Biennial report of the North Carolina Commission for the Blind
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Biennial Report of the NORTH CAROLINA STATE COMMISSION FOR THE BLIND From July 1, 1954 through June 30, 1956 t*V "And I will bring the blind by a way that they knew not; I will lead them in path tl ' they have not knoiw I will make darkness light ' nu" ' ai ih iii, 16. Biennial Report of the NORTH CAROLINA STATE COMMISSION FOR THE BLIND From July 1, 1954 through June 30, 1956 "And I will bring the blind by a way that they knew not; I will lead them in paths that they have not known; I will make darkness light before them." —Isaiah xlii, 16. HONORABLE LUTHER H. HODGES The Governor of North Carolina "Work for the Blind is the success story of organized effort and the unselfish work of people from all walks of life. To them, all of us owe a debt of gratitude." TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Letter of Transmittal _ 4 Members of the North Carolina State Commission Board 5 Advisory Medical Committee : i 6 Introduction : 7 Organizational Chart 8 Aid to Blind Chart 9 Social Service Division _, 10 Specialized Service Chart :_ 12 Comparative Analysis of Aid to Blind 14 Medical Division :-i: 18 Services for Children ^—-- 24 Vocational Rehabilitation Division ------ -- 28 General Rehabilitation ..__ 29 Rehabilitation Center — - 35 Home Industries L_i 40 Workshops '-—_- 42 Bureau of Employment for the Blind : 45 Assistance and Cooperation from Other Agencies ._— 48 Recommendations 49 Appendix I 52 Appendix II '-. ; 54 Appendix III : '. 56 LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL To The Honorable Luther H. Hodges The Governor of North Carolina Raleigh, North Carolina Dear Governor Hodges: Pursuant to Chapter 53, Public Laws of 1935, as amended, and subsequent legislation, I have the honor to submit to you the accompanying report of the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind for the biennial period beginning with July 1, 1954, and ending June 30, 1956. This report concerns the management and financial transactions of this Department. Respectfully submitted, Sam M. Cathey, Chairman N. C. State Commission for the Blind MEMBERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE COMMISSION FOR THE BLIND (Six Members—Appointed by the Governor) Judge Sam M. Cathey, Chairman, Asheville, N. C. Dr. Howard E. Jensen, Chairman, Executive Committee, Durham, N. C. Mr. H. C. Bradshaw, Durham, N. C. Mr. Frank C. King, Brevard, N. C. Mr. Sam Alford, Henderson, N. C. Mr. Joe Hood, Wilmington, N. C. (Five Ex-Officio Members—Designated by the Legislature) Mr. J. W. Beach, Director, State Employment Service, Division of Employment Security Commission, Raleigh, N. C. Mr. Egbert N. Peeler, Superintendent State School for the Blind, Raleigh, N. C. Dr. J. W. R. Norton, Secretary and State Health Officer, State Board of Health, Raleigh, N. C. Col. Charles H. Warren, Director, Vocational Rehabilitation, Raleigh, N. C. Dr. Ellen Black Winston, Commissioner, State Board of Public Welfare, Raleigh, N. C. ADVISORY MEDICAL COMMITTEE (Surgeons Certified by American Board of Ophthalmology) Dr. George T. Noel, Chairman, Kannapolis, N. C. Dr. V. M. Hicks, Supervising Ophthalmologist, Aid to the Blind, Raleigh, N. C. Dr. Paul Abernethy, Burlington, N. C. Dr. Elbert C. Anderson, Wilmington, N. C. Dr. W. Banks Anderson, Durham, N. C. Dr. Ralph A. Arnold, Durham, N. C. Dr. James W. Bizzell, Goldsboro, N. C. Dr. H. H. Briggs, Asheville, N. C. Dr. H. M. Dalton, Kinston, N. C. Dr. Alan Davidson, New Bern, N. C. Dr. John L. Etherington, Goldsboro, N. C. Dr. Clarence B. Foster, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. Thomas D. Ghent, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. W. R. Graham, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. Raymond F. Grove, Wilmington, N. C. Dr. B. A. Helsabeck, Winston-Salem, N. C. Dr. M. J. Hough, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. L. Byerly Holt, Winston-Salem, N. C. Dr. Ernest Larkin, Jr., Greenville, N. C. Dr. Ruth Leonard, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. M. N. Lymberis, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. Sam D. McPherson, Jr., Durham, N. C. Dr. E. E. Moore, Asheville, N. C. Dr. Robert E. Odom, Asheville, N. C. Dr. Winston Roberts, Winston-Salem, N. C. Dr. Maurice Harvey Rubin, Greensboro, N. C. Dr. John L. Shipley, Elizabeth City, N. C. Dr. Henry L. Sloan, Sr., Charlotte, N. C. Dr. Henry L. Sloan, Jr., Charlotte, N. C. Dr. Frank C. Smith, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. William P. Speas, Winston-Salem, N. C. Dr. Roy A. Stewart, Newton, N. C. Dr. Frederick W. Stocker, Durham, N. C. Dr. J. David Stratton, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. Horace G. Strickland, Greensboro, N. C. Dr. George T. Thornhill, Raleigh, N. C. Dr. Charles W. Tillett, Charlotte, N. C. Dr. Larry Turner, Durham, N. C. Dr. S. Weizenblatt, Asheville, N. C. Dr. John D. Wisley, Winston-Salem, N. C. Dr. M. Wayne Woodard, Asheville, N. C. INTRODUCTION The North Carolina State Commission for the Blind was created by legislative enactment in 1935 and began to function as a state agency in July of the same year. This Biennial Report presents the accomplishments for the period July 1, 1954 — June 30, 1956. The law under which the Commission operates places on it the responsibility of interpreting, administering and supervising an all inclusive program of work for the blind. These activities are accomplished by the three main divisions of the Commission: l_The Social Service Division which supervises financial grants to the indigent blind and renders special services to all the blind of the State; 2—The Medical Division which carries on three main phases of work, prevention of blindness, conservation of sight and restoration of vision; 3—The Rehabilitation Division which is composed of five major parts: a. General Rehabilitation Service ; b, The North Carolina Rehabilitation Center for Adult Blind; c. Home Industries; d. Workshop and e. The Bureau of Employment for the Blind. This report reflects the continuous development of activities and opportunities offered to the blind citizens of North Carolina. We feel that the blind of our State, as well as the thousands of persons with serious eye defects, have profited by the efforts of the Commission, and through the services rendered to them, many have become self-maintaining citizens of the State. The Commission for the Blind has made a concerted effort to conserve and utilize all State, Federal and community resources, so that as many as possible of the visually handicapped of the State could benefit by the use of such resources. Our program considers the whole man against his background of social, medical and financial needs and endeavors to help him help himself to fit into his community and take his place in the life of our State. We could not present this report without comment on the loyalty, perserverence and hard work of the staff and all persons and organizations who have made such noble contributions to the forward progress of good eye care for our citizens. The Federal, State and County Agencies, as well as private agencies, have given much aid and co-operation. The North Carolina State Association for the Blind and the North Carolina Lions Clubs have given untold financial aid and unselfish devotion to the cause of a better way of life for the visually handicapped citizens of North Carolina. c o u "5 co o *c o l/l fl) 01 <u c *- e-E £ E c o LU (J </> >- o> O 3 -O ca < 0) -O E 0) Eou 1 ? 1= X CO 0) O) UTl -e - . ._ o o = _ 4> 01 c > o o >o «o IV •= 0) E *• O >n u-° „, "O 0> q, 2.E I/) o a. 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G XI V i T3 E 0) f b « a & v «o *2 J3m U£ ^ ' i ' s 6 « H >> S* Xi u 10 Biennial Report of the SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION Christine Anderson, Supervisor The primary function of the Social Service Division is to super-vise the administration of the Aid to the Blind Program and to provide through local organizations a program of specialized services to all blind people. Specialized services are available to the Aid to the Blind recipients as a part of the case work process, but cannot be made available to blind persons who are not in financial need unless local sponsorship is provided. Through surveys and our census of the blind population it has been found that over 50 per cent of the blind in North Carolina are not in need of financial assistance, but a much greater percentage are in need of other services in order to adjust or readjust to normal living in the sighted world. The Social Service Division through its staff of six field super-visors and 36 case workers for the blind has given increased emphasis to the specialized aspects of our service program during the past biennium. Throughout this period we have attempted to strengthen the programs already in existence and to set up programs in areas which have not previously had a service program. These specialized services are made possible by funds contributed by local Lions Clubs or from funds contributed by the North State Association for the Blind. The specialized service program includes a full range of case work services to the blind, including instructing the family in techniques of avoiding over-protection and dependence of the blind member, helping the blind person to adjust realistically to the physical, psychological and social aspects of blindness. The blind person is helped to resume his normal responsibilities in the home through instruct-ion and guidance in household tasks, child care, etc. Training in the maximum use of the remaining senses is emphasized; academic training in typing, signature writing, reading and writ-ing Braille; the distribution of Talking Book Machines, Braille literature, and radios; the provision of recreational outlets; instruction in therapy crafts; and where needed, assistance in procuring medical care. A very important activity of the case work staff is assistance to parents of blind preschool children. The usual reaction of the parents upon learning that their child is blind is one of despair, frustration, and fear. These attitudes are expressed in over-protection or complete rejection of the child. If the parents can North Carolina Commission for the Blind 11 be helped to accept the blind child and to overcome their negative and ofter destructive attitudes, the blind child has a much greater chance of developing normally and of becoming a useful adult citizen. It has long been recognized that the foundation of a child's character and future is laid during the preschool years. Patterns of behavior, of feeling, and of thinking acquired during this period are likely to remain with him throughout his life. The child who is blind is more dependent upon intelligent care and training than other children, and it is essential that special guid-ance be given parents in meeting these problems. Assistance is given parents in training the blind child to become self-reliant, to avoid blindisms, and other behavior difficulties, and in the selection of suitable toys to stimulate the mind. The Social Service Division maintains a currently validated census of blind people in the State Office and in each of the six district offices; it is the direct responsibility of the staff of the Social Service Division to locate and register all blind persons. Our sources of referral are medical eye reports—these reports are essential for us to service any case through any division of the agency—social service, rehabilitation, medical; the County Health Departments, County Welfare Departments, School Health Program, continuous and group clinics sponsored by the State Commission for the Blind, hospitals, private indi-viduals, Veterans Administration, State Board of Health—Divi-sion of Pre-Mature Infants, applications for Talking Book Ma-chines, Lions Clubs, and other civic clubs and organizations. This information is vitally essential in planning and administering programs of both service and assistance for the blind. Increased emphasis has been placed during this biennium on interpretation of the many services available to the blind in North Carolina by the field supervisors and the case workers for the blind. During the biennium, 1999 talks were made to local civic groups and over radio in an effort to interpret the services available to the blind within the State through the State Commission for the Blind and other interested sponsoring groups. This type of public interpretation affords an excellent opportuni-ty for discussing local problems and local programs relating to the blind ; it also serves a dual purpose of creating local interest and local support in promoting the welfare of blind citizens in each community throughout the State. One of our most interesting services to the blind during the biennium was the distribution of 964 Talking Book Machines. 12 Biennial Report op the This is a special type of phonograph which plays records of books of all kinds—Bible, biography, fiction, history, poetry, gardening, poultry raising, etc. The talking book is doubtless the greatest single free service to the blind in the nation today. The North Carolina State Commission for the Blind has been designated by the Library of Congress as the lending agency to make these machines available to the blind in North Carolina ; and the North Carolina State Association pays the postage cost of distribution. The case workers for the blind instruct and assist the blind reader in learning to use the Talking Book Machine, and assist in procuring library service. The efforts of the staff of the Social Service Division have been sharply focused upon providing for all blind and visually handi-capped persons the services necessary for the development of a useful, well-adjusted and happy life. Our program operates on the premise that many blind persons can become useful members of society by developing the skills and attitudes which permit them to accommodate to the seeing world. Our progress in providing the many types of specialized services to help the blind in devoloping useful, well-adjusted, and happy lives is reflected in the following Chart, which lists the activities and the number of contacts made by the case worker for the blind during the biennioum. CHART 1 SPECIALIZED SERVICES GIVEN BY CASEWORKERS FOR THE BLIND IN COOPERATION WITH LIONS CLUBS AND THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE ASSOCIATION FOR THE BLIND Biennium Biennium 1952-54 1954-56 1. Home Visits 33,342 27,570 2. Assistance in personal adjustment to blindness, Assistance in learning to utilize to a maximum de-gree the other senses and assistance in developing effective ways of performing without sight the ordi-nary activities of living 16,217 18,974 3. Assistance in Family Adjustment—Instructing the family in ways of helping the blind person to adjust to blindness—Assisting the blind person in resum-ing his or her normal responsibilities in the home through instruction in child care, performance of household duties, etc. T 9,559 10,154 North Carolina Commission for the Blind 13 4. Instruction in Therapy Crafts—Hobby Crafts-sewing, weaving, chair caning, mat making, leather work, basketry, crocheting, knitting, gardening, raising pets and farm animals, etc. 4,452 4,564 5. Academic Work—Reading and writing Braille, typ-ing, signature writing, referral to State School for the Blind, referrals to classes for partially sighted, distribution of sight-saving material, information regarding admission to Rehabilitation Center for the Blind 9,697 13,266 6. Medical Care—This includes planning for the treat-ment, transportation and follow-up work in coopera-tion with the Medical Division 27,880 32,745 7. Recreation—Plays, movies, picnics, parties, distri-bution of gift radios 12,340 15,005 8. Miscellaneous Services 8,103 7,152 9. Talking Book Machines distributed 1,124 964 Both State and Federal laws provide that any applicant or reci-pient for the Aid to the Blind may appeal to the State Com-mission for the Blind, requesting a hearing if he is dissatisfied because of the following reasons : If his application is not taken ; if his application is not acted upon within thirty-one days; if his application is rejected ; if he is dissatisfied with the amount of his monthly payment; if he is dissatisfied when his payment is changed or stopped; or if he is found eligible and no payment is made within thirty-one days. The State agency upon receipt of such appeal must afford a fair hearing. During 1954-1956 fourteen requests for hearings were received ; the following tabulations show the number and action taken by the State Commission for the Blind: Requests received 14 Total handled - I 3 Requests withdrawn or disposed of by other means, such as adjustment by County prior to hearing — 1 Disposed of by decision of the State Commission in favor of appellant 2 County action upheld 11 The issues involved in the appeals were budgetary deficiency, income or property of appellant's family and income or property of appellant. Complete informational data on the number of persons receiving Aid to the Blind payments, the number terminated or rejected, and the age, race, and range of payments is given in Chart 11, 14 Biennial Report of the a Comparative Analysis of Aid to the Blind Acceptances—Reject-ions— Terminations—for the biennial period, July 1, 1954—June 30, 1956. CHART 11 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF AID TO THE BLIND ACCEPTANCES—REJECTIONS—TERMINATIONS 1. Number of persons receiving AB payments June 30, 1954 4,747 2. Number of applications accepted July 1, 1954-June 30, 1956 1,699 3. Total number of persons receiving AB July 1, 1954-June 30, 1956 6,446 4. Number of blind persons whose cases were closed July 1, 1954-June 30, 1956 1,514 Reasons for closing: a. Death 772 b. Employment of recipient 49 c. Employment of other person in home 58 d. Receipt of serviceman's allotment . 15 e. Increased resources 151 f. Change in law or agency policy 1 g. Vision restored 160 h. Soliciting alms 2 i. Admitted to an institution 67 j. Receipt of other public or private aid 14 k. Loss of residence 44 1. Other 181 5. Number of persons receiving AB June 30, 1956 4,932 6. Number of persons denied AB July 1, 1954-June 30, 1956 406 Reasons for Rejection: a. Ineligible on basis of vision 144 b. Ineligible because of residence requirements 5 c. Inmate of public institution 4 d. Other resources 214 e. Other reasons 39 7. North Carolina average monthly AB payment June, 1954 $40.20 8. North Carolina average monthly AB Payment June, 1956 $41.27 9. Range of monthly AB payments: a. $ 4.00—$ 9.99 b. 10.00— 14.99 c. 15.00— 19.99 d. 20.00— 24.99 e. 25.00— 29.99 f. 30.00— 34.99 g. 35.00— 39.99 h. 40.00— 44.99 i. 45.00— 49.99 June, 1954 June, 1956 14 17 69 89 123 141 273 245 418 359 756 714 625 591 628 615 449 447 North Carolina Commission for the Blind 15 j. 50.00— 54.00 367 391 k. 55.00— 1,025 1,323 10. Age of AB RECIPIENT: June, 1954 June, 1956 a. 0-14 94 122 b. 15-24 346 391 c. 25-54 1,728 1,920 d. 55-over 2,579 2,499 11. Race of AB recipient: June, 1954 June, 1956 a. White 2,555 2,632 b. Negro 2,153 2,261 c. Indian 39 39 The Chart, Appendix I, shows known number of Blind in the State, 11,562; data given by Counties, age, race, etc. Blind Client Learns Quilt Piecing Through Assistance of the Case Worker for the Blind. 1G Biennial Report of the 1—Case Worker Giving Instructions in White Cane Technique. 2—Case Worker Teaching a Visually Handicapped, Partially Deaf and Mentally Retarded Child to Tell Time by a Braille Clock. 3—Monthly Meetinq of the Raleigh-Durham Parents of Visually Handicapped Preschool Children. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 17 1—Case Worker Giving Instructions in Reading Braille. 2—Case Worker with a Group of Blind People Attending the Theater. 3—Boat Ride for the Blind at Summer Picnic. 18 Biennial Report of the THE MEDICAL DIVISION Anne Ruth Penney, Supervisor The Commission for the Blind is a service agency. The Physical Restoration Nurses are in constant contact with clients, agencies and civic clubs in offering and arranging for medical eye care. The primary objectives of the Medical Division are the prevention of blindness, the conservation of sight and the restoration of vision. The approach is twofold : Education and service. Education is carried out through talks by the Physical Restora-tion Nurses, to clubs, parent's groups, conferences with public welfare and health groups, and arranging for physicians to speak at conferences and institutes. Services include eye examinations, treatment and surgery for medically indigent persons who can be certified on the basis of need through the one hundred County Departments of Public Welfare. The Commission cooperates with and coordinates the interests and efforts of all public and private agencies and civic clubs. The program needs the interest of every person and is dependent upon the cooperation of doctors, local Health and Welfare Depart-ments in order to function efficiently. The three medical schools privide free eye examinations for persons certified on the basis of need by Welfare Departments. Recommendations are forwarded from these hospitals to the Commission for the Blind for authorizations for surgery, hos-pitalization and treatment. Memorial Hospital in Chapel Hill has provided space for a Visual Aids Clinic, which is held once each month. The North Carolina State Association for the Blind has provided equipment. The Medical and Rehabilitation Divisions of the Commission for the Blind and interested private physicians cooperate in an effort to determne to what extent this type of service can benefit those people who have a serious visual handicap. This is an exploratory project in the ever expanding service program of medical services. The Variety Club Eye Clinic in Charlotte and the Asheville Lions Club Eye Clinic provide a continuous program of medical services. Group eye clinics are held throughout the state in counties where medical facilities are not available. The frequency of these clinics, monthly, quarterly, or yearly, depends upon the North Carolina Commission for the Blind 19 need. The Commission uses all local and community public ser-vices plus making arrangements for clients to be seen in physi-cian's offices. By organizing facilities and promoting interest and cooperation of all agencies, civic groups and physicians, medical eye care services are made available on a state-wide basis to all medically indigent persons. In the period from July 1, 1954-June 30, 1956, 42,590 indigent persons were given eye examinations ; 5,775 were given eye treat-ments; 2,300 were furnished eye operations; and 23,996 pairs of glasses were fitted. Since there is no item in the agency's medical budget for glasses, most of the 23,996 pairs of glasses were purchased by the three hundred or more Lions Clubs, the North Carolina State Association for the Blind and the School Health Program. It has been estimated by the best authorities that nearly fifty per cent of blindness is preventable. It is our hope that with the improvement in medical techniques and practices that we shall be able to allay and reduce the fifty per cent of preventable blindness by: 1. Early diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma. Many physicians recommend that an eye tension test should be included as a part of each general medical examination, especially for persons past the age of forty. One to two per cent of persons in this age group have beginning glaucoma. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can prevent blindness resulting from this dread eye disease—"the thief in the night." 2. Education in eye health and safety. Trauma accounts for nearly ten per cent of blindness. 3. Early diagnosis and treatment of systemic diseases. In the past few years, blindness due to infectious diseases has been markedly reduced. Modern drugs, better trained physicians, bet-ter methods of disease control and broader public health coverage have made valuable contributions to prevention of blindness due to infectious diseases. 4. Blindness caused by retrolental fibroplasia. The eye disease found in tiny premature babies, is now being controlled and should finally be eradicated. Medical science has been able to determine the cause and to set up preventive measures. This 20 Biennial Report op the one disease is responsible for blindness in about eight thousand children in the United States. North Carolina has one hundred or more children blind from retrolental fibroplasia. Through education and a broad program of medical eye care service we can enlist the interest and cooperation of more people, agencies and organizations in our ultimate goal to eradicate blind-ness. The fight against blindness must go on. SERVICE OFFERED BY MEDICAL DIVISION I. Eye Examination and Treatment A. Physician's offices—By appointment through local Departments of Public Welfare or special arrangement. B. Group eye clinics. 1. Arranged in counties where medical eye care is not available locally. 2. Children and adults are admitted on a needs basis, certifi-cation made by local Department of Public Welfare. 3. Clinical eye examinations made by eye physicians. 4. Participating agencies. a. Local Welfare Department. (1) Certifies on needs basis. (2) Takes applications for clinic services. (3) Gives active support to clinic by assisting in plan-ning for physical setup and assisting in providing for clerical help. (4) Plans jointly with Health Department for transporta-tion. b. Health Department (1) School screening for eye defects. (2) Furnishes list of names of children to Welfare De-partment for certification on the basis of need. (3) Public Health Personnel assists in operation of the clinic. (4) Assists Welfare Department in planning transporta-tion to and from the clinic for services. c. Commission for the Blind. Area Physical Restoration Nurse is responsible for the following services: (1) Over-all joint planning for the group eye clinic. (2) Securing the services of an eye physician to do the eye examinations. (3) Securing the services of an optician to furnish frames, take frame measurements, copy doctor's prescriptions for glasses, have lenses ground, furnish glasses cases and see that glasses are properly made up and delivered. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 21 (4) Worker is present at the clinic for the purpose of coordinating and supervising the over-all functioning of the group clinic. C. Sustaining eye clinics. 1. Services offered on an area basis by appointments. 2. Supervised by one or more physicians who are diplomates of American Board of Ophthalmology. 3. Financing shared by Lions Clubs, State Association for the Blind, Variety Clubs and the State Commission for the Blind. Physicians make substantial financial contributions by waiving their fees and applying same to the operating costs of the clinics. 4. Number and location. a. The Asheville Lions Club Eye Clinic, Mission Hospital, Asheville b. The Variety Club Eye Clinic, Professional Building, Charlotte 5. Hospitals furnishing Eye Clinic Services. a. Memorial Hospital, Chapel Hill, N. C. b. Duke Hospital, Durham, N. C. c. McPherson Hospital, Durham, N. C. d. N. C. Baptist Hospital, Winston-Salem, N. C. II. Follow-up Work. A. Surgery is done by eye physicians who are American Board Diplo-mates or eye physicians who are accepted applicants for American Board examinations. B. Hospitalization and surgery financed by the Commission for the Blind. III. Glasses: The State Commission for the Blind secures glasses at special rates from wholesale optical companies for local agencies and Lions Clubs. Glasses are paid for locally and by the North Carolina State Association for the Blind. IV. Sponsership of Sight-Saving Classes. The Chart, Appendix II, reveals data on the 42,590 indigent per-sons examined by Eye Physicians during the Biennium; data given by Counties. 22 Biennial Report of the I—Visual Aids Clinic—2 and 3 Surgery North Carolina Commission for the Blind 23 1—Sight Saving Class. 2—County Eye Clinic. 24 Biennial Report of the Blind Child Given Assistance by the Case Worker in Boarding Bus to Enter the State School for the Blind. SERVICES FOR CHILDREN The Medical and Social Service Divisions offer special services to North Carolina children. These services include : General Medical Examinations Medical Eye Examinations Eye Surgery and Treatment Medical Eye Care Follow-up Consultation North Carolina Commission for the Blind 25 Home visits to encourage parents to take advantage of oppor-tunities to send blind children to the State School for the Blind, to secure medical eye care, to obtain educational materials and Talking Book Machines. Participation in the Joint School Health Program Referral to Sight Saving Classes Referral to the State School for the Blind Services to the Pre-School Child : Eye Examinations Surgery Treatment Pre-School Institute for Mothers of Blind Children : The fifth annual Conference for Mothers of Pre-school Blind Children was held in 1956. For a number of years, leaders in work for the blind in North Carolina have recognized the need and importance of having such a Conference. The officials of the North Carolina State School for the Blind and the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind, the two State agencies whose legal responsibility is work for the Blind, had conferred, discussed and tried to find funds in their budgets for this under-taking. No State funds were available and so the Summer Con-ference remained an unmet need of the total program for the blind. Early in 1950 the North Carolina State Association for the Blind was approached and the proposed project and its im-portance outlined. The North Carolina State Association is a non-profit, lay group whose sole reason for existence is furthering work for the blind state-wide. This Association was organized in 1934 by prominent Lions and other interested groups and individuals to work for a state-sponsored agency which would devote full time to the work for the blind and visually handicapped. Its efforts met with suc-cess and in March, 1935, the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind was created by legislative enactment. With the background of such achievement in work for the blind, the North Carolina State Association was sympathetic to the need and made funds available for the Conference ; thus, the first Summer Conference was held in 1950. The Conference is, therefore, jointly sponsored by the North Carolina State Association for the Blind, the North Carolina State School for the Blind and the North Carolina State Com-mission for the Blind. The School furnishes the physical set-up, 26 Biennial Report of the staff and supervision; the Commission furnishes the staff to locate the pre-school blind children in the State, to report these and to work with the mothers who are scheduled to attend, also, the Commission staff is used during the Conference and the North Carolina State Association for the Blind furnishes funds for maintenance and transportation for the mothers and babies, buys books, toys and pays for staff members. PRESCHOOL OPERATIVE SERVICES—1954-56 Squint Operations 86 Congenital Cataracts 44 Congenital Glaucoma 15 Enucleations 17 Chalazion Removed 3 Ptosis 8 Treatment and other defects 57 Total 230 Madeline P. McCrary Befor SURGERY After North Carolina Commission for the Blind 27 Children Attending the Summer Institute for Mothers of Blind Babies 28 Biennial Report of the VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION DIVISION Rehabilitation is the restoration of disabled persons to the fullest physical, mental, vocational and economic usefulness of which they are capable. Rehabilitation has proved its worth not only to the individual but to the taxpayer. Rehabilitation accepts a man as he is; and through various ser-vices, such as counseling, guidance, physical restoration, adjust-ment and vocational training, prepares him for and places him in employment. The economic value of rehabilitation to the individual and to the nation can be measured by the dollar standard, but the social values gained by the individual and society cannot be evaluated. Rehabilitation gives a new life to the handicapped person who in turn make his contribution to his community, his state and his nation. Rehabilitation can change his status from a recipient of tax funds to an employed person paying taxes. The Rehabilitation Program of the Commission for the Blind, with its multiple services, is carried out through the following five coordinated major units: 1. Six District Offices providing case finding, counseling and guidance, physical restoration, vocational training, place-ment and other indicated services required in preparing blind people for employment. 2. The Rehabilitation Center for the Blind providing adjust-ment to blindness and pre-vocational training for newly blinded adults. 3. Five Workshops providing training for self-employment and jobs for blind people wanting sheltered employment. 4. Home Industries providing training of blind people in the production of saleable articles made in the home and creating sales outlets for these products. 5. Bureau of Employment for the Blind providing training and employment in vending stand operation. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 29 I. GENERAL REHABILITATION SERVICES Britt L. Green, Supervisor The First World War brought into sharp focus the necessity for retraining disabled veterans. The success of this program em-phasized the need for rehabilitation services for the thousands of handicapped civilians who could become self-supporting if given proper physical restoration and vocational training. Re-habilitation services began in 1920, but it was not until 1943 that the Congress enacted into law a bill sponsored by Congress-man Graham Barden of North Carolina. Mr. Barden was co-author of the Barden-LaFollette Act which became known as Public Law 113. Public Law 113 was a Bill of Rights for the handicapped of the Nation and initated a Nation-Wide program of rehabilitation services for disabled people with employment handicaps. The Congress made funds available for the work, the North Carolina General Assembly matched these Federal funds, and for the first time in the history of America, the handicapped had the doors of work opportunities opened wide. The Federal Government recognized the value of the rehabili-tation of handicapped citizens and the need for further expan-sion of rehabilitation services. To meet this need, Public Law 565 was passed in 1954. Under the provisions of this law ad-ditional Federal funds were made available to broaden the scope and basis of the program. General rehabilitation involves certain processes, the most im-portant of these are: (1) Case finding, (2) Counseling and Guidance, (3) Training, (4) Placement and (5) Post Placement Supervision. Case Finding: All the services available to the visually handi-capped cannot be provided until the person has been found. The first job of rehabilitation is to find the individual so that he may accept or reject the services that are offered. After a person is found, he must be interviewed and a complete evalu-ation made in order to determine whether he has rehabilitation potentialities. Rehabilitation looks at the Total Man in the light of his employability : Physical abilty to work, mental and edu-catonal ability to learn, personality adequate to hold a job. and skill to produce a service which someone is willing to purchase. Counseling and Guidance: The aim of vocational counseling is to help the client in his choice of a suitable employment objective, in planning his preparation for such employment and in achieving those attitudes which will bring success and satisfaction in his job. Counseling is based on an understanding of the "whole" individual with due regard to individual differences and the fact that the client is the one to be served. It is he who is to be made self-maintaining by the processes of rehabilitation. Every effort 30 Biennial Report of the is made to remove or to meliorate his handicap. After a client has been accepted by the counselor, the possibility of physical restoration is the first rehabilitation service considered. The role of the counselor in rehabilitation is most important. He is dealing with a human life, and only counselors trained in the techniques of the rehabilitation process should be entrusted with so great a task. Training: When an employment objective has been determined, a plan is set up to provide necessary training, such as adjustment to blindness, stand operation, workshop, industry and profes-sional occupations requiring college degrees. The counselor is responsible for the type and quality of training secured. He keeps constant watch to see that the client receives training which will fit him for remunerative employment. Placement: Rehabilitation processes must lead to employment — the ultimate goal of all rehabilitation aims—job placement which will allow the handicapped individual to use all of his abilities and to achieve the highest development of which he is capable. Through the years, it has been conclusively proven that blind persons do not want to beg; that begging is an insult to any self-respecting blind person. It has been generally conceded that blind people are capable of working and earning a living. Finding new and better employment opportunities for blind people is a challenge to the rehabilitation worker and the mutual responsi-bility of a progressive society. Post Placement Supervision: The last major step in the re-habilitation process is post-placement supervision. After a blind person has been placed, he needs guidance and supervision to some degree to insure continuing progress. The rehabilitation counselor visits the blind person at regular intervals as long as necessary. Psychological Services and Research William M. Cannon, Supervisor Psychological services and research are crucial factors in the broad concept of rehabilitation. Through the application of psy-chological principles, we come to understand the clients with whom we work; and the wise use of research has proved itself to be the key to an ever improving program of education, train-ing, and employment of blind people. Since 1945 psychological services have been provided by the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind. These services consist of: Testing and Screening new referrals for rheabili-tation services, diagnostic testing, job placement testing, psycho-logical counseling, psychological and adjustment research, agen-cy- wide staff consultation services and research projects on a national and international scope designed to provide improved and more effective programs for blind people as a consequence of investigation and inter-agency communication. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 31 These functions are carried on in various ways including mobile Psychological Clinics held throughout the State, clinics at the North Carolina Rehabilitation Center for the Blind, and by in-dividual appointments in the Central Offices of the Commission in Raleigh. The primary testing areas of most importance in working with blind persons are those which lead to the understanding of intel-lectual capacity, manual dexterity, personality structure, and vocational interest. At the present time, the Psychology Service is conducting exten-sive research in developing normative data for many existing tests which have been originally standardized with sighted popu-lations but which can be used diagnostically with blind people. This often requires modification of testing methods, and con-sequently the development of new norms. In addition to this general research, experimentation is being carried out in the field of developing new tests and testing meth-ods particularly in the area of Vocational Interests. This work deserves special mention because it is receiving concentrated attention as a project of national interest at the present time. It is believed that through the application of experimental and empirical methods, measures can be developed which can provide a picture of "true" vocational interests which are relatively free of personal and cultural influences. One such influence is the real danger of job opportunities for the blind becoming stereo- Rehabilitation Client in Training as a Transcriptionist for Work in a Private Agency. 32 Biennial Report of the typed and limited to include only a restricted number of opportu-nities. It is hoped that this new research will enable us to discover the vocational interests of each client in a manner independent of presently recognized jobs so that we may experience an ever-expanding world of employment opportunities for those with reduced vision. Such techniques would assist in avoiding the placement of blind persons in jobs to which they are not suited. Plans are being made for the expansion of psychological services and research so that an increasing number of clients may be aided in their general welfare through the application of modern adjustive methods. The facilitation of diagnostic methods, counse-ling, and placement techniques, so as to avoid costly observational delays through the application of tests and psychological meas-urements, will mean direct and indirect financial savings to the State plus a very real benefit to the individual blind person whom we serve in terms of lifelong satisfaction on the job. STATISTICS ON THE 673 BLIND PERSONS REHABILITATED INTO EMPLOYMENT. PERIOD JULY 1, 1954 THROUGH JUNE 30, 1956 Number of Males 382 Number of Females 291 Number of White 459 Number of Negro 213 Number of Indian 1 Average Education at Survey 6.4 Average Age When Accepted for Rehabilitation Services _„_„„ 44.4 Man Trained Through Rehabilitation Services, Notv Manages His Own Insurance Agency. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 33 Average Number of Months Cases Were Serviced by the Rehabilitation Division 27.9 Average Number Months in Training 3. Average Cost of Case Services (does not include administration) $590.35 Average Weekly Wage When Accepted as Rehabilitation Client __ 4.18 Average Weekly Wage When Closed as Employed and Rehabilitated 26.10 STATISTICS ON THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS OF THE 673 BLIND PERSONS REHABILITATED. PERIOD JULY 1, 1954 THROUGH JUNE 30, 1956 Type of Job Number Per Cent Professional and Semi-professional 42 6.25 Managerial and Sales 135 20 Farmers 82 12 Skilled Workers 15 2.25 Semi-skilled 75 11 Unskilled 108 16 Service Jobs 54 8.50 Craft Workers 14 2 Housewives, Home Managers 148 22 Totals 673 100 Madeline P. McCrary After Attending the Rehabilitation Center, This Client Was Provided Tranining, Equipment and Supplies Through the Rehabilitation Division. 34 Biennial Report op the 1—Dark Room Operator—Private Industry 2—Employed in Private Industry 3—Operator of a Telephone Answering Service North Carolina Commission for the Blind 35 THE NORTH CAROLINA REHABILITATION CENTER Helen Cutting, Superintendent Travel Training—Orientation to Indoor Travel—Using Escalators; Street Travel, Urban Area. The North Carolina Rehabilitation Center was created by legis-lative enactment in 1945 and began operation in November 1945. The establishment of the Rehabilitation Center for adult blind persons was the fulfullment of a long cherished idea and the realization of a great unmet need in the total program of work for the blind. The orientation and adjustment to blindness which the Center program provides for the adult blind has en-abled many blind persons to enter employment and become self-supporting. From November 1945 until August 1952, the Center was housed in several temporary buildings owned by other agencies. In August 1952, it moved into its own new and modern building, located at Butner, North Carolina. This building provided space for the administrative offices, dining hall, classrooms, library, auditorium and two dormitories. There were no staff houses, but the 1953 General Assembly made funds available for two staff houses and during this biennium these were completed. These new facilities have made possible more adequate training of the blind persons who enter the Center as trainees. North 36 Biennial Report of the Carolina can now offer a multiple, comprehensive service program complete with pre-vocational and adjustment opportunities. The Center has many friends who have been interested in beauti-fying the grounds and developing a recreation area for the students. Through the efforts of the Westwood Garden Club of Durham, a program of beautification of the grounds in front of the Center has been continued for several years. Through various Lions Clubs and other organizations, a recreation park and lake have been developed. Picnic tables, benches and barbecue pits have been built in the area, and the lake has been stocked with fish. The North Carolina State Association for the Blind has given food for the fish and grass for the area in addition to the sustaining financial help which has meant so much to our stu-dents. Many other gratuities have been received, such as an air conditioner for the auditorium and a Hammond Organ; TV sets for each recreation room that afford not only entertainment for the students but provide information on world wide events ; Christmas gifts, flowers for commencement, records and ad-ditional rememberances which help to instill in our students the knowledge that people are interested in the work being done at the Center. A bus was secured in 1955 which is used in the training program to teach students this mode of transportation since many will use it when placed in employment. Also the bus is used for transportation of student groups when necessary. The North Carolina Rehabilitation Center has many visitors each year from the United States and abroad, who come to study and observe its training program for the blind. Among the foreign countries represented have been Holland, Thailand, Sweden, Greece, France, England, several South American countries, Egypt and others. Radio news commentator, Leon Pearson, visit-ed the Center with Mrs. Harriet Pressley, well known Raleigh radio personality, to make a recording about the Center. This was taped for Nation-wide distribution to be used later on work for the blind programs. The basic courses at the Center are fairly well standardized after ten years of operation; however, this does not mean that new ones will not be initiated to meet changing needs. Some of the courses offered at the present time are: 1. Orientation to the physical set-up of the Center and surroundings, 2. Travel techniques, 3. Adjustment, 4. Continuation of counseling, 5. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 37 Psychological tests and measurements, 6. Personality adjust-ment, 7. Stand training and employment practices, 8. Basic courses in personal hygiene, table etiquette and demands of daily living, 9. Home economics and housekeeping, 10. Academic courses such as English, Spelling, arithmetic, Braille, typing and trans-cribing, 11. Craft courses, 12. Sewing, 13. Shop work, 14. Electri-cal appliance repair, 15 Laundry courses, 16. Cooking classes for men and women. The following charts present statistics on the biennial period and will give some idea as to the number of students, age, sex, etc. attending the Center during this biennium. STATISTICS—July 1, 1954-June 30, 1956 on Students at the Rehabilitation Center. Total Number of Students _ 159 Number of Couties Represented 63 Average Age 33.9 Males 108 Females 51 White 92 Negro 66 Indian 1 Rural 85 Urban 74 Single 68 Married 61 Other 30 Average Education 7 Average I. Q. 94.8 Average Number of Months at the Rehabilitation Center 6 Age at Onset of Blindness: 0- 5 63 6-18 15 19-29 22 30-44 39 45-65 19 Over 65 1 Causes of Blindness: Disease 146 Accident 17 Congenital 37 Inherited 12 Degree of Vision—Present Total Blindness-Both Eyes 20 Blind One Eye- Partial Vision Other 39 Partial Vision-Each Eye __ 100 Source of Support When Student Entered Center: Family 74 Public Relief 67 Public Institution 2 Self 10 Pension 2 Other 4 Previous Employment: Minister 1 Teacher 5 Writer 1 Lithographer 1 Bookkeeper 1 Managerial 4 Salesman 4 Farmer 10 Piano Tuner 2 Clerical 3 Plumber 2 Miner 1 Industrial Worker 8 Truck Driver 3 Service Job 4 Domestic 8 Baby Sitter _ 2 Familv Worker 10 38 Biennial Report op the Previous Employment (Cont'd.) Housewife 4 Housekeeper 2 Inspector 1 Stand Operator 1 Laborers: Semi-Skilled . 1 Unskilled ___ 52 No Job 28 Number Employed 34 Number In Training 52 Number Unemployed 71 Number Left State 1 Number Deceased 1 Types of Employment of the 34 Employed: Instructor Stand Operator Own Business Receptionist Practical Nurse Baby Sitter Housewife Home Manager Family Worker Domestic Mop Assembler Laborer In the 1952-54 Biennial we presented statistics on the employ-ment status of the 160 students who attended the Center during this period. In June, 1956, we made a follow-up study, which disclosed the following facts : June 1954-June 1956 Number of Students Number Employed: __ Number in Training: Number Unemployed: 160 1954 28 59 73 Left State Deceased 1956 113 3 38 3 3 With this follow-up study we found, as time went on, that a great many more were placed in employment and, we feel that this is more evidence that the training at the Center is worth-while in a total Rehabilitation program. Madeline P. McCrary Craft Training Courses, Rehabilitation Center Basketry—Weaving North Carolina Commission for the Blind 39 1—Clients Are Taught to Use Telephone and Braille Clock 2—Typing and Travel 3—Braille Library 40 Biennial Report of the HOME INDUSTRIES Laura E. Merchant Supervisor of Workshops and Home Industries Through the services provided by the Home Industries Depart-ment of the Rehabilitation Division, fifty-two home bound blind persons were given training, assisted with purchasing of materi-als and procuring sales outlets for their products. The three area Home Industries Counselors now have a total case load of 205. Eight hundred and fifty-five visits were made to homes of the blind by the Home Industries Counselors in 1955. Fifty percent of these visits were to referred cases to determine eligibility for rehabilitation as a home bound worker. Each blind person referred for Home Industry is given every opportunity to take up some type of employment. Thirty sewing machines have been placed in the homes of blind clients. Fourteen of these persons have regular work through the Guilford Industries for the Blind, making items for the display racks which are placed in various stores over the state. It is impossible to give the total earnings of the home bound blind as many have developed their own sales outlets, such as Home Bound Woman Has Regular Employment Through The Guilford Industries for the Blind. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 41 1—Sales Booth at Horse Show Sponsored by Lions 2—Blind, Deaf Mute Is Proficient in Making Stuffed Toys 42 Biennial Report of the the blind couple living at Hatteras, who have a good income from their rug weaving and collections of sea shells. A recently blinded man was provided wood working equipment and has a small shop in his backyard where he makes stools of all sizes, for which he finds a ready sale. Many of the home bound blind live in such isolated areas that marketing their products is difficult. For these workers, ex-hibits and sales are held by the Home Industries Counselors, sponsored by Lions Clubs and other interested Civic Clubs and organizations. Forty-five such sales were held during the past biennium. In addition to these sales, many gift shops over the state purchase our baskets and other items. One elderly blind couple have all the orders for baskets they can fill from the "French Broad Garden Club" at Biltmore, North Carolina. Home Industries work helps to fill many dull hours for the home bound blind persons and tends to build up their confidence, and recognition in their community as well as adding to their income. WORKSHOP Laura E. Merchant Supervisor- of Workshops and Home Industries An average of 92 blind persons were employed in the five work-shops during the past biennium, at an average wage of $25.37 per week per person. In addition to this wage, a sum of $6,232.37 was paid the blind workers as paid vacation and Christmas bonuses. Many of these blind employees have been 1—Home Laundry Worker Trained and Furnished Equipment by Re-habilitation. 2—Indian Girl Trained in Chair Work. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 43 on the workshop payrolls since 1936. Several have bought homes and a number have gone into private or self-employment after having the training and experience of regular work in a super-vised workshop. All workshops participating in Federal Orders are complying with the Wage Hour Laws of $1.00 per hour. Two shops, Durham and Greensboro, have enlarged their build-ings, providing necessary storage space and facilities for em-ployment of more blind persons who need to work under close supervision and constant guidance. The five workshops have modern equipment comparable to other like manufacturing units in the state. This equipment was fur-nished by the State through the State Commission for the Blind. Interior of the Gift Shop Furnished by the Guilford Industries for the Blind, Greensboro, N. C., to Display Articles Made by Home Bound Blind. 44 Biennial Report op the 1 — Miss Vedhi Avudh, Supervisor of the Vocational Center for the Blind, Bangkok, Thailand, received training in American Methods of Mattress Making. 2 — A Production Unit, Guilford Industries for the Blind. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 45 NORTH CAROLINA BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT FOR THE BLIND R. H. Llewellyn, Supervisor Pursuant to the law which placed upon the Commission the re-sponsibility for maintaining employment opportunities for blind individuals who are able to work but unable to find placement in outside employment, the Commission established by resolution an auxiliary division known as The Bureau of Employment for the Blind. The advisory body of this Bureau is made up of busi-ness men who have had experience in the field of merchandising and who advise the Commission on policies, rules, regulations and practices which should be established and observed in the operation of a successful business enterprise program. The function of the Bureau is to accept blind and visually handi-capped persons for training and placement in types of businesses found to be suitable for the employment of visually impaired people. During the training period, the trainee is taught merchan-dising, displaying, buying and selling techniques and record keep-ing. When the blind person has developed a reasonable pro-ficiency in the fundamentals of merchandising operations, he is given an opportunity for employment either with the Bureau or placed as an independent merchant by the Rehabilitation Divi-sion of the Commission for the Blind. The Bureau is a non-profit organization, operated solely to provide employment for visually handicapped persons. All earnings, after deducting ope-rating expenses, are paid to the operators. Recent amendments to the Federal Rehabilitation Act and the increased appropriation of Federal funds made it possible for the Bureau to broaden the scope and basis of its program. For the first time the Bureau was able to offer large industrial plants a hot food service for plant employees. The Bureau now operates food service units in 32 North Carolina industrial plants with payrolls ranging from 200 persons in the smaller plants to 1,700 in the largest plant. The Bureau units in industrial plants are usually operated within the framework of a mutual agreement wherein the industrial plant provides free space and utilities, and the Bureau provides adequate food service and assumes full responsibility for the operation of the unit including the supervision of the operators. The Congress of the United States is convinced that a supervised type of vending stand program is the best method of providing services to the general public and assuring employment to blind persons. At the close of the biennial period June 30, 1956, the Bureau was operating 79 stands, employing 82 blind operators whose earnings totaled $143,291.62—an average weekly earning 46 Biennial Report of the of $33.60. In addition to these earnings, the Bureau provided its blind operators the following fringe benefits : Paid vacations, sick leave, hospital benefits, Unemployment Compensation, Work-men's Compensation and Social Security coverage. The Bureau, through group insurance, is able to overcome the prohibitive life insurance rate charged blind people and offers its operators the opportunity to secure life insurance at a low group premium rate. Owing to a successful vending machine operation, the Bureau paid a bonus to all of its operators who were employed by the Bureau at the close of the fiscal period June 30, 1956. The bonus was paid on a "length of service" basis ranging from $20.00 for employees of less than a year's service to $100.00 for employees with more than 10 years' service. The members of the Commission for the Blind and the members of the Bureau of Employment for the Blind express their appreci-ation to the hundreds of Lions Clubs, the North Carolina State Association for the Blind. State, county and municipal officials, labor and management and thousands of interested citizens for their cooperation in making the Commission's Vending Stand Program a success. Stand in Onslow County Court House, Jacksonville, N. C. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 47 1—Vending Stand, State Building 2—and 3—Food Units in Industrial Plants 48 Biennial Report of the ASSISTANCE AND CO-OPERATION FROM OTHER AGENCIES, GROUPS AND INDIVIDUALS The data presented in this report has shown the assistance and co-operation received by the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind from the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, the County Boards of Commissioners and County Wel-fare Departments, The Lions Clubs and the North Carolina State Association for the Blind. It should again be emphasized that the blind people of North Carolina have reaped the benefits of this interest and assistance enabling the Commission to expand its services to the blind. There are other groups and individuals who have greatly con-tributed to the activities in work for the blind. The majority of these have already been mentioned elsewhere but because of the quantity of the contribution recognition is again given: EYE PHYSICIANS—North Carolina is most fortunate in having eye physicians located in the various sections of the State who are giving unsparingly of their time and skill to prevent blindness, and wherever possible to conserve sight and to restore vision. These eye physicians give to the needy cases recommended to their care the same highly skilled, professional services received by private patients. Without the very fine co-operation and unselfishness of these eye physicians it would be impossible to have a program of prevention in North Carolina. The Commission is also indebted to the many private physicians who give treat-ment to persons referred for general medical attention by the eye physicians. Since the eye is often called "a thermometer to bodily conditions," many eye difficulties of patients are the result of disease or abnormal conditions in other parts of the body. A large number of indigent persons with defective vision coming under the care of the Commission have diseases of the blood vessels, kidneys, brain or other parts of the body which are first discovered by eye physicians. Diseased tonsils and other bodily infections in children are often the cause of impaired vision. These conditions, if not detected by an eye physician and corrected, may weaken the efficiency not only of the eye but of other vital organs of the body. OTHER AGENCIES AND INDIVIDUALS The State Federation of Women's Clubs has taken work for the blind as one of its major projects. Individual Club women are providing personal services to blind people as a part of their North Carolina Commission for the Blind 49 general program. The Junior Women's Club is most active in work for the blind. The State Board of Public Welfare, the State Department of Public Instruction, the State Board of Health, the County Schools and Health Officials, the local Private Welfare Agencies and Hospitals have given valuable assistance in the development of services for the blind. The State School for the Blind has cooperated splendidly with the Commission in the development of a joint program. Rotary , Kiwanis, American Business Men's Clubs, the Variety Clubs, Exchange Clubs, P. T. A.s and other organizations have participated in the work for the blind program on a community level. The following organizations outside the State have aided the Commission in the development of its work: The American Foundation for the Blind, the National Industries for the Blind, the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness, The Seeing Eye, Inc. and the National Rehabilitation Association. RECOMMENDATIONS The preceding report of the work of the Commission has pre-sented a brief review of the services rendered to the blind and visually handicapped of North Carolina during the past biennium. This report also calls attention to some of the unmet needs. REQUESTED INCREASES IN APPROPRIATIONS FOR THE BIENNIUM 1957-58 AND 1958-59 The members of the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind appreciate the difficult problems of state financing con-fronting the Advisory Budget Commission. The Commission is equally aware that it is responsible under law for administering all governmentally sponsored services for the blind citizens of our State. The budget request represents an increase over funds previously appropriated; yet the funds requested will provide solely for urgently needed services. Only the basic needs of the blind have been inlcuded in the budget. The following increases are necessary to meet the minimum needs of the blind now known to the Commission : First, $27,300 additional State funds are requested for the first year of the biennium and $35,100 for the second year of the biennium to provide direct relief to the needy blind. These 50 Biennial Report of the additional State funds will enable the Commission to pay 5,150 grants at a montly average of $44.35 for the first year and 5,250 at a monthly average of $44.35 for the second year. The general trend of increase in number of recipients for the past three years has been 100 each year. Second, $3,000 additional State funds for each year of the biennium are requested to provide for supplementing boarding home care of non-family persons whose Aid to the Blind assi-tance payments are inadequate for their care. Any person benefiting under this plan must have no relatives to care for him, and no other resources available for meeting his boarding home care. All applications for this supplementa-tion must have prior approval from the State Commission for the Blind. Third, $5,000 additional State funds for each year of the biennium are requested to provide for physical maintenance of build-ings at the Rehabilitation Center for the Blind, Butner, North Carolina. The Administration Building was com-pleted in August, 1952 and has never been repainted. A survey of the buildings was made by the Engineering Department of the Budget Bureau in March of 1956. These engineers made recommendations for extensive repairs to the buildings. An allotment from the Contingency and Emergency Fund was made for this purpose. An adequate maintenance budget would have prevented the need for extensive repairs. An investment of over a half million dollars in buildings at the Center should be protected. Fourth, $92 additional State funds for each year of the biennium are requested to provide for maintenance contracts on addressograph equipment used in writing monthly assi-stance payment checks for the more than 5,000 Aid to the Blind recipients. It is imperative that this equipment be kept in proper working order. Only by a continuing service contract can this be accomplished. Fifth, $135 additional State funds for the second year of the biennium are requested to provide for insurance and bond-ing of officers and staff members handling funds. The premium for this insurance is paid for on a three year period schedule. The last premium was paid in October 1955. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 51 Sixth, $460 additional State funds are requested for each year of the biennium to provide for administrative office equip-ment. These additional State funds will provide for only the minimum needs for replacement of worn and obsolete equipment in the State Office and the six District Offices. Seventh, ?1,052 additional State funds are requested for each year 3f the biennium to provide for office rent. In order to obtain maximum coordination of services to blind people in the State, several years ago all members of the Com-mission field staff, except Case Workers, were assigned to District Offices. Because of the increase in case load, this has now resulted in very crowded conditions in the District Offices. These additional State funds will make it possible to obtain adequate District Office facilities that will result in a much more efficient and affectively adminis-tered program for blind people throughout the State. Eighth, $7,139 additional State funds are requested for each year of the biennium to provide for salaries of one Stenographer Clerk I in each of five District Offices, and one Steno-grapher Clerk II in one District Office. The assignment of field staff members to District Offices and our greatly expanded program in all phases of services for the blind have resulted in a very acute need for additional clerical staff. It is administratively and economically unsound to require professional staff members to devote their time to clerical work which can be done more efficiently and economically by trained clerical workers. Ninth, $1,290 additional State funds for each year of the biennium are requested to provide for the salary of a Rehabilitation Counselor II. This Rehabilitation Counselor will be assign-ed the responsibility of the Placement of Rehabilitation clients in industry on a State-wide basis. Many Rehabili-tation clients now awaiting employment could be placed in private industry by a Counselor who is a specialist in this field. Private industry offers higher compensation to blind people and it is the responsibility of the State Com-mission for the Blind to develop these employment op-portunities for the blind in North Carolina. Tenth, $1,934 additional State funds for the first year of the bien-nium and $3,868 for the second year of the biennium are requested to provide Merit salary increases. APPENDIX I SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION Data by geographical regions and counties concerning the 11,562 blind persons on biennial census report for the period July 1, 1954 through June 30, 1956. Table Nc Biennial by C eosrnph 1T"S md C. - Utl 1 95 l>e so. s ; „ACE ™.™,«. S3..S »«.,...„.,b,„„n„ ™§Sf ; j si jl i £S Sffl" ,.J! 10. I ! .,..„ prMlmon, R ~~ ,., ... - A '. ;.. ,. ,, J . „ ,.«; „ . ,,, . ._,, „ - , ,. , J J . '1 '1 _Jj_«! • J .J 1 " .j . l ' ' ,( a J h J „ „J .. J J , „ „ . : "i" . i. ,i J " ,.,| ,} , ., .,, .. J J ,5 u, i —a-T- - „ .. —rh-J- | ,..,„.„.. ,- „ , , „ ,3 J , , . J, ..! ... . W*.hln Ulon 1 J J 7 S IS 10 I .. M , APPENDIX II MEDICAL DIVISION Data on the 42,590 indigent persons examined by Eye Physicians during the past biennium. Appen IS I u ATA ON 12 5iin INDIGENT PERSONS EXAMINED UY EYE PHYSICIANS DURING THE PAST BIENNIUM ..... s * "' SVE D.EE.SE, . C0»»,T,O»5 SEKVICES HINDERED co.£U " ' I - i i 1 I I 1 1 1. j 1 i ! i * i j I 1 I \ " . -I )_ 1 I ; ; s I *"" " ' IJ- » a i - ' ; „.„..,. ,., „ ' , " " " ,, ,. ... ., ,. '. ' -'" u~V — ' . r ., ' ,.,,„., m • " „, • ••• ' - - „ , , ... ,. ,„ .. ... „ .., "J " ,. -., \ - • " • „; ... !m.7, ..!',' ,". d ,-''.;-, ''..' — -i- -„ us „ ™. APPENDIX III ACCOUNTING DIVISION Budgetary Expenditures of the Commission during the Bien-nium July 1, 1954 through June 30 1956. North Carolina Commission for the Blind 57 EXPENDITURES FOR 1954-55 AND 1955-56 CHAPTER 53, PUBLIC LAWS OF 1935, CODE 326 CHAPTER 124, PUBLIC LAWS OF 1937 Purposes and/or Objects Expenditures Expenditures for 1954-55 for 1955-56 I. ADMINISTRATION 101 Salary—Executive Secretary $ 8.910.00 $ 8,910.00 102 Salary & Wages—Staff 68,921,96 65,596.46 103 Expense of Commission 385.33 448.38 104 Supplies & Materials 1,026.62 1,399.89 105 Postage, Tel. & Tel. 5,100.00 5,124.87 106 Travel Expense 10,033.29 9,677.05 107 Printing & Binding 3,085.61 1,996.89 108 Repairs & Alterations 608.47 618.42 109 General Expense 50.00 32.90 110 Insurance & Bonding 323.60 111 Equipment 8,350.76 1,571.62 112 Merit System Expense 1,100.21 940.80 113 Office Rent 2,817.00 3,102.00 114 Retirement System 8,928.29 TOTAL $ 110,389.25 $ 108,671.17 II. AID TO THE BLIND ADMINISTRATION 201 Salaries & Wages _ -$ 44,723.00 $ 45,224.35 202 Travel Expense 7,796.04 7,730.33 TOTAL $ 52,519.04 $ 52,954.68 III. REHABILITATION SERVICES 301 Salaries & Wages _ -$ 7,936.79 $ 8,279.66 302 Travel Expense 1,495.62 1,086.19 303 Expense of Board Members—Bureau of Emp. for the Blind 176.41 339.13 304 Retirement System 544.62 TOTAL $ 10,153.44 $ 9,704.98 IV. VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE & PLACEMENT SERVICES 401 Salaries & Wages $ 74,465.49 $ 80,920.90 402 Travel Expense 18,835.30 20,285.20 403 Retirement System 4,193.70 TOTAL $ 97,494.49 $ 101,206.10 V. PAYMENTS TO NEEDY BLIND 501 County $ 361,862.50 $ 376,480.25 502 Federal 1,578,425.00 1,624,349.50 503 State 361,862.50 376,599.25 TOTAL $2,302,150.00 $2,377,429.00 58 Biennial Report op the VI. CASE SERVICES 601 Examinations $ 40,999.40 $ 49,539.13 602 Treatment 39,748.23 53,999.43 603 Prosthetic Appliances 68,591.72 72,990,23 604 Hospitalization 108,114.62 134,222.27 605 Training Expense 55,362.26 53,373.85 606 Training Supplies 7,465.05 12,960.86 607 Maintenance 62,998.71 57,969.49 608 Transportation 5,099.68 4,996.57 609 Placement 49,885.12 77,459.94 TOTAL .__$ 438,264.79 $ 517,511.77 VII. COUNTY ADMINISTRATION 701 Salaries & Wages __$ 115,793.78 $ 124,017.77 702 Travel Expense 56,346.76 60,492.16 703 Federal Administration Direct to Counties 45,965.98 47,622.79 TOTAL $ 218,106.52 $ 232,132.72 VIII. EQUALIZATION FUND 801 County Equalization Fund _ __$ 12,000.00 $ 12,000.00 TOTAL $ 12,000.00 $ 12,000.00 IX. PRECONDITIONING CENTER 901 Supplies & Materials _ _. $ 23,997.99 $ 23,268.54 902 Equipment 16,021.39 11,390.61 903 Heat, Lights, & Water _ 3,993.51 6,998.08 TOTAL $ 44,012.89 $ 41,657.23 X. WORKSHOPS 1001 Equipment $ 9,907.35 $ 34,360.97 TOTAL $ 9,907.35 $ 34„360.97 VI. MERIT SALARY INCREMENTS XII. WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION $ 1,760.47 $ 274.63 XIII. CONTRACTUAL SERVICES $ 7,072.65 XIV. ADDITIONS & BETTERMENTS 1401 Repairs, Renovation & Exten-sions- Preconditiong Center 1402 Repairs, Renovations & Exen-sions- Workshops __i- $ 11,415.40 TOTAL $ 11,415.40 TOTAL REQUIREMENTS $3,296,758.24 $3,506,391.30 LESS: ESTIMATED RECEIPTS __$2,578,989.34 $2,76^.921.69 APPROPRIATION $ 717,768.90 $ 739.469.61 STATE LIBRARY OF NORTH CAROLINA 3 3091 00747 1881
|Title||Biennial report of the North Carolina Commission for the Blind|
|Other Title||Biennial report of the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind|
|Creator||North Carolina State Commission for the Blind.|
|Date||1954; 1955; 1956|
|Digital Characteristics-A||64 p.; 4.03 MB|
|Title Replaced By||North Carolina State Commission for the Blind biennial report|
|Pres File Name-M||pubs_pubh_serial_biennialreportnccommission1956.pdf|
|Pres Local File Path-M||\Preservation_content\StatePubs\pubs_pubh\images_master|
NORTH CAROLINA STATE
COMMISSION FOR THE
From July 1, 1954 through June 30, 1956
"And I will bring the blind by a way that they knew not;
I will lead them in path tl ' they have not knoiw
I will make darkness light ' nu"
' ai ih iii, 16.
NORTH CAROLINA STATE
COMMISSION FOR THE
From July 1, 1954 through June 30, 1956
"And I will bring the blind by a way that they knew not;
I will lead them in paths that they have not known;
I will make darkness light before them."
—Isaiah xlii, 16.
HONORABLE LUTHER H. HODGES
The Governor of North Carolina
"Work for the Blind is the success story of organized effort
and the unselfish work of people from all walks of life. To
them, all of us owe a debt of gratitude."
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Letter of Transmittal _ 4
Members of the North Carolina State Commission Board 5
Advisory Medical Committee :
Introduction : 7
Organizational Chart 8
Aid to Blind Chart 9
Social Service Division _, 10
Specialized Service Chart :_ 12
Comparative Analysis of Aid to Blind 14
Medical Division :-i: 18
Services for Children ^—-- 24
Vocational Rehabilitation Division ------ -- 28
General Rehabilitation ..__ 29
Rehabilitation Center — - 35
Home Industries L_i 40
Workshops '-—_- 42
Bureau of Employment for the Blind : 45
Assistance and Cooperation from Other Agencies ._— 48
Appendix I 52
Appendix II '-.
Appendix III :
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
To The Honorable Luther H. Hodges
The Governor of North Carolina
Raleigh, North Carolina
Dear Governor Hodges:
Pursuant to Chapter 53, Public Laws of 1935, as amended, and
subsequent legislation, I have the honor to submit to you the
accompanying report of the North Carolina State Commission
for the Blind for the biennial period beginning with July 1, 1954,
and ending June 30, 1956. This report concerns the management
and financial transactions of this Department.
Sam M. Cathey, Chairman
N. C. State Commission for the Blind
MEMBERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE
COMMISSION FOR THE BLIND
(Six Members—Appointed by the Governor)
Judge Sam M. Cathey, Chairman, Asheville, N. C.
Dr. Howard E. Jensen, Chairman, Executive Committee, Durham, N. C.
Mr. H. C. Bradshaw, Durham, N. C.
Mr. Frank C. King, Brevard, N. C.
Mr. Sam Alford, Henderson, N. C.
Mr. Joe Hood, Wilmington, N. C.
(Five Ex-Officio Members—Designated by the Legislature)
Mr. J. W. Beach, Director, State Employment Service, Division of
Employment Security Commission, Raleigh, N. C.
Mr. Egbert N. Peeler, Superintendent State School for the Blind,
Raleigh, N. C.
Dr. J. W. R. Norton, Secretary and State Health Officer, State Board of
Health, Raleigh, N. C.
Col. Charles H. Warren, Director, Vocational Rehabilitation, Raleigh, N. C.
Dr. Ellen Black Winston, Commissioner, State Board of Public Welfare,
Raleigh, N. C.
ADVISORY MEDICAL COMMITTEE
(Surgeons Certified by American Board of Ophthalmology)
Dr. George T. Noel, Chairman, Kannapolis, N. C.
Dr. V. M. Hicks, Supervising Ophthalmologist, Aid to the Blind,
Raleigh, N. C.
Dr. Paul Abernethy, Burlington, N. C.
Dr. Elbert C. Anderson, Wilmington, N. C.
Dr. W. Banks Anderson, Durham, N. C.
Dr. Ralph A. Arnold, Durham, N. C.
Dr. James W. Bizzell, Goldsboro, N. C.
Dr. H. H. Briggs, Asheville, N. C.
Dr. H. M. Dalton, Kinston, N. C.
Dr. Alan Davidson, New Bern, N. C.
Dr. John L. Etherington, Goldsboro, N. C.
Dr. Clarence B. Foster, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. Thomas D. Ghent, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. W. R. Graham, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. Raymond F. Grove, Wilmington, N. C.
Dr. B. A. Helsabeck, Winston-Salem, N. C.
Dr. M. J. Hough, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. L. Byerly Holt, Winston-Salem, N. C.
Dr. Ernest Larkin, Jr., Greenville, N. C.
Dr. Ruth Leonard, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. M. N. Lymberis, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. Sam D. McPherson, Jr., Durham, N. C.
Dr. E. E. Moore, Asheville, N. C.
Dr. Robert E. Odom, Asheville, N. C.
Dr. Winston Roberts, Winston-Salem, N. C.
Dr. Maurice Harvey Rubin, Greensboro, N. C.
Dr. John L. Shipley, Elizabeth City, N. C.
Dr. Henry L. Sloan, Sr., Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. Henry L. Sloan, Jr., Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. Frank C. Smith, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. William P. Speas, Winston-Salem, N. C.
Dr. Roy A. Stewart, Newton, N. C.
Dr. Frederick W. Stocker, Durham, N. C.
Dr. J. David Stratton, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. Horace G. Strickland, Greensboro, N. C.
Dr. George T. Thornhill, Raleigh, N. C.
Dr. Charles W. Tillett, Charlotte, N. C.
Dr. Larry Turner, Durham, N. C.
Dr. S. Weizenblatt, Asheville, N. C.
Dr. John D. Wisley, Winston-Salem, N. C.
Dr. M. Wayne Woodard, Asheville, N. C.
The North Carolina State Commission for the Blind was created
by legislative enactment in 1935 and began to function as a state
agency in July of the same year. This Biennial Report presents
the accomplishments for the period July 1, 1954 — June 30, 1956.
The law under which the Commission operates places on it the
responsibility of interpreting, administering and supervising an
all inclusive program of work for the blind. These activities are
accomplished by the three main divisions of the Commission:
l_The Social Service Division which supervises financial grants
to the indigent blind and renders special services to all the blind
of the State; 2—The Medical Division which carries on three
main phases of work, prevention of blindness, conservation of
sight and restoration of vision; 3—The Rehabilitation Division
which is composed of five major parts: a. General Rehabilitation
Service ; b, The North Carolina Rehabilitation Center for Adult
Blind; c. Home Industries; d. Workshop and e. The Bureau
of Employment for the Blind.
This report reflects the continuous development of activities
and opportunities offered to the blind citizens of North Carolina.
We feel that the blind of our State, as well as the thousands
of persons with serious eye defects, have profited by the efforts
of the Commission, and through the services rendered to them,
many have become self-maintaining citizens of the State.
The Commission for the Blind has made a concerted effort to
conserve and utilize all State, Federal and community resources,
so that as many as possible of the visually handicapped of
the State could benefit by the use of such resources. Our
program considers the whole man against his background of
social, medical and financial needs and endeavors to help him
help himself to fit into his community and take his place in
the life of our State.
We could not present this report without comment on the loyalty,
perserverence and hard work of the staff and all persons and
organizations who have made such noble contributions to the
forward progress of good eye care for our citizens. The Federal,
State and County Agencies, as well as private agencies, have
given much aid and co-operation. The North Carolina State
Association for the Blind and the North Carolina Lions Clubs
have given untold financial aid and unselfish devotion to the cause
of a better way of life for the visually handicapped citizens of
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