave, free hospitalization and an opportunity to obtain life insurance under a group plan. The pictures show some of the newer stands which the Bureau operates throughout the State. Madeline P. McCrary Outside Vending Stand in Industrial Plant, Hickory, N. C, Serving Approximately bOO Employees Daily 46 Biennial Report of the 1. New Hanover County Court House, Wilmington, N. C. 2. Robeson County Court House, Lumberton, N. C. 3. City Hall, Winston-Salem, N. C. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 47 ASSISTANCE AND CO-OPERATION FROM OTHER AGENCIES, GROUPS AND INDIVIDUALS The data presented in this report has shown the assistance and co-operation received by the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind from the Federal Security Agency, the County Commissioners and County Welfare Departments, the Lions Clubs and the North Carolina State Association for the Blind. It should again be emphasized that the blind people of North Carolina have reaped the benefits of this aid and that because of it the Commission has been able to expand its services to the blind. There are other groups and individuals who have greatly con-tributed to the activities in work for the blind. The majority of these have already been mentioned elsewhere but because of the quality of the contribution recognition is again given : EYE PHYSICIANS—North Carolina is most fortunate in hav-ing Eye Physicians located in the various sections of the State who are giving unsparingly of their time and skill to prevent blindness and wherever possible to conserve sight and to re-store vision. These Eye Physicians give to the needy cases recommended to their care the same highly skilled, professional services received by private patients. Without the very fine co-operation and unselfishness of these Eye Physicians it would be impossible to have a program of prevention in North Carolina. The Commission is also indebted to the many private physicians who give treatment to persons referred for general medical at-tention by the Eye Physicians. The eye difficulties of these patients are the result of disease or abnormal conditions in other parts of the body, for the eye is often called "a thermom-eter to bodily conditions." Many indigent persons with defective vision coming under the care of the Commission have diseases of the blood vessels, kidneys, brain or other parts of the body which are first discovered by Eye Physicians. Diseased tonsils and other bodily infections in children are so often the cause of impaired vision which condition if not detected by an Eye Physician and corrected may weaken the efficiency not only of the eye but of other vital organs of the body. OTHER AGENCIES AND INDIVIDUALS The State Federation of Woman's Clubs has taken work for the blind as one of its major projects. Individual Club women are 48 Biennial Report of the rendering personal services to the blind as a part of their general program. The Junior Woman's Club is most active in work for the blind. The State Board of Public Welfare, the State Department of Public Instruction, the State Board of Health, the County School and Health Officials, the Local Private Welfare Agencies and Hospitals have given valuable assistance in the development of services for the blind. The State School for the Blind has given splendid co-operation to the Commission in the development of its program. Rotary, Kiwanis, American Business Men's Clubs, the Variety Clubs, Exchange Clubs, P.-T. A.'s and other organizations have co-operated in the local communities with the work for the blind program. The following organizations outside the State aid the Commis-sion in the development of its work : The American Foundation for the Blind, the National Industries for the Blind, the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness, The Seeing Eye, Inc. and the National Rehabilitation Association. RECOMMENDATIONS The preceding report of the work of the Commission has pre-sented a brief review of the services rendered to the blind and visually handicapped of North Carolina during the past bien-nium. This report also calls attention to some of the unmet needs. REQUESTED INCREASES IN APPROPRIATION FOR THE BIENNIUM 1953-54 AND 1954-55 The members of the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind appreciate the difficult problems of state financing con-fronting the Advisory Budget Commission. The Commission is equally aware that it is responsible under law for administering all governmentally sponsored services for the blind citizens of our state. The Budget requests represent an increase over funds previously appropriated; yet the funds requested will provide solely for urgently needed services. Only the basic needs of the blind have been included in the budget. The following increases are necessary to meet the minimum needs of the blind now known to the Commission : First, A. $16,625.00 additional State funds for the first year of the biennium and $23,375.00 for the second year of the bien- North Carolina Commission for the Blind 49 nium are requested to provide matching funds for our Re-habilitation services available under Federal legislation. These funds are necessary to provide medical examina-tions, surgery, hospitalization, vocational training, train-ing, maintenance, transportation, prosthetic devices and customary occupational tools and placement equipment. The Commission rehabilitated into employment 672 blind persons during the biennial period July 1, 1950-June 30, 1952. 151 more blind persons were made employable over the previous biennium or an increase of 29%; fur-thermore, the number of blind persons now receiving Rehabilitation services leading to employment has in-creased 24% during the same period. It is sound econ-omy in dollars and cents to rehabilitate blind persons and make them self-supporting. Emphasis has been placed on rehabilitation and not relief. The results have been most gratifying: THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE COM-MISSION FOR THE BLIND HAS LED THE NATION IN THIS SERVICE CATEGORY OVER THE PAST SIX YEARS. B. $31,285.00 additional State funds for each year of the bi-ennium are requested to meet the ever increasing demand and cost of medical services under the General State Medi-cal Program for indigent blind and visually handicapped who are not feasible for services under the Rehabilitation program. 1. Expanded clinical services for eye examinations have increased the number of indigent persons given medi-cal eye examinations by 3,979 during the biennial period 1950-52—an increase of 14% over the biennial period 1948-50. The Medical Eye Care Program of the Commission has been expanded through the 100 Coun-ty Superintendents of Public Welfare who daily refer persons to determine eligibility and continuing eligi-bility for Aid to the Blind, as well as other indigent persons in need of eye care. Also, the Commission for the Blind has conducted the clinical eye examinations under the Joint School Health Program and this serv-ice to the indigent school children of North Carolina is a responsibility that can be met only through increased State funds. Since the costs of glasses prescribed as a result of these eye examinations is defrayed by local 50 Biennial Report of the sources, the only cost to the State is the eye exami-nation. 2. Increased eye examinations for indigent persons have uncovered a proportional increase in the number of persons requiring medical eye treatment. 5,171 in-digent persons were given medical eye treatment dur-ing the biennial period 1950-52. This is an increase of . 928 cases—22% over the biennial period 1948-50. The requested increase in appropriations for treatment is based upon the increase in the number of persons served plus the advanced cost for these services. 3. The average per diem hospital cost for the General State Medical Program during the past 12 months has increased as high as 37% with an average increase of 20%. This increase in per diem hospital cost, plus the increase in the number of indigent persons given medi-cal eye care requires additional State funds. The pre-vention of blindness, the conservation of sight and the restoration of vision constitute the finest service the Commission for the Blind can render to visually handi-capped people in need. This is the service category which removed 2,384 persons from the classification of blindness during the biennial period 1950-52—an increase of 16% over the previous biennial period. Second, $7,463.00 additional State funds are requestsed for the first year of the biennium and $11,213.00 for the second year of the biennium to provide direct relief for the needy blind. These additional State funds will enable the Com-mission to pay 4,800 clients at a monthly average of $40.00 for the first year and 4,850 at the same average for the second. Third, $13,000.00 additional State funds are requested for Coun-ty Equalization purposes. When this item was first set up in July of 1943, the Commission made payments to 2,191 recipients. This item has been increased only $2,000.00 in spite of the fact that the Commission is now making payments to 4,500 recipients. This Equalization fund is used to assist the poorer counties in equalizing the amount of Aid to the Blind Grants. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 51 Fourth, $5,000.00 additional State funds are requested for the maintenance and operation of the Pre-Conditioning Cen-ter. Funds derived from tuition charges are inadequate to meet operation costs. The present enrollment is 50 students. The rise in the cost of food and fuel necessitates an increase in the budget request. Fifth, $410.00 additional State funds are requested to bring the salary of the Executive Secretary in line with other State employees having similar duties and responsibilities. Sixth, $4,783.00 additional State funds are requested for the State's share of the salaries and travel of the following new employees : A. Stenographer Clerks I., $1,907.00. The increase in medical services and the increase in social services requires an ad-ditional clerical worker in each division. Increased pro-fessional services always entail increasesd clerical work. It is administratively and economically unsound to require professional medical and social workers to keep records and to do the necessary paper work entailed that could be be done more efficiently by trained clerical workers. B. Public Information Officer, II., $2,226.00. Travel, $650.00. In order to continue receiving financial support from 303 Lions Clubs and 12,000 members of the North Carolina State Association for the Blind, it is necessary that these sources be kept informed of the needs of the 10,000 blind people in North Carolina. It is necessary further that pri-vate sources supporting the work for the blind be given information as to what the Commission did with their contributions. The Lions Clubs and the State Association for the Blind and the county organizations for the blind contribute more than $125,000.00 annually to work for the blind. The Commission cannot rightfully expect this support to continue without keeping these sources well informed. The Commission submits that $2,876.00 funds toward the salary and travel of a Public Information Of-ficer is a decidedly good investment and will help to in-sure the continued support of these organizations. 52 Biennial Report of the Seventh, $1,493.00 additional State funds for the first year of the biennium and $2,986.00 for the second year of the bien-nium are requested to provide the merit salary increases. Eighth, $2,032.00 additional State funds for each year of the bien-nium are required to provide for positions for the full biennium which were filled only part of the fiscal year 1952-53 and also to provide for the continuation of incre-ments granted during the fiscal year 1952-53. PERMANENT IMPROVEMENTS Pursuant to an act of the Legislature of 1945 the North Caro-lina State Commission for the Blind Established a Rehabilita-tion Center for the purposes of training and rehabilitating newly blinded adults. Temporary quarters were utilized until August 1, 1952. On this date the Rehabilitation Center moved into its modern building. This building is adequate for administrative offices, class rooms and dormitories for the blind students. The professional and maintenance staff continue to live in army barracks which are unsuitable as to location and for use as liv-ing quarters. We have been asked to vacate these buildings, therefore, the following requests have been submitted to the Advisory Budget Commission: Buildings Equipment Total Staff Residence for White Employees $75,000.00 $8,000.00 $83,000.00 Staff Residence for Negro Employees 75,000.00 8,000.00 83,000.00 Superintendent's Residence. 18,000.00 1,700.00 19,700.00 Roads, Walks and Landscaping 17,500.00 $203,200.00 APPENDIX I SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION Data by geographical regions and counties concerning the 10,318 blind persons on biennial census report for the period July 1, 1950 through June 30, 1952. B ,„ lial C „ Repo" "» e Vnod-Iul lii-.ti . J, »„ -., «_.,„ asi •..o....*- sr »!Ir i j '- : I i i 3 1 1 5 ; j : . ! 1 ,',',VS! I '""";;'""« ' j, V. ... ... ,, ,. ,..». ,„cui.«»d ».i,s ,., .I ... : m ,. » ., i. ,,,. ' 1 ,„:„,„ in: v ,1 ,„ ., „. •u ., ... :., ., „ .„ : .. ,, in .i ... ... „I,,.„,N, ,.,» ,..,, : _, - 1 . ;. ' ,. J! ;; 1 - I — i [' i " --, . : -'- r ;". -: -' -i ! : ., ,: i -^ ;" ; '• " -!' r' - ! -' ; " :;',:,'. ;;;:,, d , ... .„ a, ». .:. .: •;;!'- " i„. T.1 . :: ' — : "; ; -;h ' / ,; ° ;. -£= -" ! " " :.i ; t= _iw "m""" _:,» : : u : ., - '• '- " r. " " ' ';; " ™r""°"" "T5 •" - -S= - ;' -' ,: ; i .. -; i : 5 ! ,: ;' ; ; -. - ; — ii -= APPENDIX II MEDICAL DIVISION Data on the 32,669 indigent persons examined by Eye Physicians during the past biennium. DATA ON 32,669 INDIGENT PERSONS EXAMINED BY EYE PHYSICIANS Dl'RINC. THE PAST BIENNUJI r lUUHOE SEX RACE "» SERVICES RENDERED "i = «*- : s s I J \ , I - 1 1 1 | | ^ .1 | 1 £ 2 i J. | i ii | J ill ijil ^ «*.' :: ' .., m ,,... '";; ... ,«! H « 11. 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J II 71 1 , ., . ,. ii I 7 71 " 1"™ l» APPENDIX III ACCOUNTING DIVISION Budgetary Expenditures of the Commission during the Bien-nium July 1, 1950 through June 30, 1952. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 59 EXPENDITURES FOR 1950-51 AND 1951-52 CHAPTER 1249, PUBLIC LAWS OF 1949, TITLE 111-26 CHAPTER 642 PUBLIC LAWS 1951, TITLE 111-26 Purpose and/or Objects Expenditures Expenditures I. ADMINISTRATION for 1950-51 for 1951-52 101 Salary—Executive Secretary $ 5,766.64 $ 6,680.00 102 Salaries and Wages—Staff 50,227.99 51,060.60 103 Expense of Commission 351.01 376.03 104 Supplies and Materials 1,433.06 2,396.26 105 Postage, Telephone and Telegraph . 4,199.92 3,849.12 106 Travel Expense 9,353.35 9,168.45 107 Printing and Binding 2,667.16 2,993.35 108 Repairs and Alaterations 364.70 591.08 109 General Expense 40.82 40.57 110 Insurance and Bonding 29.09 34.50 111 Equipment 2,981.13 1,651.97 112 Merit System Expense 808.76 849.94 113 Office Rent 6,254.00 1,274.80 T0TAL $ 84,487.63 $ 80,966.27 II AID TO THE BLIND ADMINISTRATION 201 Salaries and Wages $ 33,445.50 $ 36,495.00 202 Travel Expense 7,530.58 7,369.26 T0TAL $ 40,976.08 $ 43,864.26 III. REHABILITION SERVICES 301 Salaries and Wages $ 11,385.17 $ 8,040.48 302 Travel Expense 2,490.40 986.80 303 Rent 3,201.23 2,694.50 304 Expenses of Board Members Bureau of Employment for the Blind 194.47 273.17 305 Retirement System 513.70 413.63 T0TAL $ 17,784.97 $ 12,408.58 IV. VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE AND PLACEMENT SERVICES 401 Salaries and Wages $ 63,101.84 $ 64,570.31 402 Travel Expense 19,965.24 15,135.43 403 Retirement System 2,689.55 3,940.47 TOTAL $ 85,756,63 $ 83,646.21 V. PAYMENTS TO NEEDY BLIND 501 County $ 310,234.25 $ 322,368.50 502 Federal 1,136,777.50 1,179,321.11 503 State 309,919.00 322.672.00 TOTAL $1,756,930.75 $1,824,361.61 VI. CASE SERVICES 601 Examinations $ 27,370.29 $ 32,499.26 60 Biennial Report of the 602 Treatments 39,597.42 38,363.08 603 Prosthetic Appliance 49,882.93 58,583.37 604 Hospitalization 81,189.78 86,329.01 605 Training Expense 47,255.49 47,999.11 606 Training Supplies 3,533.11 2,544.87 607 Maintenance 44,515.29 44,998.43 608 Transportation 3,582.63 3,999.80 609 Placement Equipment 27,980.38 23,146.00 TOTAL $ 324,907.32 $ 338,462.93 VII. COUNTY ADMINISTRATION 701 Salaries and Wages $ 79,063.63 $ 86,385.23 702 Travel Expense 79,979.11 46,055.02 703 Federal Administration — Direct to Counties 16,995.60 16,496.40 TOTAL $ 145,038.34 $ 148,936.65 VIII. EQUALIZATION FUND 801 County Equalization Fund $ 10,000.00 $ 12,000.00 IX. PRECONDITIONING CENTER 901 Supplies and Materials $ 23,999.32 $ 23,518.67 902 Equipment 3,686.14 1,802.33 903 Heat, Lights, Water 1,999.44 4,500.00 TOTAL $ 29,684.90 $ 29,821.00 X. WORKSHOPS 1001 Eqipment $ 9,954.58 $ 9,923.32 TOTAL $ 9,954.58 $ 9,923.32 XL ADDITIONS AND BETTERMENTS 1101 Preconditioning Center for Blind . .$ $ 309.27 TOTAL $ $ 309.27 XII. WORKMEN'S COMPENSATIONS $ $ 1,759.04 TOTAL $ $ 1,759.04 XIII. TRANSFER TO PERMANENT IMPROVEMENT Fund of 1947 $ $ 23,771.00 TOTAL $ $ 23,771.00 XIV. TOTAL RESERVED FOR OUTSTANDING OBLIGATIONS TRANSFERRED TO 1951-52 $ 11,868.00 $ TOTAL $ 11,868.00 $ TOTAL REQUIREMENTS $2,517,389.20 $2,610,230.54 LESS: ESTIMATED RECEIPTS ... 1,898,405.29 1,966,315.03 APPROPRIATION $ 618,983.91 $ 643,915.51 STATE LIBRARY OF NORTH CAROLINA 3 3091 00747 1907
|Title||Biennial report of the North Carolina Commission for the Blind|
|Other Title||Biennial report of the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind|
|Creator||North Carolina State Commission for the Blind.|
|Date||1950; 1951; 1952|
|Digital Characteristics-A||70 p.; 4.49 MB|
|Title Replaced By||North Carolina State Commission for the Blind biennial report|
|Pres File Name-M||pubs_pubh_serial_biennialreportnccommission1952.pdf|
|Pres Local File Path-M||\Preservation_content\StatePubs\pubs_pubh\images_master|
NORTH CAROLINA STATE
COMMISSION FOR THE
From July 1, 1950, through June 30, 1952
"And I will bring the blind by a way that they knew not;
I will lead them in paths that they have not known
I mill wr.h-r darkness light before them."
—Isaiah xlii, 16.
NORTH CAROLINA STATE
COMMISSION FOR THE
From July 1, 1950, through June 30, 1952
"And I will bring the blind by a way that they knew not;
I will lead them in paths that they have not known;
I will make darkness light before them."
—Isaiah xlii, 16.
Governor Scott presenting Mr. Thomas Hunter (blind), of Fayetteville,
the first award made in connection with the 1951 Nationally Employ the
Physically Handicapped Week. This is the Governor's trophy for outstand-ing
achievement in the field of employment by a handicapped person in
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Letter of Transmittal 4
Members of the North Carolina State Commission Board.
Advisory Medical Committee 6
Organizational Chart 8
Aid to Blind Chart 9
Social Service Division 10
Specialized Service Chart 12
Comparative Analysis of Aid to Blind 14
Medical Division 18
Services for Children 23
Vocational Rehabilitation Division 27
General Rehabilitation 28
Rehabilitation Center 34
Home Industries 39
Bureau of Employment for the Blind 44
Assistance and Cooperation from Other Agencies 47
Appendix I 54
Appendix II 56
Appendix III 58
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
To Honorable W. Kerr Scott
Governor of North Carolina
Raleigh, North Carolina
Dear Governor Scott:
Pursuant to Chapter 53, Public Laws of 1935 and subsequent
legislation, I have the honor to submit to you the accompanying
report of the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind for
the biennial period beginning with July 1, 1950 and ending
June 30, 1952. This report concerns the management and finan-cial
transactions of this Department.
Sam M. Cathey, Chairman
N. C. State Commission for the Blind
MEMBERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE
COMMISSION FOR THE BLIND
(Six Members—Appointed by the Governor)
Judge Sam M. Cathey, Chairman, Asheville, N. C.
Dr. Howard E. Jensen, Chairman, Executive Committee, Durham, N. C.
Mr. H. C. Bradshaw, Durham, N. C.
Mr. Frank C. King, Brevard, N. C.
Mr. Sam Alford, Henderson, N. C.
Mr. Thomas S. Payne, Washington, N. C.
(Five-Ex-Officio Members—Designated by the Legislature)
Mr. Ernest C. McCracken, Director, State Employment Service, Division
of Employment Security Commission, Raleigh, N. C.
Mr. Egbert N. Peeler, Supt., State School for the Blind, Raleigh, N. C.
Dr. J. W. R. Norton, Secretary and State Health Officer, State Board of
Health, Raleigh, N. C.
Col. Charles H. Warren, Director, Vocational Rehabilitation, Ralegh,
Dr. Ellen Black Winston, Commissioner, State Board of Public Welfare,
Raleigh, N. C.
ADVISORY MEDICAL COMMITTEE
(Surgeons Certified by the American Board of Ophthalmology)
Dr. Sam D. McPherson, Jr., Chairman, Durham, N. C.
Dr. V. M. Hicks, Supervising Ophthalmologist, Aid to the Blind, Raleigh,
Dr. Elbert C. Anderson, Wilmington, N. C.
Dr. W. Banks Anderson, Durham, N. C.
Dr. Ralph A. Arnold, Durham, N. C.
Dr. James W. Bizzell, Goldsboro, N. C.
Dr. H. H. Briggs, Asheville, N. C.
Dr. A. N. Costner, Durham, N. C.
Dr. H. M. Dalton, Kinston, N. C.
Dr. Alan Davidson, New Bern, N. C.
Dr. John L. Etherington, Goldsboro, N. C.
Dr. B. A. Helsabeck, Winston-Salem, N. C.
Dr. L. Byerly Holt, Winston-Salem, N. C.
Dr. Clarence B. Foster, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. J. G. Johnston, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. Ruth Leonard, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. M. N. Lymberis, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. Thomas A. Martin, Raleigh, N. C.
Dr. E. E. Moore, Asheville, N. C.
Dr. H. C. Neblett, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. Robert Odom, Asheville, N. C.
Dr. George T. Noel, Kannapolis, N. C.
Dr. Winston Roberts, Winston-Salem, N. C.
Dr. John L. Shipley, Elizabeth City, N. C.
Dr. Henry L. Sloan, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. Frank C. Smith, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. William P. Speas, Winston-Salem, N. C.
Dr. Roy A. Stewart, Newton, N. C.
Dr. Frederick W. Stocker, Durham, N. C.
Dr. J. David Stratton, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. Horace G. Strickland, Greensboro, N. C.
Dr. S. Weizenblatt, Asheville, N. C.
Dr. John D. Wilsey, Winston-Salem, N. C.
Dr. Larry Turner, Durham, N. C.
The North Carolina State Commission for the Blind was created
by legislative enactment in 1935 and began to function as a state
agency in July of the same year. This Biennial Report presents
the accomplishments for the period July 1, 1950-June 30, 1952.
The law under which the Commission operates places on it the
responsibility of interpreting, administering and supervising an
all inclusive program of work for the blind. These activities are
accomplished by the three main divisions of the Commission:
1—The Social Service Division which supervises financial grants
to the indigent blind and renders special services to all the blind
of the State; 2—The Medical Division which carries on three
main phases of work, prevention of blindness, conservation of
sight and restoration of vision; 3—The Rehabilitation Division
which is composed of five major parts : a, General Rehabilitation
Services; b, the North Carolina Rehabilitation Center for Adult
Blind; c, Home Industries; d, Workshops and e, The Bureau of
Employment for the Blind.
This Report reflects the continuous development of activities
and opportunities offered to the blind citizens of North Carolina.
We feel that the blind of our State, as well as the thousands of
persons with serious eye defects, have profited by the efforts of
the Commission, and through the services rendered to them,
many have become self-maintaining, self-respecting citizens of
The Commission for the Blind has made a concerted effort to
conserve and utilize all State, Federal and community resources,
so that as many as possible of the visually handicapped of the
State could benefit by the use of such resources. Our program
considers the whole man against his background of social, medi-cal
and financial needs and endeavors to help him help himself
to fit into his community and take his place in the life of our
We could not present this Report without comment on the
loyalty, perseverence and hard work of the staff and all persons
and organizations who have made such noble contributions to
the forward progress of good eye care for our citizens. The
Federal, State and County agencies, as well as private agencies,
have given much aid and co-operation. The North Carolina State
Association for the Blind and the North Carolina Lions Clubs
have given untold financial aid and unselfish devotion to the
cause of a better way of life for the visually handicapped citi-zens
of North Carolina.
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