Biennial report of the North Carolina Commission for the Blind
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S2£ Biennial Report of the NORTH CAROLINA STATE COMMISSION FOR THE BLIND From July 1, 1952 through June 30, 1954 "And I will bring the blind by a way that they knew not; I will lead them in paths that they have not known; I will make darkness light before then >.." —Isaiah xiii, 16. North Carolina State Library Biennial Report of the NORTH CAROLINA STATE COMMISSION FOR THE BLIND From July 1, 1952 through June 30, 1954 "And I will bring the blind by a way that they knew not; I will lead them in paths that they have not known; I will make darkness light before them." —Isaiah xlii, 16. HONORABLE WILLIAM B. UMSTEAD The Governor of North Carolina /v Ov. Vvy TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Letter of Transmittal Members of the North Carolina State Commission Board . . 5 Advisory Medical Committee ; • • 6 7 Introduction o Organizational Chart Aid to Blind Chart 9 Social Service Division 10 Specialized Service Chart 12 Comparative Analysis of Aid to Blind I4 18 Medical Division Services for Children 23 Vocational Rehabilitation Division 27 General Rehabilitation Rehabilitation Center °* Home Industries Workshops Bureau of Employment for the Blind 44 Assistance and Cooperation from Other Agencies 47 Recommendations Appendix I Appendix II 56 Appendix III 58 LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL To Honorable Luther H. Hodges Governor of North Carolina Raleigh, North Carolina Dear Governor Hodges: Pursuant to Chapter 53, Public Laws of 1935 and subsequent legislation, I have the honor to submit to you the accompanying report of the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind for the biennial period beginning with July 1, 1952, and ending June 30, 1954. This report concerns the management and financial transactions of this Department. Respectfully submitted, Sam M. Cathey, Chairman N. C. State Commission for the Blind MEMBERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE COMMISSION FOR THE BLIND (Six Members—Appointed by the Governor) Judge Sam M. Cathey, Chairman, Asheville, N. C. Dr. Howard E. Jensen, Chairman, Executive Committee, Durham, N .C. Mr. H. C. Bradshaw, Durham, N. C. Mr. Frank C. King, Brevard, N. C. Mr. Sam Alford, Henderson, N. C. Mr. Joe Hood, Wilmington, N. C. (Five Ex-Officio Members—Designated by the Legislature) Mr. Ernest C. McCracken, Director, State Employment Service, Division of Employment Security Commission, Raleigh, N. C. Mr. Egbert N. Peeler, Superintendent State School for the Blind, Raleigh, N. C. Dr. J. W. R. Norton, Secretary and State Health Officer, State Board of Health, Raleigh, N. C. Col. Charles H. Warren, Director, Vocational Rehabilitation, Raleigh, N. C. Dr. Ellen Black Winston, Commissioner, State Board of Public Welfare, Raleigh, N. C. ADVISORY MEDICAL COMMITTEE (Surgeons Certified by the American Board of Ophthalmology) Dr. Alan Davidson, Chairman, New Bern, N. C. Dr. V. M. Hicks, Supervising Ophthalmologist, Aid to the Blind, Ealeigh, N. C. Dr. Paul M. Abernethy, Burlington, N. C. Dr. Elbert C. Anderson, Wilmington, N. C. Dr. W. Banks Anderson, Durham, N. C. Dr. Ralph A. Arnold, Durham, N. C. Dr. D. N. Ball, Winston-Salem, N. C. Dr. James W. Bizzell, Goldsboro, N. C. Dr. H. H. Briggs, Asheville, N. C. Dr. Clinton B. Chandler, Durham, N. C. Dr. A. N. Costner, Durham, N. C. Dr. H. M. Dalton, Kinston, N. C. Dr. John L. Etherington, Goldsboro, N. C. Dr. Frank R. Fleming, Elkin, N. C. Dr. Clarence B. Foster, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. W. R. Graham, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. B. A. Helsabeck, Winston-Salem, N. C. Dr. L. Byerly Holt, Winston-Salem, N. C. Dr. Ernest W. Larkin, Jr., Greenville, N. C. Dr. Ruth Leonard, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. M. N. Lymberis, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. Sam D. McPherson, Jr.. Durham, N. C. Dr. E. E. Moore, Asheville, N. C. Dr. H. C. Neblett, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. George T. Noel, Kannapolis, N. C. Dr. Robert E. Odom, Asheville, N. C. Dr. Winston Roberts, Winston-Salem, N. C. Dr. Maurice Harvey Rubin, Greensboro, N. C. Dr. John L. Shipley, Elizabeth City, N. C. Dr. Henry L. Sloan, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. Frank C. Smith, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. William P. Speas, Winston-Salem, N. C. Dr. Roy A. Stewart, Newton, N. C. Dr. Frederick W. Stocker, Durham, N. C. Dr. J. David Stratton, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. Horace G. Strickland, Greensboro, N. C. Dr. Larry Turner, Durham, N. C. Dr. S. Weizenblatt, Asheville, N. C. Dr. John D. Wilsey, Winston-Salem, N. C. Dr. Frank C. Winter, Chapel Hill, N. C. INTRODUCTION The North Carolina State Commission for the Blind was created by legislative enactment in 1935 and began to function as a state agency in July of the same year. This Biennial Report presents the accomplishments for the period July 1, 1952-June 30, 1954. The law under which the Commission operates places on it the responsibility of interpreting, administering and supervising an all inclusive program of work for the blind. These activities are accomplished by the three main divisions of the Commission: 1—The Social Service Division which supervises financial grants to the indigent blind and renders special services to all the blind of the State; 2—The Medical Division which carries on three main phases of work, prevention of blindness, conservation of sight and restoration of vision; 3—The Rehabilitation Division which is composed of five major parts : a, General Rehabilitation Services ; b, The North Carolina Rehabilitation Center for Adult Blind; c, Home Industries; d, Workshops and e, The Bureau of Employment for the Blind. This Report reflects the continuous development of activities and opportunities offered to the blind citizens of North Carolina. We feel that the blind of our State, as well as the thousands of persons with serious eye defects, have profited by the efforts of the Commission, and through the services rendered to them, many have become self-maintaining, self-respecting citizens of the state. The Commission for the Blind has made a concerted effort to conserve and utilize all State, Federal and community resources, so that as many as possible of the visually handicapped of the State could benefit by the use of such resources. Our program considers the whole man against his background of social, medi-cal and financial needs and endeavors to help him help himself to fit into his community and take his place in the life of our State. We could not present this Report without comment on the loyalty, perseverence and hard work of the staff and all persons and organizations who have made such noble contributions to the forward progress of good eye care for our citizens. The Federal, State and County agencies, as well as private agencies, have given much aid and co-operation. The North Carolina State Association for the Blind and the North Carolina Lions Clubs have given untold financial aid and unselfish devotion to the cause of a better way of life for the visually handicapped citi-zents of North Carolina. c o j: E E o U o *» O *- (/> oc oU o Z o o "o co o *c o 01 CO H Z< Q Z>— i PQ Cd KH OH Q O CO H Z CO ZOH «< O 0- o CO o Q Z«-> CQ aH ft! o to Z O CO CO h Z O U c u a> « M •of £ > c a 1 0) U fl >, OXl ffi /! a> ^ O B « < ffl s= a o<- it "2 ^ *S 5 a> 4y) wc J>>OS c 3 ?, a a .2 S"w S6 SB 0. 0 H V Z S 7 «! go UJ 3 g OS g PL. a P<L, aas. < 10 Biennial Report of the SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION Christine Anderson, Supervisor The primary function of the Social Service Division is to super-vise the administration of the Aid to the Blind Program and to provide through local organizations a program of specialized services to all blind. Specialized services are available to the Aid to the Blind recipients as a part of the case work process, but cannot be made available to blind who are not in financial need unless local sponsorship is provided. Through surveys and our census of the blind population it has been found that over 50 per cent of the blind in North Carolina are not in need of financial assistance, but are in great need of other services and training in order to adjust or readjust to normal living in the sighted world. The Social Service Division through its staff of six Field Super-visors and 34 Case Workers for the Blind has given increased emphasis to the specialized aspects of our service program dur-ing the past biennium. Throughout this period we have attempted to strengthen the programs already in existence and to set up programs in areas which have not previously had a service pro-gram. The specialized service program is made possible by funds contributed by local Lions Clubs or from funds contributed by the North Carolina State Association for the Blind. The special-ized service program includes a full range of case work services to the blind, including instructing the family in techniques of avoiding overprotection and dependence of the blind member, helping the blind person to adjust realistically to the physical, psychological and social aspects of blindness. The blind person is helped to resume his normal responsibilities in the home through instruction and guidance in household tasks, child care, etc. Training in the maximum use of the remaining senses is emphasized; academic training in typing, signature writing, reading and writing Braille; the distribution of Talking Book Machines, Braille literature, and radios ; the provision of recrea-tional outlets; instruction in therapy crafts; and where needed, assistance in procuring medical care. A very important activity of the Case Work Staff is assistance to parents of blind preschool children. The usual reaction of the parents upon learning that their child is blind is one of despair, frustration, and fear. These attitudes are expressed in over-protection or complete rejection of the child. If the parents can North Carolina Commission for the Blind 11 be helped to accept the blind child and to overcome their destruc-tive attitudes, the blind child has a much greater chance of developing normally and of becoming a useful adult citizen. It has long been recognized that the foundation of a child's charac-ter and future is laid during the preschool years. Patterns of behavior, of feeling, and of thinking acquired during this period are likely to remain with him throughout his life. The child who is blind is more dependent upon intelligent care and training than other children, and it is essential that special guidance be given parents in meeting these problems. Assistance is given parents in training the blind child to become self-reliant, to avoid blindisms, and other behavior difficulties, and in the selec-tion of suitable toys to stimulate the mind. The Social Security Amendment of 1952 (Public Law 590, 82nd Congress, Second Session) provided additional Federal Funds to the States for public assistance to needy, aged, blind and dis-abled persons and to dependent children. As a result of this leg-islative action it was possible for the States, without providing additional State funds, to increase public assistance payments. The increase in Federal funds was made available for a two-year period from October 1952 through September 1954. In North Carolina our Aid to the Blind average monthly payments increased from $36.36 as of October 1952 to $40.20 as of June 1954. The Social Service Division maintains a currently validated census in State Office and in each of the six Field Representa-tives offices; it is the direct responsibility of the Staff of the Social Service Division to locate and register all blind persons. Our sources of referral are medical eye reports—these reports are essential for us to service any case through any division of the agency—Social Service—Rehabilitation or Medical, the County Health Departments, County Welfare Departments, School-Health Program, continuous and group clinics sponsored by the State Commission for the Blind, hospitals, private indi-viduals, Veterans Administration, State Board of Health—Divi-sion of Pre-mature infants, applications for Talking Book Machines, Lions Clubs, and other Civic Clubs and organizations. This information is vitally essential in planning and administer-ing programs of both service and assistance for the blind. Increased emphasis has been placed during this biennium on interpretation of the many services available to the blind in North Carolina by the Field Supervisors and the Case Workers 12 Biennial Report of the for the Blind. During the biennium 1,794 talks were made to local Civic groups and over radio in an effort to interpret the services available to the Blind within the State through the State Commission for the Blind and other interested sponsoring groups. This type of public interpretation affords an excellent opportunity for discussing local problems and local programs relating to the Blind; it also serves a dual purpose of creating local interest and local support in promoting the welfare of blind citizens in each community throughout the State. One of our most interesting services to the blind during the biennium was the distribution of 1,124 Talking Book Machines. This is a special type of phonograph which plays records of books of all kinds—Bible, biography, fiction, history, poetry, gardening, poultry raising, etc. This is doubtless the greatest single free service to the blind in the nation today. The North the Library of Congress as the lending agent to make these machines available to the blind in North Carolina. The Case Workers for the Blind instruct and assist the blind reader in learning to use the Talking Book Machine, and assists in pro-curing library service. The efforts of the Staff of the Social Service Division have been sharply focused upon providing for all blind and visually handi-capped persons the services necessary for the development of a useful, well-adjusted and happy life. Our program operates on the premise that many blind persons can become useful members of society by developing the skills and attitudes which permit them to accommodate to the seeing world. Our progress in providing the many types of specialized services to help the blind develop useful, well-adjusted, and happy lives is reflected in the following Chart, which lists the activities and the number of contacts made by the Case Workers for the Blind during the biennium. CHART I SPECIALIZED SERVICES GIVEN BY CASEWORKERS FOR THE BLIND IN COOPERATION WITH LOCAL LIONS CLUBS Biennium Biennium 1950-52 1952-54 1. Home visits 32,562 33,342 2. Assistance in Personal Adjustment to Blindness — North Carolina Commission for the Blind 13 Assistance in learning to utilize to a maximum de-gree the other senses and to develop effective ways of performing without sight the ordinary activities of living 13,814 16,217 3. Assistance in Family Adjustment—Instructing the family in ways of helping the Blind person to ad-just to blindness—Assisting the blind person in re-suming his or her normal responsibilities in the home through instruction in child care, performance of household duties, etc 8,025 9,559 4. Instruction in Therapy Crafts—Hobby crafts—sew-ing, weaving, chair caning, mat making, leather work, basketry, crocheting, knitting, gardening, raising pets and farm animals, etc 4,006 4,452 5. Academic Work—Reading and writing Braille, typ-ing, signature writing, referral to State School for the Blind, referrals to classes for partially sighted, distribution of sight-saving materials, information regarding admission to Rehabilitation Center for the Blind 7,748 9,697 6. Medical Care—This includes planning for the treat-ment, transportation and follow-up work in coop-eration with the Medical Division 26,158 27,880 7. Recreation—Plays, movies, picnics, parties, distribu-tion of gift radios 7,806 12,340 8. Miscellaneous Services 7,809 8,103 9. Talking Book Machines distributed 972 1,124 Both State and Federal laws provide that any applicant or reci-pient for Aid to the Blind may appeal to the State Commission for the Blind, requesting a hearing- if he is dissatisfied because of the following reasons: If his application is not taken; if his application is not acted upon within thirty-one days ; if his appli-cation is rejected; if he is dissatisfied with the amount of his monthly payment ; if he is not satisfied, if his payment is changed or stopped; or if he is found eligible and no payment is made within thirty-one days. The State agency upon receipt of such appeal must afford a fair hearing. During 1952-54 eleven requests for hearings were received; the following tabulations show the number and action taken by the State Commission for the Blind : Requests received . ; 11 Total handled 10 14 Biennial Report of the Requests withdrawn or disposed of by other means, such as adjustment by County prior to hearing 1 Disposed of by decision of the State Commission in favor of appellant 2 County action upheld 8 The issues involved in the appeals were budgetary deficiency, income or property of appellant's family and income or property of appellant. Complete informational data on the number of persons receiving Aid to the Blind payments, the number terminated or rejected, and the age, race, and range of payments is given in Chart II, a Comparative Analysis of Aid to the Blind Acceptances—Re-jections— Terminations—for the biennial period, July 1, 1952- June 30, 1954: CHART II A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF AID TO THE BLIND ACCEPTANCES—REJECTIONS—TERMINATIONS 1. Number of persons receiving AB payments June 30, 1952 .... 4,436 2. Number of applications accepted July 1, 1952-June 30, 1954 . . . 1,608 3. Total number of persons receiving AB July 1, 1952-June 30, 1954 6,044 4. Number of blind persons whose cases were closed July 1, 1952-June 30, 1954 1,297 Reasons for closing: a. Death 728 b. Employment of recipient 41 c. Employment of other person in home 52 d. Receipt of service man's allotment 23 e. Increased resources 103 f. Change in law or agency policy 2 g. Vision restored 107 h. Soliciting alms 7 i. Admitted to an institution 72 j. Receipt of other public or private aid 18 k. Loss of residence 48 1. Other 96 5. Number of persons receiving AB June 30, 1954 4,747 6. Number of persons denied AB July 1, 1952-June 30, 1954 356 Reasons for Rejection: a. Ineligible on basis of vision 113 b. Ineligible because of residence requirements 9 c. Inmate of public institution 3 North Carolina Commission for the Blind 15 d. Other resources 196 e. Other reasons . 35 7. North Carolina average monthly AB payment June, 1952 $34.57 8. North Carolina average monthly AB payment June, 1954 $40.20 9. Range of monthly AB payments : June, 1952 June, 1954 a. $ 4.00—$ 9.99 24 14 b. 10.00— 14.99 ; 131 69 c. 15.00— 19.99 197 123 d. 20.00— 24.99 464 273 e. 25.00— 29.99 703 418 f. 30.00— 34.99 812 756 g. 35.00— 39.99 540 625 h. 40.00— 44.99 446 628 i. 45.00— 49.99 1,119 449 j. 50.00— 54.00 367 k. 55.00— 1,025 10. Age of AB recipients: June, 1952 June, 1954 a. 0-14 55 94 b. 15-24 290 346 c. 25-54 1,532 1,728 d. 55—over 2,559 2,579 11. Race of AB recipients: June, 1952 June, 1954 a. White 2,345 2,555 b. Negro 2,054 2,153 c. Indian 37 39 The Chart, Appendix I, shows known number of Blind in the State, 11,458; data given by Counties, age, race, etc. 16 Biennial Report of the SPECIALIZED SERVICES North Carolina Commission for the Blind 17 SPECIALIZED SERVICES ]£ Biennial Report of the THE MEDICAL DIVISION Annie Ruth Penney, Supervisor There are in the United States today, about 320,000 blind per-sons, with another % million likely to go blind during their life-time. These are national figures compiled from recent studies. These figures could be taken as applicable to North Carolina, even though the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind has been actively attacking the problem of eye care for its 19 years of existence. There are three basic causes for blindness—disease, accident and neglect or delay. These are real and drastic but by using every means of approach and an expanding eye care program, North Carolina can reduce its incidence of blindness. In the period July 1, 1952-June 30, 1954, 37,318 persons were given eye examinations; 4,555 eye treatments; 2,683 eye opera-tions and 20,932 were furnished glasses. Since there is no item in the State Medical Budget for glasses, most of the 20,932 glasses were purchased by the more than 300 Lions Clubs, the North Carolina State Association for the Blind and the School Health Program. No data could be written about work for the blind without giv-ing praise to the generosity and cooperation of the eye physi-cians, the Lions Clubs and the North Carolina State Association for the Blind. Many visually handicapped persons could not receive essential eye care without the help of these groups. The Medical Division of the Commission has made much prog-ress during the years and it would appear that offering eye ex-aminations to over 37,000 indigent persons was excellent except for the fact that over 50 per cent of blindness is preventable. To prevent unnecessary blindness, it is urgent that persons with defective vision be found before too late and that the Medical Division be in the position to, not only offer an eye examination, but to follow through on recommended glasses, treatment and/or surgery. To conserve vision and prevent blindness is not only a human-itarian service to the potential blind citizen, it is sound business for the taxpayers and governmental agencies. It costs less to conserve or restore vision than to keep a blind person on public relief indefinitely. We have stated that 50 per cent of blindness is preventable. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 19 Below are listed some of the reasons why blindness has not been prevented in the past: 1. Failure to recognize early symptoms. 2. Delay in consulting- an eye physician or failure to understand the importance of early treatment of serious symptoms. 3. Failure to recognize the importance of medical care in fail-ing eye sight. 4. Clients first sought treatment from a non-medical prac-titioner or a physician of internal medicine. The following suggestions are offered for prevention of blind-ness: 1. Any redness of the eye is a serious symptom. Consult your eye physician. 2. A thorough medical examination at least every year, espe-cially after the age of forty. 3. Consult an eye physician for even a slight eye injury. 4. Consult an eye physician or hospital medical school eye clinic for any acute pain or inflammatory condition of the eyeball or eyelid. 5. Consult an eye physician as soon as any failing vision in one or both eyes is discovered. The Commission for the Blind recommends more eye health education for lay groups and for public health personnel. The fact that one person in North Carolina is needlessly blind de-mands research and study in preventable blindness and greater interest and continued cooperation on the part of all those ad-ministering health services. SERVICES OFFERED BY MEDICAL DIVISION I. Eye Examination and Treatment. A. Physicians' offices—By appointment through local Departments of Public Welfare or special arrangement. B. Group eye clinics. 1. Arranged in counties where medical eye care is not available locally. , 2. Children and adults are admitted on a needs basis, certification made by local Departments of Public Welfare. 3. Clinical eye examinations made by eye physicians. 4. Participating agencies. a. Local Welfare Department. (1) Certificates on needs basis. (2) Takes applications for clinic services. (3) Gives active support to clinic by assisting in planning for physical setup and assisting in providing for clerical help. 20 Biennial Report of the (4) Plans jointly with Health Department for transporta-tion. b. Health Department (1) School screening for eye defects. (2) Furnishes list of names of children to the Welfare Department for certification on the basis of need. (3) Public Health Personnel assists in operation of the clinic. (4) Assists Welfare Department in planning transporta-tion to and from the clinic for services. c. Commission for the Blind. Area Physical Restoration Nurse is responsible for the following services : (1) Over-all joint planning for the group eye clinic. (2) Securing the services of an eye physician to do the eye examinations. (3) Securing the services of an optician to furnish frames, take frame measurements, copy doctor's prescriptions for glasses, have lenses ground, furnish glasses cases and see that glasses are properly made up and deliv-ered. (4) Worker is present at the clinic for the purpose of co-ordinating and supervising the over-all functioning of the group clinic. C. Sustaining eye clinics. 1. Services offered on an area basis by appointment. 2. Supervised by one or more physicians who are diplomats of the American Board of Ophthalmology. 3. Financing shared by local Lions Clubs and the Commission for the Blind. 4. Number and location. a. Asheville, City Hall. b. Charlotte, Professional Building. c. Raleigh, Rex Hospital. II. Follow-Up Work. A. Surgery is done by eye physicians who are American Board of Diplomats or eye physicians who are accepted applicants for American Board examinations. B. Hospitalization and surgery financed by the Commission for the Blind. III. Glasses : The State Commission for the Blind secures glasses at special rates from wholesale optical companies for local agencies and Lions Clubs. Glasses are paid for locally and by the North Carolina State Association for the Blind. IV. Sponsorship of Sight-Saving Classes. The Chart, Appendix II, reveals data on the 37,318 indigent per-sons examined by Eye Physicians during the Biennium; data given by Counties. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 21 na 1—County Health Clinic 2—Sight Saving Class 22 Biennial Report of the Before SQUINT OPERATIONS After North Carolina Commission for the Blind 23 Blind Child—Assembling Alphabet Letters by Touch SERVICES FOR CHILDREN The Medical and Social Service Divisions offer special services to North Carolina children. These services include: General Medical Examinations Medical Eye Examinations Eye Surgery and Treatment Medical Eye Care Follow-up Consultation Home visits to encourage the parents to take advantage of op-portunities to send blind children to the State School for the Blind. 24 Biennial Report of the Participation in the Joint School Health Program Referral to Sight Saving Classes Referral to the State School for the Blind Services to the Pre-school Child : Eye Examinations Surgery Treatment Pre-school Institute for Mothers of Blind Children: The fourth annual Conference for Mothers of Pre-school Blind children was held in 1954. For a number of years, leaders in work for the blind in North Carolina have recognized the need and importance of having such a Conference. The officials of the North Carolina State School for the Blind and the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind, the two State agencies whose legal responsibility is work for the blind, had conferred, discussed and tried to find funds in their budgets for this under-taking. No State funds were available and so the Summer Con-ference remained an unmet need of the total program for the blind. Early in 1950 the North Carolina State Association for the Blind was approached and the proposed project and its im-portance outlined. The North Carolina State Association is a non-profit, lay group whose sole reason for existence is furthering work for the blind state-wide. This Association was organized in 1934 by prominent Lions and other interested groups and individuals to work for a state-sponsored agency which would devote full time to the work for the blind and visually handicapped. Its efforts met with success and in March, 1935, the North Carolina State Commis-sion for the Blind was created by legislative enactment. With the background of such achievement in work for the blind, the North Carolina State Association was sympathetic to the need and made funds available for the Conference; thus, the first Summer Conference was held in 1950. The Conference is, therefore, jointly sponsored by the North Carolina State Association for the Blind, the North Carolina State School for the Blind and the North Carolina State Com-mission for the Blind. The School furnishes the physical set-up, staff and supervision; the Commission furnishes the staff to North Carolina Commission for the Blind 25 locate the pre-school blind children in the State, to report these and to work with the mothers who are scheduled to attend, also, the Commission staff is used during the Conference and the North Carolina State Association for the Blind furnishes funds for maintenance and transportation for the mothers and babies, buys books, toys and pays for staff members. I PRE-SCHOOL OPERATIVE SERVICES—1952-54 Squint Operations 125 Congenital Cataracts 42 Congenital Glaucoma 7 Enucleations 14 Chalazion Removed 3 Ptosis 14 Retrolental Fibroplasia 1 Treatment and other defects 59 Total 265 Madeline P. McCrary Before SURGERY After 26 Biennial Report of the Children Attending the Summer Institute for Mothers of Blind Babies North Carolina Commission for the Blind VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION DIVISION Rehabilitation is the restoration of disabled persons to the full-est physical, mental, vocational and economic usefulness of which they are capable. Rehabilitation has proved its worth not only to the individual but to the taxpayer. It puts men to work and "man's work is his cathedral." Rehabilitation accepts a man as he is and through various serv-ices, such as physical restoration, adjustment training, etc., pre-pares him for employment. The social values of Rehabilitation to the individual and to so-ciety cannot be measured. The economic values to the individual and to the nation can be tabulated by the dollar standard. Be-fore Rehabilitation services, 18 per cent of the individuals served were receiving some type of public aid according to recent national statistics. In North Carolina, the number on relief for the period July 1, 1952-June 30, 1954 was much higher and therefore, the savings to the taxpayers after rehabilitation and employment was even greater. Rehabilitation brings a new life to the individual who in turn makes his contribution to his community, his state and the nation. The Vocational Rehabilitation of the State Commission for the Blind is comprised of five major units, all of which work to-gether to find, counsel, guide, render physical restoration serv-ices and/or train a blind person for employment. The five major units are: 1. General Rehabilitation Services, consisting of counseling, planning, placement and post-placement supervision. 2 Adjustment and Prevocational Training secured at the North Carolina Rehabilitation Center for the Blind at Butner, N. C. 3. Home Industry training secured through the Specialists in Home Industries. 4. Workshop training secured through the five workshops. 5. Stand Operation training secured through the Bureau of Employment for the Blind. 28 Biennial Report of the I. GENERAL REHABILITATION SERVICES Britt L. Green, Supervisor The First World War brought to focus the need of retrain-ing our war veterans, later consideration was given to the gen-eral population and the thousands of handicapped persons among it, who could become self-supporting if given proper physical restoration and training. Rehabilitation services began in 1920, but it was not until 1943 that the Congress made into law a bill sponsored by our own Congressman, Graham Barden. Mr. Barden was co-author of the Barden-LaFollette Bill which became known as Public Law 113. Public Law 113 was a Bill of Rights for the handicapped of the Nation and started a Nation-Wide work for the mentally and physically handicapped. The Congress made funds available for the work, the North Carolina General Assembly matched the funds of Congress, and for the first time in the history of America, the handicapped had the doors of work opportunities opened wide. General rehabilitation involves certain processes, the most im-portant of these are (1) Case Finding, (2) Counseling and Guidance, (3) Training, (4) Placement and (5) Post Placement Supervision. 1.—Case Finding: All the services available to the visually handicapped cannot be rendered until the person has been found. The first job of the General Rehabilitation Division is to find the individual so that he may accept or reject the services that are offered to each handicapped person in the State. After a person is found, he must be interviewed to see if he has rehabili-tation potentialities. Rehabilitation looks at the Total Man���In the light of employability considering these characteristics : Physical ability to work, mental and educational ability to learn and to hold a job, personality equal to employment and skill in a job or ability to render service which someone is willing to buy. 2.—Counseling and Guidance: The aim of vocational counsel-ing is to help the client in his choice of a suitable employment objective, in planning his preparation for such employment and in achieving those attitudes which will bring success and satis-faction in his job. Counseling is based on an understanding of the "whole" individual with due regard to individual differences and the fact that the client is the one to be served. It is he who North Carolina Commission for the Blind 29 is to be made self-maintaining by the processes of rehabilitation. Every effort must be expended to remove or attempt to remove the handicap. Physical restoration is the first step after a client has been accepted by the counselor for rehabilitation services, not only physical but mental restoration or improvement is given due regard. The role of counselor in rehabilitation is most important — He is dealing with a human life, he is having a part in the plans of a human—Only counselors skilled in the techniques of such an art should be entrusted with so great a task. 3.—Training: On the completion of a plan and objective for rehabilitation, the third step is training. This may take many channels, such as training for stand operation, in workshops, industry, colleges and universities. The counselor is responsible for the type and quality of training rendered. He should keep constant watch to see that the client is receiving the kind of training which will fit him for remunerative employment. Even-tual employment is the motivation of all rehabilitation. 4.—Placement: All the above mentioned processes in rehabil-itation must lead to the goal of placement in a job, occupation or profession; job placement which will allow the handicapped individual to use all of his abilities and develop his capabilities. Through the years of human progress, development and in-terpretation, it has been conclusively proven that blind persons do not want to beg, that begging is an insult to any self-respect-ing blind person. It has also been generally conceded at this point that blind people are capable of working and earning a living; therefore, finding new and better opportunities for em-ployment of the blind is a most important work of General Re-habilitation. 5.—Post Placement Supervision. The last of the major steps in the rehabilitation processes is Post Placement Supervision. After a person is placed, he needs guidance and supervision to some degree to insure steady progress. The Rehabilitation Counselor visits the blind person at regular intervals as long as this is needed for continued success and development. With noted progress in the management of his job, the counselor visits at less frequent intervals or when he is called upon by his client. Post Placement Supervision continues as long as the client operates or performs on the job. The aim of Rehabilita-tion is not only to set one blind person up in a job, but also to find new job opportunities for the blind. 30 Biennial Report of the Under the Barden Rehabilitation Act, the Vocational Rehabili-tation Division of the Federal Security Agency pays one-half of the rehabilitation case service cost of physical restoration, train-ing, placement, etc., for blind people who are considered to be employable and all the cost of rehabilitation administration, vo-cational guidance and placement staff. The Federal Vocational Rehabilitation Division supervises the rehabilitation program for the blind and serves as an office of clearance and exchange of new and successful ideas and methods of rehabilitation. A recent analysis was made of the 107 college students which were sponsored by the Rehabilitation Division of the Commis-sion during the ten-year period, July, 1943-July, 1953. Some revealing data came out of this study. A summary of the results is conclusive evidence that a carefully selected number of blind students deserve and profit by higher education leading to the professions and when given the opportunity not only equal but far excel their sighted fellow students. These are the facts on the 107 students : 59 males; 48 females; 96 white, 11 Negro; 68 attended Schools for Blind, 39 attended Public Schools ; Average I.Q. of 47 tested, 124; 72 college graduates; 41 post-graduates; 28 in college (1953), 3 graduate school (1953) ; 2 failed college; 3 failed graduate school; 4 withdrew (voluntarily) ; 1 died. Dishwashing in Cafeteria North Carolina Commission for the Blind 31 Some of the professional placements were : Psychologist ; Social Workers ; Osteopaths ; Lawyers ; Teachers in both Schools of the Blind as well as public schools ; Dietitians ; Rehabilitation Coun-selors; Transcriptionists (Medical); Advertising Manager; Horticulturist; Ministers; Orchestra leaders and musicians; Chiropractor; Musical Director; Radio; Industry; etc. We are convinced in North Carolina that the blind with proper counseling, guidance, psychological tests, careful selection of a work objective and adequate and proper training can enter many of the professions and do a completely satisfactory job. The Office of Vocational Rehabilitation informed us that the Re-habilitation Agencies for the blind placed 5,852 persons in em-ployment during the 1952-54 period. North Carolina placed 593 persons or 10.13 per cent of this num-ber and again led the nation in finding jobs for the blind. STATISTICS ON THE 593 BLIND PERSONS REHABILITATED INTO EMPLOYMENT. PERIOD JULY 1, 1952 THROUGH JUNE 30, 1953 Year 1952-1953—TOTAL NUMBER OF REHABILITANTS : 299 Number of Males 179 Number of Females 120 Number of Whites 196 Number of Negroes 103 Average Education at Survey 6.05 Average Age When Accepted for Rehabilitation Services 43.8 Average number of months cases were serviced by the Rehabilitation Division 23.4 Average number of months in training 2.54 Average cost for case services (does not include Administration) . .$519.45 Average weekly wage when accepted as a Rehabilitation Client . . . .$ 3.29 Average weekly wage when closed as employed and rehabilitated . . $ 22.68 Year 1953-June 30, 1954—TOTAL NUMBER OF REHABILITANTS: 294 Number of Males I 66 Number of Females 128 Number of Whites 198 Number of Negroes 96 Average Education at Survey 6.3 Average age when accepted for Rehabilitation Services 45.5 Average number of months in Service 21.6 Average number of months in training 2.74 Average cost for case services (does not include Administration) . .$521.42 Average weekly wage when accepted as Rehabilitation Client $ 3.58 Average weekly wage when closed as employed and rehabilitated . . $ 24.58 TOTAL AVERAGES FOR THE TWO YEARS July 1, 1952 - June 30, 1954 Number of Males 345 32 Biennial Report of the Number of Females 248 Number of White Persons 394 Number of Negroes 199 Average Education at Survey 6.2 Average age when accepted for Rehabilitation Services 44.6 Average number of months cases were serviced by the Rehabilitation Division 22.5 Average number of months in training 2.6 Average cost of case services (does not include Administration) . .$520.43 Average weekly wage when accepted at a Rehabilitation Client .... $ 3.93 Average weekly wage when closed as employed and rehabilitated . .$ 23.63 Statistics on the Occupational Groups of the 593 Rehabilitated Blind Persons for the Period July 1, 1952, Through June 30, 1954 Type of Job Number Per Cent Professional and Semi-Professional 33 6% Managerial and Sales 104 18 Farmers 74 12 Skilled 34 6 Semi-Skilled 66 11 Unskilled 97 16 Service Jobs 6 1 Craft Workers 16 3 Housewives, Home Managers 163 27 Totals 593 100 Madeline P. McCrary Recejitionist-Tyjrist North Carolina Commission for the Blind 1—Employed in a Paper Board Company 2—Broom Making in Workshop 3—Blind Man and Wife Operate Upholstery Shop 34 Biennial Report of the THE NORTH CAROLINA REHABILITATION CENTER Helen Cutting, Superintendent Students Receive Prizes for Outstanding Progress at Rehabilitation Center, Butner, N. C. The North Carolina Rehabilitation Center was created by legis-lative enactment in 1945 and began operation in November, 1945. The establishment of the Rehabilitation Center for Adult Blind was the fulfillment of a long cherished idea and the real-ization of a great unmet need in the total program of work for the blind. Indeed, the orientation and adjustment to blindness which the Center program provides for the adult blind has en-abled many blind persons to enter employment and become self-supporting. From November, 1945, until August, 1952, the Center was housed in most unsuitable temporary buildings, loaned by one agency and then another. In August, 1952, the Rehabilitation Center moved into its own new and modern building located at Butner, N. C. In our last Biennial report we told of the new building to house our Rehabilitation Center. This new and mod-ern building made possible better and more complete services for the Blind students who are sent to the Center for orientation and adjustment to blindness and pre-vocational training. We are inordinately proud of our new Center building, our staif and the services we can now offer to the adult blind of our State. We do not think there is a more modern or better equipped Center for the Blind in the Nation. The greatest need to complete the Center's physical plant was North Carolina Commission for the Blind 35 that of living quarters for its staff. This need was presented to our 1953 General Assembly and funds for staff quarters were granted. We are pleased to state that such quarters are now under construction. The grounds of the Center are being improved through the gen-erous cooperation of Civic groups such as the Lions Clubs, The Durham Garden Club and other groups and individuals. A deep debt of gratitude and sincere appreciation is acknowledged by the Center Staff and students. Many states do not have Rehabilitation Centers for the Blind, therefore, our Rehabilitation Center is being used to a small degree by other states. Out-of-state students are admitted only when there are no North Carolina blind on the waiting list. This is a Rehabilitation Center for North Carolinians and their needs supersede all others. Since the Rehabilitation Center has been functioning for nine years, the basic courses offered to the students are rather well established at this time and fewer changes are made than in the beginning. Some of the courses offered at the present time are : 1. Orientation to the physical set-up of the Center and sur-roundings, 2. Travel techniques, 3. Adjustment, 4. Continuation of counseling, 5. Psychological tests, measurements, etc., 6. Per-sonality adjustment, 7. Stand training and employment prac-tices, 8. Basic courses in personal hygeine, table etiquette, etc. 9. Home economics and housekeeping, 10. Academic courses such as English, spelling, arithmetic, Braille, typing and transcrib-ing, 11. Craft courses, 12. Sewing, 13. Woodshop, 14. Automotive repair, 15. Electrical appliance repair, 16. Laundry courses, 17. Cooking classes for men. The following charts present statistics on the biennial period and will give some idea as to the number of students, age, sex, etc., attending the Center during this period. STATISTICS—^July 1, 1952-June 30, 1954, on Students at the Rehabilita-tion Center Total Number of Students . . 160 Indian 3 Number of Counties Rural 80 represented 57 Urban 80 Average Age 34.6 Single 89 Males 95 Married 52 Females 65 Other 19 White 91 Average Education 6.9 Negro 66 Average I. Q 90.6 36 Biennial Report of the Average Number of Months at the Rehabilitation Center 5.2 Age at Onset of Blindness: 0-5 62 6-18 22 19-29 16 30-44 30 45-65 30 Causes of Blindness: Disease 144 Accident 23 Congenital 23 Inherited 6 Degree of Vision—Present: Total-Both Eyes 32 Total-Partial Vision One Eye 34 Partial Vision Both Eyes . . 94 Sources of Support When Student Entered Center: Public Relief 63 Family 81 Self 8 Retirement 2 Pension 2 Compensation 4 Previous Employment: Workshop 2 Housekeeper 2 Housewife 3 Home Worker 15 Skilled Laborer 2 Semi-Skilled Laborer 1 Unskilled Laborer 54 No Job 24 Domestic 14 Minister 1 Teacher 1 Managerial 6 Sales 2 Textile 6 Farmer 8 Clerical 6 Physician T . . 1 Carpenter 2 Truck Driver 4 Service Job 2 Baby Sitter 2 Writer 1 Library Worker 1 Number Employed 28 Number in Training 59 Number Unemployed 73 Types of Employment of the 28 employed: Stand Operator 7 Own Business 8 Housewife 4 Housekeeper 1 Craft Worker 1 Home Worker 3 Laborer 1 Dish Washer 1 Mop Trimmer 1 Instructor 1 In the 1950-52 Biennial we presented statistics on the employ-ment of Center Students who attended the Center during this period. In June, 1954, we made a follow-up study which dis-closed these facts : North Carolina Commission for the Blind 37 June, 1951 Number Employed 42 Number Unemployed 25 Number in Training 14 Number Left State Total 81 June, 1952 Number' Employed 21 Number Unemployed 36 Number in Training 19 Number Left State Total 76 June, 1953 Number Employed 54 Number Unemployed 16 Number in Training 10 Number Left State Number Deceased 1 Total 81 June, 1954 Number Employed 41 Number Unemployed 27 Number in Training 6 Number Left State 1 Number Deceased 1 Total 76 With this follow-up study we found as time went on that a great many more were placed in employment and we feel that this is more evidence that the training at the Center is worthwhile in a total Rehabilitation program. Madeline P. McCrary Men's Cooking Class, Rehabilitation Center Biennial Report of the 1—Braille and Typing Class, Rehabilitation Center 2—Woodworking Shop, Rehabilitation Center 3—Laundry, Rehabilitation Center North Carolina Commission for the Blind 39 HOME INDUSTRIES Laura E. Merchant Specialist in Workshop and Home Industries Many blind persons who were considered unemployable are now engaged in an expanding Home Industries Program. This group of persons are home bound for various reasons, such as, age, health and family situations. Our three Home Industries Counselors now have a combined case load of 309 home bound clients. Some of these are still in the referred status; fifty-one in training and 109 are producing salable articles, which meet our standards of workmanship. Ten looms, twenty-five sewing machines and two ironrite ironers have been provided for the home bound clients. Many useful articles are being produced and several of these persons have established an independent business from their handicrafts. This past spring a loom was provided a blind man and his wife who live at Hatteras, N. C. This being the only weaving done on the island and being done by a blind man has created great interest and they are selling their entire output locally. Sales outlets for other workers are through, County Fairs spon- Blind Couple Have Good Income From Basket Making 40 Biennial Report of the '/I ,,- - :. 1—Home Bound Client Derives Income From Making Stuffed Animals 2—Weaving is Interesting and Profitable for this Blind Woman North Carolina Commission for the Blind 41 sored by Lions Clubs, exhibits and sales at Horse Shows and sales sponsored by women's clubs in different places. Two small shops have been built by local Lions Clubs to be used for sales outlets of articles made by the home bound blind. Requests have come from Gift Shops during the past year from Murphy to Manteo. Through the services of the Home Industry Program a group of blind persons are receiving assistance in many ways other than financial returns which cannot be supplied from any other source. Much pleasure is derived from a 'job well done.' WORKSHOPS Laura E. Merchant Specialist in Workshops and Home Industries Among the realm of the blind just as the sighted, one finds a group of persons who, in order to produce acceptably, must work under close supervision. Our five workshops are main-tained to furnish employment to this group of blind persons. All potential workshop employees are given training in the making of brooms, mops, mattresses, upholstery, pillow cases, chair caning and many small items. This training is sponsored by the Rehabilitation Division of the State Commission for the Blind. The merchandise produced in these workshops is com-parable to like goods manufactured in factories employing Finishing and Packaging Mattresses, Workshops 42 Biennial Report of the sighted workers and is placed on the market at the same price level. Following is an analysis of the workshops covering the biennium ANALYSIS OF WORKSHOPS July 1952-June 1954 No. of Blind Employees, Average 99 Total Earnings $ 260,491.54 Average Weekly Earnings $ 25.30 Total Gross Sales $1,641,343.39 Packing Pillow Cases—Charlotte Workshop for the Blind North Carolina Commission for the Blind 43 Activities in Guilford Industries for the Blind 44 Biennial Report of the NORTH CAROLINA BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT FOR THE BLIND R. H. Llewellyn, Supervisor Pursuant to the law which placed upon the Commission the re-sponsibility for maintaining employment opportunities for blind individuals who are able to work but unable to find placement in outside employment, the Commission established by resolu-tion an auxiliary division known as The Bureau of Employment for the Blind. The advisory body of this Bureau is made up of business men who have had experience in the field of mer-chandising and who advise the Commission on policies, rules, regulations and practices which should be established and ob-served in the operation of a successful business enterprise program. The function of the Bureau is to accept blind and visually han-dicapped persons for training and employment in types of busi-nesses that are considered feasible for blind persons. During the training period these blind people are taught the basic prin-ciples of retailing such as customer approach, display, buying and keeping of adequate reports. At the end of the training period the blind person is given employment in one of the existing units of the Bureau. The blind person is put on a salary based on his ability and success as an operator and salary ad-justments are made at regular intervals. The Bureau was established in 1943 and has taken advantage of all existing Federal and State laws in establishing stands in buildings permitted by such laws. With the increasing number of trained and capable blind persons, it became apparent that a larger field of activity must be developed. The Bureau turned to industrial plants and in 1953, 22 stands were established in such plants with a sales volume of $232,- 405.35. Most of the placements were in plants with a working population of 200 or more, however, in some instances, the plants have employees totaling 1700. The Bureau has developed a new service and is able to serve many hot foods and provide employees of industrial plants with the necessary items for hot lunches. The plants do not pay the Bureau for this food service, they only allow the space for the stand and furnish electrical current for equipment. The Bureau also assumes responsibility for insurance and liability to stand personnel. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 45 It is now an established fact that the blind can operate such stands in industrial plants and the Bureau would be pleased to work with other plants. At the close of the biennial period, June 30, 1954 The Bureau of Employment of the Blind was operating- 80 stands with 104 employees. The Bureau paid stand employees $144,620.41 in 1953. In addi-tion to salaries, the operators enjoy paid vacations, free hos-pitalization and an opportunity to obtain life insurance under a group plan. The pictures shown are of food units in industrial plants. Madeline P. McCrary Stand in Teachers College 46 Biennial Report of the Food Units in Industrial Plants North Carolina Commission for the Blind 47 ASSISTANCE AND CO-OPERATION FROM OTHER AGENCIES, GROUPS AND INDIVIDUALS The data presented in this report has shown the assistance and co-operation received by the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind from the Federal Security Agency, the County Commissioners and County Welfare Departments, the Lions Clubs and the North Carolina State Association for the Blind. It should again be emphasized that the blind people of North Carolina have reaped the benefits of this aid and that because of it the Commission has been able to expand its services to the blind. There are other groups and individuals who have greatly con-tributed to the activities in work for the blind. The majority of these have already been mentioned elsewhere but because of the quality of the contribution recognition is again given: EYE PHYSICIANS—North Carolina is most fortunate in hav-ing Eye Physicians located in the various sections of the State who are giving unsparingly of their time and skill to prevent blindness and wherever possible to conserve sight and to re-store vision. These Eye Physicians give to the needy cases recommended to their care the same highly skilled, professional services received by private patients. Without the very fine co-operation and unselfishness of these Eye Physicians it would be impossible to have a program of prevention in North Carolina. The Commission is also indebted to the many private physicians who give treatment to persons referred for general medical at-tention by the Eye Physicians. The eye difficulties of these patients are the result of disease or abnormal conditions in other parts of the body, for the eye is often called "a thermom-eter to bodily conditions." Many indigent persons with defective vision coming under the care of the Commission have diseases of the blood vessels, kidneys, brain or other parts of the body which are first discovered by Eye Physicians. Diseased tonsils and other bodily infections in children are so often the cause of impaired vision which condition if not detected by an Eye Physician and corrected may weaken the efficiency not only of the eye but of other vital organs of the body. OTHER AGENCIES AND INDIVIDUALS The State Federation of Woman's Clubs has taken work for the blind as one of its major projects. Individual Club women are 48 Biennial Report op the rendering personal services to the blind as a part of their general program. The Junior Woman's Club is most active in work for the blind. The State Board of Public Welfare, the State Department of Public Instruction, the State Board of Health, the County School and Health Officials, the Local Private Welfare Agencies and Hospitals have given valuable assistance in the development of services for the blind. The State School for the Blind has given splendid co-operation to the Commission in the development of its program. Rotary, Kiwanis, American Business Men's Clubs, the Variety Clubs, Exchange Clubs, P.-T. A.s and other organizations have co-operated in the local communities with the work for the blind program. The following organizations outside the State aid the Commis-sion in the development of its work : The American Foundation for the Blind, the National Industries for the Blind, the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness, The Seeing Eye, Inc. and the National Rehabilitation Association. RECOMMENDATIONS The preceding report of the work of the Commission has pre-sented a brief review of the services rendered to the blind and visually handicapped of North Carolina during the past bien-nium. This report also calls attention to some of the unmet needs. REQUESTED INCREASES IN APPROPRIATIONS FOR THE BIENNIUM 1955-56 AND 1956-57 The members of the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind appreciate the difficult problems of state financing con-fronting the Advisory Budget Commission. The Commission is equally aware that it is responsible under Law for administering all governmentally sponsored services for the blind citizens of our State. The budget request represents an increase over funds previously appropriated; yet the funds requested will provide solely for urgently needed services. Only the basic needs of the blind have been included in the budget. The following increases are necessary to meet the minimum needs of the blind now known to the Commission : First, A. $13,750 additional State funds for the first year of the North Carolina Commission for the Blind 49 biennium and $16,375 for the second year of the biennium are requested to provide matching funds for our Rehabili-tation services available under Federal legislation. These funds are necessary to provide medical examinations, hos-pitalization, prosthetic devices, training maintenance, and placement equipment. The Commission rehabilitated into employment 593 blind persons during the biennial period July 1, 1952-June 30, 1954. The number of blind persons new receiving Rehabilitation services leading to employ-ment has increased considerably during this same period. It is sound economy in dollars and cents to rehabilitate blind persons and make them self-supporting. Emphasis has been placed on Rehabilitation and not relief. The Com-mission for the Blind could have rehabilitated more blind people during the past biennium if additional funds had been available. In spite of these circumstances, THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE COMMISSION FOR THE BLIND HAS LED THE NATION IN THIS SERVICE CATEGORY OVER THE PAST SEVEN YEARS. B. $53,285 additional State funds for the first year of the biennium and $63,285 for the second year of the biennium are requested to meet the ever increasing demand and cost of medical services under the general State Medical Pro-gram for indigent blind and visually handicapped persons who are not feasible for services under the Rehabilitation Program. 1. Expanded clinical services for eye examinations have increased the number of indigent persons given medical eye examinations by 4,649 during the biennial period 1952-54—an increase of 14% over the biennial period 1950-52. The Medical Eye Care Program of the Com-mission has been expanded through the 100 County Superintendents of Public Welfare who daily refer persons to determine eligibility and continuing eligibil-ity for Aid to the Blind, as well as other indigent per-sons in need of eye care. Also, the Commission for the Blind has conducted the clinical eye examinations under the Joint School Health Program and this service to the indigent school children of North Carolina is a responsibility that can be met only through increased State funds. Since the cost of glasses prescribed as a 50 Biennial Report op the result of these eye examinations is defrayed by local sources, the only cost to the State is the eye examina-tions. 2. Increased eye examinations for indigent persons have uncovered a proportional increase for the number of persons requiring medical eye treatment. 2,683 in-digent persons were given medical eye treatment dur-ing the biennial period 1952-54. This is an increase of 394 cases—17% over the biennial period 1950-52. The requested increase in appropriations for treatment is based upon the increase in the number of persons served. 3. The average per diem for the general State Medical Program during the past biennium has increased as high as 73% with an average increase of 13%. This increase in per diem hospital cost, plus the increase in the number of indigent persons given hospitalization for medical eye care requires additional State funds. The prevention of blindness, the conservation of sight and the restoration of vision constitute the finest service the Commission for the Blind can render to visually han-dicapped people in need. Second, $36,263 additional State funds are requested for the first year of the biennium and $54,863 for the second year of the biennium to provide direct relief to the needy blind. These additional State funds will enable the Commission to pay 4,800 grants at a monthly average of $42.00 for the first year and 4,850 at a monthly average of $43.00 for the second year. Third, $13,000 additional State funds are requested for County Equalization purposes. When this item was first set up in July 1943 the Commission made payments to 2,191 re-cipients. This item has been increased only $2,000 in spite of the fact that the Commission is now making payments to 4,765 recipients. This Equalization Fund is used to assist the poorer counties in equalizing the amount of Aid to the Blind grants. Fourth, $20,000 additional State funds are requested for the main- North Carolina Commission for the Blind 51 tenance and operation of the Rehabilitation Center for the Blind at Butner. Funds derived from tuition charges are inadequate to meet operation costs. The present enroll-ment is 50 students. The rise in the cost of food and fuel necessitates an increase in the budget request for this item. WE WILL HAVE TWO ADDITIONAL STAFF HOUSES, NOW IN THE PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTION, TO HEAT AND OPERATE. THE REHABILITATION CEN-TER IS THE FOUNDATION OF THE REHABILITA-TION PROGRAM OF THE COMMISSION. ITS OPER-ATION IS VITAL TO ALL PHASES OF THE COMMIS-SION'S WORK. Fifth, $265 additional State funds are requested for postage, tele-phone, and telegraph. It is a matter of record that postal, telephone, and telegraph rates have increased in cost. It is equally true that the increased services rendered by the Commission have necessarily increased the volume in these categories. The establishment of an additional District Office in Wilmington is another reason for the need for additional funds for postage, telephone, and telegraph. Sixth, $2,340 additional State funds for each year of the biennium are requested to provide for the salary and travel of a Physical Restoration Nurse. This employee will be as-signed to the newly established Wilmington District Office. For years the Commission has attempted to equalize its services throughout the State. This geographical goal has been reached. We have six Social Work Supervisors and six Rehabilitation Counselors and five Physical Restora-tion Nurses. One additional Physical Restoration Nurse will complete the required personnel unit in each of the six District Offices and thus will give a geographical service coverage to the entire State. The present Physical Res-toration Nurse working eastern North Carolina now serves 28 counties. It is a physical impossibility to give adequate services to indigent persons in need of eye care under these circumstances. The Federal agencies that participate in the cost of the salary and travel of a Physical Restoration Nurse have agreed to match State funds and have urged that the Commission employ an additional Physical Res- 52 Biennial Report of the toration Nurse so that equal services may be made avail-able to all indigent visually handicapped people in the State. The availability of certified medical eye physicians and medical facilities has increased 500% in the eastern part of the State in the past four years. An additional Physical Restoration Nurse is necessary to utilize these facilities for the benefit of medically indigent persons. Seventh, $1,470 additional State funds for the first year of the bien-nium and $2,940 for the second year of the biennium are requested to provide Merit salary increases. Eighth, $840 additional State funds for each biennium are required to provide for positions for the full biennium which were filled only part of the fiscal year 1953-54, and also to pro-vide for the continuation of increments granted during the fiscal year 1953-54. APPENDIX I SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION Data by geographical regions and counties concerning the 11,458 blind persons on biennial census report for the period July 1, 1952 through June 30, 1954. APPENDIX II IEDICAL DIVISION Data on the 37,318 indigent persons examined by Eye Physicians during the past biennium. dix II DATA N 37,318 IM> G N ' PERSONS EXAMINED BY EYE PHYSICIANS DURING THE PAST BIENNUM AOE nx | IUCI bye di.ei.es » nniiD. IKVJCE3 HEKDEIIBO ~ *- i s 1 J J = 3 i I jl i j j ! | 2 i i ? i 1 | J 2 * $ j; j 1 J j f j i i i 1 ] s j 1 i i ! ;- J « i - 1 1 | : j : i ; 1 1 | mru • ui»Uia ,.„ i: -1. .. ..„ ... « B. ,.,. i» i: - ,,„ » :» m „ .. .. m , ... , ..M ... ... ,.«. ..... to™. r„. ;: ,' s ; „ -s : r. : i "" " J" 3 ':" i_2!J!_?J! in ,' -1 - . ': J " - : - - - -i ' i 1 . " : ? 5 '- -| ; '- ::-; — 7 '". :' i ii. . » j ,: ! '' ,-.. ! , i , " -; -' n i —, ; ,: -j - ,; ' — ; , j - — " -* : J -:; ;; - ';:; '. -j "; j ; - !n -; _ Ii -.,; '' -: ', : i -, -4 F ! ,;.: ,;: ! -::„! - i : : '"" i :;; ,. ; : , -' — ; , " ; - • ;' - ,; -s "; ' '" -:,' : :.; : -s : -i -. -" ,. ';' . ':- - - " : -j - — -', -: -. ' ; -:;: -j —^ 7™ -' -, " - ; - - — 5 ; - - . 1 -'„ : -" .;;; :; — ~. ~ , ; - , ^^ — 3 ; ; I ', '. : : ,; - ; : •- j 7° .§ ,;,. 1 "; '; | "7 ,- ,; i u ..:. i W 11 - n ;« j » in - , ; -"- ' : -" ' = " ^ : : , -, — : 1 l J .'" : "" - -, ; , -. - n j ; ; ; ;, - , - -, ™ ' - J ' -' , -', : J ": ;•; '", " r .': , Adiiiihl,-s-= ,; - -; j ,:, -ji . '",'; : ; - " : -T - B . . ; vl ';. , 'I »_»_._]. ;: '" ; . - : -;, : : .. ., :: 1 i : , -;: " : '• ] ... „ ; : _!_!!J?_2_!!_L'_!^ ', :: _!_!i _!!_!:_ ; 1 "' ; -i-=-s-s : ] "" '-- - - ., 1; : - : . ; «„,. ,.,„ ;— "• " : \ i -; -; , ; i : -", - - ,..«, s^sisrHdl-Sidi _,:.' ,... J; ;. . » i. ,. .. • „ ,, .. ,., » « - -- - ... ,7. .... ,.,. -S ram ^ APPENDIX III ACCOUNTING DIVISION Budgetary Expenditures of the Commission during the Bien-nium July 1, 1952 through June 30, 1954. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 59 EXPENDITURES FOR 1952-1953 AND 1953-1954 CHAPTER 53, PUBLIC LAWS OF 1935, CODE 326 CHAPTER 124, PUBLIC LAWS OF 1937 Purposes and/or Objects Expenditures Expenditures for 1952-53 for 1953-54 I. ADMINISTRATION 101 Salary—Executive Secretary $ 7,348.00 $ 8,204.99 102 Salaries and Wages—Staff 59,256.14 62,391.16 103 Expense of Commission 363.14 369.23 104 Supplies and Materials 1,675.19 1,731.94 105 Postage, Telephone and Telegraph . . 4,098.16 4,499.56 106 Travel Expense 8,676.86 8,703.94 107 Printing and Binding 2,827.20 2,408.06 108 Repairs and Alterations 690.67 815.24 109 General Expense 48.78 45.30 110 Insurance and Bonding 323.60 — 111 Equipment 1,571.61 1,321.23 112 Merit System Expense 931.72 1,172.26 113 Office Rent — 1,786.50 TOTAL $ 87,811.07 $ 93,449.41 II. AID TO THE BLIND ADMINISTRATION 201 Salaries and Wages $ 39,865.50 $ 41,966.89 202 Travel Expense 6,847.83 7,368.30 TOTAL $ 46,713.33 $ 49,335.19 III. REHABILITATION SERVICES 301 Salaries and Wages $ 8,564.10 $ 7,489.06 302 Travel Expense 986.44 1,150.74 303 Rent 2,133.50 540.50 304 Expense of Board Members—Bureau of Employment for the Blind 196.43 299.27 305 Retirement System' 467.06 401.69 TOTAL $ 12,347.53 $ 9,881.26 IV. VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE & PLACEMENT SERVICES 401 Salaries and Wages $ 71,581.62 $ 74,524.16 402 Travel Expense 14,676.38 14,696.63 403 Retirement System 3,918.03 4,244.49 404 Supplies and Materials 284.71 — 405 Equipment 475.00 — TOTAL $ 90,935.74 $ 93,465.28 60 V. PAYMENTS TO NEEDY BLIND 501 County $ 318,437.50 $ 344,686.00 502 Federal 1,396,976.50 1,535,716.50 503 State 318,589.00 344,735.50 TOTAL $2,034,003.00 $2,225,138.00 VI. CASE SERVICES 601 Examinations $ 39,636.28 $ 38,999.54 602 Treatment 47,241.18 43,214.98 603 Prosthetic Appliances 61,510.91 65,842.31 604 Hospitalization 96,917.23 111,528.10 605 Training Expense 51,496.21 44,573.12 606 Supplies 3,999.41 2,418.32 607 Maintenance 46,996.70 48,687.68 608 Transportation 4,351.91 3,999.67 609 Placement Equipment 21,496.90 21,492.75 TOTAL $ 373,646.73 $ 380,756.47 VII. COUNTY ADMINISTRATION 701 Salaries and Wages $ 104,581.80 $ 110,428.68 702 Travel Expense 53,044.71 53,005.98 703 Federal Administration — Direct to Counties 23,939.00 46,618.50 TOTAL $ 181,565.51 $ 210,053.16 VIII. EQUALIZATION FUND 801 County Equalization Fund $ 12,000.00 $ 12,000.00 TOTAL $ 12,000.00 $ 12,000.00 IX. PRECONDITIONING CENTER 901 Supplies and Materials $ 23,988.74 $ 23,995.48 902 Equipment 1,997.29 1,912.76 903 Heat, Lights, and Water 3,999.36 3,992.00 TOTAL $ 29,985.39 $ 29,900.24 X. WORKSHOPS 1001 Equipment $ 9,948.60 $ 9,898.68 TOTAL $ 9,948.60 $ 9,898.68 XL MERIT SALARY INCREMENTS — — XII. WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION $ 4,818.53 $ 1,878.00 TOTAL REQUIREMENTS $2,883,775.43 $3,115,755.69 LESS: ESTIMATED RECEIPTS ..$2,221,170.11 $2,421,412.00 APPROPRIATION $ 662,605.32 $ 694,343.69 STATE LIBRARY OF NORTH CAROLINA 3 3091 007471899
|Title||Biennial report of the North Carolina Commission for the Blind|
|Other Title||Biennial report of the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind|
|Creator||North Carolina State Commission for the Blind.|
|Date||1952; 1953; 1954|
|Digital Characteristics-A||68 p.; 4.59 MB|
|Title Replaced By||North Carolina State Commission for the Blind biennial report|
|Pres File Name-M||pubs_pubh_serial_biennialreportnccommission1954.pdf|
|Pres Local File Path-M||\Preservation_content\StatePubs\pubs_pubh\images_master|
NORTH CAROLINA STATE
COMMISSION FOR THE
From July 1, 1952 through June 30, 1954
"And I will bring the blind by a way that they knew not;
I will lead them in paths that they have not known;
I will make darkness light before then >.."
—Isaiah xiii, 16.
North Carolina State Library
NORTH CAROLINA STATE
COMMISSION FOR THE
From July 1, 1952 through June 30, 1954
"And I will bring the blind by a way that they knew not;
I will lead them in paths that they have not known;
I will make darkness light before them."
—Isaiah xlii, 16.
HONORABLE WILLIAM B. UMSTEAD
The Governor of North Carolina
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Letter of Transmittal
Members of the North Carolina State Commission Board .
Advisory Medical Committee ;
• • 6
Aid to Blind Chart 9
Social Service Division 10
Specialized Service Chart 12
Comparative Analysis of Aid to Blind I4
Services for Children 23
Vocational Rehabilitation Division 27
Rehabilitation Center °*
Bureau of Employment for the Blind 44
Assistance and Cooperation from Other Agencies 47
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
To Honorable Luther H. Hodges
Governor of North Carolina
Raleigh, North Carolina
Dear Governor Hodges:
Pursuant to Chapter 53, Public Laws of 1935 and subsequent
legislation, I have the honor to submit to you the accompanying
report of the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind for
the biennial period beginning with July 1, 1952, and ending June
30, 1954. This report concerns the management and financial
transactions of this Department.
Sam M. Cathey, Chairman
N. C. State Commission for the Blind
MEMBERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE
COMMISSION FOR THE BLIND
(Six Members—Appointed by the Governor)
Judge Sam M. Cathey, Chairman, Asheville, N. C.
Dr. Howard E. Jensen, Chairman, Executive Committee, Durham, N .C.
Mr. H. C. Bradshaw, Durham, N. C.
Mr. Frank C. King, Brevard, N. C.
Mr. Sam Alford, Henderson, N. C.
Mr. Joe Hood, Wilmington, N. C.
(Five Ex-Officio Members—Designated by the Legislature)
Mr. Ernest C. McCracken, Director, State Employment Service, Division
of Employment Security Commission, Raleigh, N. C.
Mr. Egbert N. Peeler, Superintendent State School for the Blind,
Raleigh, N. C.
Dr. J. W. R. Norton, Secretary and State Health Officer, State Board of
Health, Raleigh, N. C.
Col. Charles H. Warren, Director, Vocational Rehabilitation, Raleigh, N. C.
Dr. Ellen Black Winston, Commissioner, State Board of Public Welfare,
Raleigh, N. C.
ADVISORY MEDICAL COMMITTEE
(Surgeons Certified by the American Board of Ophthalmology)
Dr. Alan Davidson, Chairman, New Bern, N. C.
Dr. V. M. Hicks, Supervising Ophthalmologist, Aid to the Blind,
Ealeigh, N. C.
Dr. Paul M. Abernethy, Burlington, N. C.
Dr. Elbert C. Anderson, Wilmington, N. C.
Dr. W. Banks Anderson, Durham, N. C.
Dr. Ralph A. Arnold, Durham, N. C.
Dr. D. N. Ball, Winston-Salem, N. C.
Dr. James W. Bizzell, Goldsboro, N. C.
Dr. H. H. Briggs, Asheville, N. C.
Dr. Clinton B. Chandler, Durham, N. C.
Dr. A. N. Costner, Durham, N. C.
Dr. H. M. Dalton, Kinston, N. C.
Dr. John L. Etherington, Goldsboro, N. C.
Dr. Frank R. Fleming, Elkin, N. C.
Dr. Clarence B. Foster, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. W. R. Graham, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. B. A. Helsabeck, Winston-Salem, N. C.
Dr. L. Byerly Holt, Winston-Salem, N. C.
Dr. Ernest W. Larkin, Jr., Greenville, N. C.
Dr. Ruth Leonard, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. M. N. Lymberis, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. Sam D. McPherson, Jr.. Durham, N. C.
Dr. E. E. Moore, Asheville, N. C.
Dr. H. C. Neblett, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. George T. Noel, Kannapolis, N. C.
Dr. Robert E. Odom, Asheville, N. C.
Dr. Winston Roberts, Winston-Salem, N. C.
Dr. Maurice Harvey Rubin, Greensboro, N. C.
Dr. John L. Shipley, Elizabeth City, N. C.
Dr. Henry L. Sloan, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. Frank C. Smith, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. William P. Speas, Winston-Salem, N. C.
Dr. Roy A. Stewart, Newton, N. C.
Dr. Frederick W. Stocker, Durham, N. C.
Dr. J. David Stratton, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. Horace G. Strickland, Greensboro, N. C.
Dr. Larry Turner, Durham, N. C.
Dr. S. Weizenblatt, Asheville, N. C.
Dr. John D. Wilsey, Winston-Salem, N. C.
Dr. Frank C. Winter, Chapel Hill, N. C.
The North Carolina State Commission for the Blind was created
by legislative enactment in 1935 and began to function as a state
agency in July of the same year. This Biennial Report presents
the accomplishments for the period July 1, 1952-June 30, 1954.
The law under which the Commission operates places on it the
responsibility of interpreting, administering and supervising an
all inclusive program of work for the blind. These activities are
accomplished by the three main divisions of the Commission:
1—The Social Service Division which supervises financial grants
to the indigent blind and renders special services to all the blind
of the State; 2—The Medical Division which carries on three
main phases of work, prevention of blindness, conservation of
sight and restoration of vision; 3—The Rehabilitation Division
which is composed of five major parts : a, General Rehabilitation
Services ; b, The North Carolina Rehabilitation Center for Adult
Blind; c, Home Industries; d, Workshops and e, The Bureau of
Employment for the Blind.
This Report reflects the continuous development of activities
and opportunities offered to the blind citizens of North Carolina.
We feel that the blind of our State, as well as the thousands of
persons with serious eye defects, have profited by the efforts of
the Commission, and through the services rendered to them,
many have become self-maintaining, self-respecting citizens of
The Commission for the Blind has made a concerted effort to
conserve and utilize all State, Federal and community resources,
so that as many as possible of the visually handicapped of the
State could benefit by the use of such resources. Our program
considers the whole man against his background of social, medi-cal
and financial needs and endeavors to help him help himself
to fit into his community and take his place in the life of our
We could not present this Report without comment on the
loyalty, perseverence and hard work of the staff and all persons
and organizations who have made such noble contributions to
the forward progress of good eye care for our citizens. The
Federal, State and County agencies, as well as private agencies,
have given much aid and co-operation. The North Carolina State
Association for the Blind and the North Carolina Lions Clubs
have given untold financial aid and unselfish devotion to the
cause of a better way of life for the visually handicapped citi-zents
of North Carolina.
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Biennial report of the North Carolina Commission for the Blindfor